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2<h3>BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) Version 2.9 Manual</h3>
3
4<p>
5The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) is a program for simultaneously retrieving, decoding, converting and processing real-time GNSS data streams. It has been developed within the framework of the IAG sub-commission for Europe (EUREF) and the International GNSS Service (IGS). Although meant as a real-time tool, it comes with some Post Processing functionality. You may like to use it for data coming from NTRIP Broadcasters like
6<u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u>,
7<u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u>,
8<u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u>, or
9<u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u>.
10</p>
11
12<p>
13BNC has been written under GNU General Public License (GPL). Source code is available from Subversion software archive <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC.</u> Binaries for BNC are available for Windows, Linux, Solaris, and Mac OS X systems. We used the MinGW Version 4.4.0 compiler to create the Windows binaries. It is likely that BNC can be compiled on other systems where a GNU compiler and Qt Version 4.7.3 or any later version are installed. Please ensure that you have installed the latest version of BNC available from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</u>. Note that static and shared builds of BNC are made available. A <u>static</u> build would be sufficient in case you don't want BNC to trace positions using Google Map (GM) or Open StreetMap (OSM). However, GM/OSM usage requires the QtWebKit library which can only be part of BNC builds from <u>shared</u> libraries. So, using a shared libray BNC build requires that you first install your own shared library of Qt. The 'README.txt' file which comes with the BNC source code describes how to install Qt on Windows, Linux and Mac systems.
14</p>
15<p>
16Feel free to send us your comments, suggestions or bug reports. Any contribution will be appreciated.
17</p>
18
19<p><b>Contents</b><br>
20<a href="#purpose">1. Purpose</a><br>
21<a href="#opthandling">2. Handling</a><br>
22<a href="#optsettings">3. Settings</a><br>
23<a href="#limits">4. Limitations</a><br>
24<a href="#annex">5. Annex</a>
25</p>
26
27<p>
28<b><a name="authors">Authors</b><br>
29The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) and its Qt graphic user interface has been developed for
30</p>
31<p>
32Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG)<br>
33c/o Georg Weber<br>
34Department of Geodesy<br>
35Frankfurt, Germany<br>
36[euref-ip@bkg.bund.de] or [igs-ip@bkg.bund.de]
37</p>
38
39<p>
40BNC has been written by
41</p>
42
43<p>
44Leos Mervart<br>
45Czech Technical University (CTU)<br>
46Department of Geodesy<br>
47Prague, Czech Republic
48</p>
49<p>
50BNC includes the following GNU GPL software components:
51<ul>
52<li> RTCM 2 decoder, written by Oliver Montenbruck, German Space Operations Center, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany;</li>
53<li> RTCM 3 decoder for conventional and MSM observation messages and a RTCM 3 encoder & decoder for SSR messages, both written for BKG by Dirk Stoecker, Alberding GmbH, Schoenefeld, Germany.</li>
54</ul>
55</p>
56<p>
57Note that some figures presented in this documentation show screenshots from earlier versions of BNC. If so then there was either no relevant change in the presented contents or no change at all.
58</p>
59
60<p>
61<b>Acknowledgements</b><br>
62<ul>
63<li>
64Thomas Yan, Australian NSW Land and Property Information, proofread earlier versions of BNC's Help Contents. He also provides builds of BNC for Mac OS X systems.
65</li>
66<li>
67Scott Glazier, OmniSTAR Australia, has been helpful in finding BNC bugs.
68</li>
69<li>
70James Perlt, BKG, helped fixing bugs and redesigned BNC's main window.
71</li>
72<li>
73Andre Hauschild, German Space Operations Center, DLR, revised the RTCM Version 2 decoder.
74</li>
75<li>
76Zdenek Lukes, Czech Technical University Prague, Department of Geodesy, extended the RTCM Version 2 decoder to handle message types 3, 20, 21, and 22 and added the loss of lock indicator.
77</li>
78<li>
79Jan Dousa, Geodetic Observatory Pecny, Czech Republic, helped with fixing bugs.
80</li>
81<li>
82Denis Laurichesse, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), suggested synchronizing observations and clock corrections to reduce high frequency noise in PPP solutions.
83</li>
84<li>
85Lennard Huisman, Kadaster Netherlands, and Rolf Dach, Astronomical Institute University of Bern, assisted in handling satellite clocks in transformations from ITRF to regional reference frames.
86</li>
87</ul>
88</p>
89
90<p><a name="purpose"><h3>1. Purpose</h3></p>
91
92<p> The purpose of BNC is to
93<ul>
94<li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams available through NTRIP transport protocol;</li>
95<li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the NTRIP transport protocol;</li>
96<li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams from a local UDP or serial port without using the NTRIP transport protocol;</li>
97<li>Generate high-rate RINEX Observation and Navigation files to support near real-time GNSS Post Processing applications;</li>
98<li>Generate ephemeris and synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch through an IP port to support real-time GNSS network engines;</li>
99<li>Generate orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris through an IP port to support real-time Precise Point Positioning on GNSS rovers;</li>
100<li>Generate synchronized or unsynchronized orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris epoch by epoch through an IP port to support the (outside) combination of such streams as coming simultaneously from various correction providers;</li>
101<li>Monitor the performance of a network of real-time GNSS data streams to generate advisory notes in case of outages or corrupted streams;</li>
102<li>Scan RTCM streams for incoming antenna information as well as observation types and message types and their repetition rates;</li>
103<li>Feed a stream into a GNSS receiver via serial communication link;</li>
104<li>Carry out real-time Precise Point Positioning to determine a GNSS rover position;</li>
105<li>Simultaneously process several Broadcast Correction streams to produce, encode and upload combined Broadcast Corrections;</li>
106<li>Upload a Broadcast Ephemeris stream in RTCM Version 3 format;</li>
107<li>Read GNSS orbits and clocks in a plain ASCII format from an IP port. They can be produced by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNet and should be referenced to the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system. BNC will then</li>
108<ul>
109<li>Convert the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed orbits and clocks into Broadcast Corrections with radial, along-track and cross-track components;</li>
110<li>Upload Broadcast Corrections as an RTCM Version 3 stream to an NTRIP Broadcaster;</li>
111<li>Refer the orbit and clock corrections to a specific reference system;</li>
112<li>Log the Broadcast Corrections as Clock RINEX files for further processing using other tools than BNC;</li>
113<li>Log the Broadcast Corrections as SP3 files for further processing using other tools than BNC;</li>
114</ul>
115<li>Edit or concatenate RINEX files or check their quality;</li>
116<li>Plot stream distribution map from NTRIP Broadcaster source-tables;</li>
117<li>Plot positions derived from RTCM streams or RINEX files on maps from Google Map or Open StreetMap.</li>
118</ul>
119</p>
120
121<p>
122BNC supports decoding the following GNSS stream formats and message types:
123</p>
124<p>
125<ul>
126<li>RTCM Version 2 message types for GPS and GLONASS observations; </li>
127<li>RTCM Version 3 'conventional' message types for observations and Broadcast Ephemeris for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo (draft);</li>
128<li>RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages for GPS and GLONASS;</li>
129<li>RTCM Version 3 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) and 'High Precision Multiple Signal Messages' (HP MSM) including X-type observations for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo;</li>
130<li>RTNET, a plain ASCII format defined within BNC to receive orbits and clocks from a serving GNSS engine.
131</ul>
132</p>
133
134<p>
135Note that while BNC decodes RTCM's MSM and HP MSM messages for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, the implemented decoding of
136<ul>
137<li>QZSS follows a JAXA proposal;</li>
138<li>BeiDou and SBAS follow an agreement between BKG, Alberding and DLR.</li>
139</ul>
140</p>
141
142<p>
143Note also that BNC allows to by-pass its decoding and conversion algorithms, leave whatever is received untouched and save it in files.
144</p>
145
146<p>
147The first of the following figures shows a flow chart of BNC connected to a GNSS receiver providing observations via serial or TCP communication link for the purpose of Precise Point Positioning. The second figure shows the conversion of RTCM streams to RINEX files. The third figure shows a flow chart of BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine which estimates precise orbits and clocks. BNC is used in this scenario to encode correctors to RTCM Version 3 and upload them to an NTRIP Broadcaster. The fourth figure shows BNC combining several Broadcast Correction streams to disseminate the combination product while saving results in SP3 and Clock RINEX files.
148</p>
149<p><img src="IMG/screenshot10.png"/></p>
150<p><u>Figure 1:</u> Flowchart, BNC connected to a GNSS receiver for Precise Point Positioning.</p>
151
152<p>
153</p>
154<p><img src="IMG/screenshot01.png"/></p>
155<p><u>Figure 2:</u> Flowchart, BNC converting RTCM streams to RINEX batches.</p>
156
157<p>
158</p>
159<p><img src="IMG/screenshot02.png"/></p>
160<p><u>Figure 3:</u> Flowchart, BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine and uploading encoded Broadcast Corrections.</p>
161
162<p>
163</p>
164<p><img src="IMG/screenshot19.png"/></p>
165<p><u>Figure 4:</u> Flowchart, BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams.</p>
166
167
168<p><a name="opthandling"><h3>2. Handling</h3></p>
169<p>
170Although BNC is mainly a real-time tool to be operated online, it can be run offline
171<ul>
172<li>To simulate real-time observation situations for debugging purposes;</li>
173<li>For Post Processing purposes.</li>
174</ul>
175Furthermore, apart from its regular window mode, BNC can be run as a batch/background job in a 'no window' mode using processing options from a previously saved configuration or from command line.
176</p>
177<p>
178Unless it runs offline, BNC
179</p>
180<ul>
181<li>Requires access to the Internet with a minimum of about 2 to 6 kbits/sec per stream depending on the stream format and the number of visible satellites. You need to make sure that the connection can sustain the required bandwidth;</li>
182<li>Requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized;</li>
183<li>Has the capacity to retrieve hundreds of GNSS data streams simultaneously. Please be aware that such usage may incur a heavy load on the NTRIP Broadcaster side depending on the number of streams requested. We recommend limiting the number of streams where possible to avoid unnecessary workload.</li>
184</ul>
185</p>
186
187<p>
188The main window of BNC shows a 'Top menu bar' section, a 'Settings' sections with tabs to set processing options, a 'Streams' section, a section for 'Log' tabs, and a 'Bottom menu bar' section, see figure below.
189</p>
190<p><img src="IMG/screenshot09.png"/></p>
191<p><u>Figure 5:</u> Sections on BNC's main window.</p>
192
193<p>
194Running BNC in interactive mode requires graphics support. This is also
195required in batch mode when producing plots. Windows and Mac OS X systems always
196support graphics. However, when using BNC in batch mode on Linux systems for
197producing plots, you need to make sure that at least a virtual X-Server like
198'Xvfb' is installed and the '-display' command-line option is used.
199</p>
200
201<p>
202The usual handling of BNC is that you first select a number of streams ('Add Stream'). Any stream configured to BNC shows up on the 'Streams' canvas in the middle of BNC's main window. You then go through BNC's various configuration tabs to select a combination of input, processing and output options before you start the program ('Start'). Most configuration tabs are dedicated to a certain functionality of BNC. If the first option field on such a configuration tab is empty, the affected functionality is - apart from a few exceptions - deactivated.</p>
203
204Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. The bandwidth consumption per stream, the latency of incoming observations and a PPP time series for coordinates are shown in the 'Throughput', 'Latency' and 'PPP Plot' tabs of the main window.
205</p>
206
207<p><a name="optconfig"><h3>2.1 Configuration Management</h3></p>
208<p>
209As a default, configuration files for running BNC on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems are saved in directory '${HOME}/.config/BKG'. On Windows systems, they are typically saved in directory 'C:/Documents and Settings/Username/.config/BKG'. The default configuration file name is 'BNC.bnc'.</p>
210<p>
211The default file name 'BNC.bnc' can be changed and the file contents can easily be edited. On graphical user interfaces it is possible to Drag &amp; Drop a configuration file icon to start BNC (not on Mac OS X systems). Some configuration options can be changed on-the-fly. See annexed 'Configuration Examples' for a complete set of configuration options. It is also possible to start and configure BNC via command line.
212</p>
213
214<p>
215BNC maintains configuration options at three different levels:
216</p>
217
218<ol type=b>
219<li>GUI, input fields level</li>
220<li>Active configuration level</li>
221<li>Configuration file, disk level</li>
222</ol>
223
224<p><img src="IMG/screenshot31.png"/></p>
225<p><u>Figure 6:</u> Management of configuration options in BNC:<br>
226&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Left: BNC in graphics mode where active configuration options are introduced through GUI input fields and finally saved on disk.<br>
227&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Middle: BNC in 'no window' mode where active configuration options are read from disk.<br>
228&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Right: BNC in 'no window' mode without configuration file where default configuration options can be replaced via command line options.</p>
229
230<p>
231Configuration options are usually specified using GUI input fields (1) after launching BNC. When hitting the 'Start' button, configuration options are transferred one level down to become BNC's active configuration (2) allowing the program to begin its operation. Pushing the 'Stop' button ends data processing so that the user can finally terminate BNC through 'File'->'Quit'->'Save Options' which saves processing options in a configuration file to disk (3). It is important to understand that:
232<ul>
233<li>Active configuration options (2) are independent from GUI input fields and configuration file contents.</li>
234<li>Hence changing configuration options at GUI level (1) while BNC is already processing data does not influence a running job.</li>
235<li>Editing configuration options at disk level (3) while BNC is already processing data does also not influence a running job. However, there are two exceptions which force BNC to update certain active options on-the-fly:</li>
236<ul>
237<li>Pushing the 'Save & Reread Configuration' button lets BNC immediately reread its configuration from disk.</li>
238<li>Specifying the 'Reread configuration' option lets BNC reread its configuration from disk at pre-defined intervals.</li>
239</ul>
240<li>A certain BNC configuration can be started in 'no window' mode from scratch without any configuration file if options for the active configuration level (2) are provided via command line.</li>
241</ul>
242</p>
243
244<p><a name="optsettings"><h3>3. Settings</h3></p>
245<p>
246This chapter describes how to set the BNC program options. It explains the top menu bar, the processing options, the 'Streams' and 'Log' sections, and the bottom menu bar.
247</p>
248<p>
249<b>Top Menu Bar</b><br>
2503.1. <a href=#topmenu>Top Menu Bar</a><br>
2513.1.1 <a href=#file>File</a><br>
2523.1.2 <a href=#help>Help</a><br><br>
253<b>Settings Canvas</b><br>
2543.2. <a href=#network>Network</a><br>
2553.2.1 <a href=#proxy>Proxy</a><br>
2563.2.2 <a href=#ssl>SSL</a><br>
2573.3. <a href=#general>General</a><br>
258&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.1. <a href=#genlog>Logfile</a><br>
259&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.2. <a href=#genapp>Append Files</a><br>
260&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.3. <a href=#genconf>Reread Configuration</a><br>
261&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.4. <a href=#genstart>Auto Start</a><br>
262&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.5. <a href=#rawout>Raw Output File</a><br>
2633.4. <a href=#rinex>RINEX Observations</a><br>
264&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.1. <a href=#rnxname>File Names</a><br>
265&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.2. <a href=#rnxdir>Directory</a><br>
266&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.3. <a href=#rnxinterval>File Interval</a><br>
267&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.4. <a href=#rnxsample>Sampling</a><br>
268&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.5. <a href=#rnxskl>Skeleton Extension</a><br>
269&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.6. <a href=#rnxscript>Script</a><br>
270&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.7. <a href=#rnxvers>Version</a><br>
2713.5. <a href=#ephemeris>RINEX Ephemeris</a><br>
272&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.1. <a href=#ephdir>Directory</a><br>
273&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.2. <a href=#ephint>Interval</a><br>
274&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.3. <a href=#ephport>Port</a><br>
275&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.4. <a href=#ephvers>Version</a><br>
2763.6. <a href=#reqc>RINEX Editing & QC</a><br>
277&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.1 <a href=#reqcact>Action</a><br>
278&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.2 <a href=#reqcgnss>Sky Plots</a><br>
279&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.3 <a href=#reqcedit>Set Edit Options</a><br>
280&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.4 <a href=#reqcinput>Input Files</a><br>
281&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.5 <a href=#reqcoutput>Output Files</a><br>
282&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.6 <a href=#reqcplots>Directory for Plots</a><br>
283&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.7 <a href=#reqccommand>Command Line, No Window</a><br>
2843.7. <a href=#correct>Broadcast Corrections</a><br>
285&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.1. <a href=#corrdir>Directory, ASCII</a><br>
286&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.2. <a href=#corrint>Interval</a><br>
287&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.3. <a href=#corrport>Port</a><br>
288&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.4. <a href=#corrwait>Wait for Full Corr Epoch</a><br>
2893.8. <a href=#syncout>Feed Engine</a><br>
290&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.1. <a href=#syncport>Port</a><br>
291&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.2. <a href=#syncwait>Wait for Full Obs Epoch</a><br>
292&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.3. <a href=#syncsample>Sampling</a><br>
293&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.4. <a href=#syncfile>File</a><br>
294&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.5. <a href=#syncuport>Port (unsynchronized)</a><br>
2953.9. <a href=#serial>Serial Output</a><br>
296&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.1. <a href=#sermount>Mountpoint</a><br>
297&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.2. <a href=#serport>Port Name</a><br>
298&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.3. <a href=#serbaud>Baud Rate</a><br>
299&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.4. <a href=#serflow>Flow Control</a><br>
300&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.5. <a href=#serparity>Parity</a><br>
301&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.6. <a href=#serdata>Data Bits</a><br>
302&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.7. <a href=#serstop>Stop Bits</a><br>
303&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.8. <a href=#serauto>NMEA</a><br>
304&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.9. <a href=#serfile>File</a><br>
305&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.10. <a href=#serheight>Height</a><br>
3063.10. <a href=#advnote>Outages</a><br>
307&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.1. <a href=#obsrate>Observation Rate</a><br>
308&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.2. <a href=#advfail>Failure Threshold</a><br>
309&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.3. <a href=#advreco>Recovery Threshold</a><br>
310&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.4. <a href=#advscript>Script</a><br>
3113.11. <a href=#misc>Miscellaneous</a><br>
312&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.1. <a href=#miscmount>Mountpoint</a><br>
313&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.2. <a href=#miscperf>Log Latency</a><br>
314&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3. <a href=#miscscan>Scan RTCM</a><br>
3153.12. <a href=#pppclient>PPP Client</a><br>
316&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.1 <a href=#pppmode>Mode & Mountpoints</a><br>
317&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.1.1 <a href=#pppmodus>Mode</a><br>
318&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.1.2 <a href=#pppobsmount>Obs Mountpoint</a><br>
319&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.1.3 <a href=#pppcorrmount>Corr Mountpoint</a><br>
320&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.2 <a href=#pppxyz>Marker Coordinates</a><br>
321&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3 <a href=#pppneu>Antenna Eccentricity</a><br>
322&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.4 <a href=#pppoutput>NMEA & Plot Output</a><br>
323&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.4.1 <a href=#pppnmeafile>NMEA File</a><br>
324&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.4.2 <a href=#pppnmeaport>NMEA Port</a><br>
325&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.5 <a href=#ppppost>Post Processing</a><br>
326&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.6 <a href=#ppprecant>Antennas</a><br>
327&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.6.1 <a href=#pppantex>ANTEX File</a><br>
328&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.6.2 <a href=#ppprecantenna>Antenna Name</a><br>
329&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7 <a href=#pppbasics>Basics</a><br>
330&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.1 <a href=#pppphase>Use Phase Obs</a><br>
331&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.2 <a href=#ppptropo>Estimate Tropo</a><br>
332&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.3 <a href=#pppglo>Use GLONASS</a><br>
333&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.4 <a href=#pppgal>Use Galileo</a><br>
334&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.5 <a href=#pppsync>Sync Corr</a><br>
335&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.6 <a href=#pppaverage>Averaging</a><br>
336&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.7 <a href=#pppquick>Quick-Start</a><br>
337&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.8 <a href=#pppgap>Maximal Solution Gap</a><br>
338&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.7.9 <a href=#pppaudio>Audio Response</a><br>
339&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8 <a href=#pppsigmas>Sigmas</a><br>
340&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8.1 <a href=#pppsigc>Code</a><br>
341&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8.2 <a href=#pppsigp>Phase</a><br>
342&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8.3 <a href=#pppsigxyzi>XYZ Init</a><br>
343&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8.4 <a href=#pppsigxyzn>XYZ White Noise</a><br>
344&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8.5 <a href=#pppsigtrpi>Tropo Init</a><br>
345&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.8.6 <a href=#pppsigtrpn>Tropo White Noise</a><br>
346&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.9 <a href=#pppplots>PPP Plot</a><br>
347&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.10 <a href=#ppptracepos>Track Plot</a><br>
348&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.10.1 <a href=#pppmap>Open Map</a><br>
349&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.10.2 <a href=#pppmaptype>Google/OSM</a><br>
350&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.10.3 <a href=#pppdot>Dot Size</a><br>
351&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.10.4 <a href=#pppcolor>Dot Color</a><br>
352&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.10.5 <a href=#pppspeed>Speed</a><br>
353
3543.13. <a href=#combi>Combine Corrections</a><br>
355&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.1 <a href=#combimounttab>Combine Corrections Table</a><br>
356&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.1.1 <a href=#combiadd>Add Row, Delete</a><br>
357&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.1.2 <a href=#combimethod>Method</a><br>
358&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.1.3 <a href=#combimax>Maximal Residuum</a><br>
359&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.1.4 <a href=#combismpl>Sampling</a><br>
3603.14. <a href=#upclk>Upload Corrections</a><br>
361&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.1 <a href=#upadd>Add, Delete Row</a><br>
362&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.2 <a href=#uphost>Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password</a><br>
363&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.3 <a href=#upsystem>System</a><br>
364&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.4 <a href=#upcom>Center of Mass</a><br>
365&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.5 <a href=#upsp3>SP3 File</a><br>
366&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.6 <a href=#uprinex>RNX File</a><br>
367&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.7 <a href=#upinter>Interval</a><br>
368&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.8 <a href=#upclksmpl>Sampling</a><br>
369&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.8.1 <a href=#upclkorb>orbits</a><br>
370&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.8.2 <a href=#upclksp3>SP3</a><br>
371&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.8.3 <a href=#upclkrnx>RINEX </a><br>
372&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.14.9 <a href=#upcustom>Custom Trafo</a><br>
3733.15. <a href=#upeph>Upload Ephemeris</a><br>
374&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.15.1 <a href=#brdcserver>Host &amp; Port</a><br>
375&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.15.2 <a href=#brdcmount>Mountpoint &amp; Password</a><br>
376&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.15.3 <a href=#brdcsmpl>Sampling</a><br><br>
377<b>Streams Canvas</b><br>
3783.16. <a href=#streams>Streams</a><br>
379&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.1 <a href=#streamedit>Edit Streams</a><br>
380&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.2 <a href=#streamdelete>Delete Stream</a><br>
381&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.3 <a href=#streamconf>Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</a><br><br>
382<b>Logging Canvas</b><br>
3833.17. <a href=#logs>Logging</a><br>
384&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1 <a href=#logfile>Log</a><br>
385&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.2 <a href=#throughput>Throughput</a><br>
386&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.3 <a href=#latency>Latency</a><br>
387&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.4 <a href=#ppptab>PPP Plot</a><br><br>
388<b>Bottom Menu Bar</b><br>
3893.18. <a href=#bottom>Bottom Menu Bar</a><br>
390&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1. <a href=#streamadd>Add Stream</a><br>
391&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1 <a href=#streamcaster>Add Stream - Coming from Caster</a><br>
392&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1.1 <a href=#streamhost>Caster Host and Port</a><br>
393&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1.2 <a href=#streamtable>Casters Table</a><br>
394&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1.3 <a href=#streamuser>User and Password</a><br>
395&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1.4 <a href=#gettable>Get Table</a><br>
396&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1.5 <a href=#ntripv>NTRIP Version</a><br>
397&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.1.6 <a href=#castermap>Map</a><br>
398&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.2 <a href=#streamip>Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</a><br>
399&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.3 <a href=#streamudp>Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</a><br>
400&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1.4 <a href=#streamser>Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</a><br>
401&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.2. <a href=#streamsdelete>Delete Stream</a><br>
402&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.3. <a href=#streamsmap>Map</a><br>
403&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.4 <a href=#start>Start</a><br>
404&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.5 <a href=#stop>Stop</a><br><br>
405<b>Command Line</b><br>
4063.19. <a href=#cmd>Command Line Options</a><br>
407&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.19.1. <a href=#nw>No Window Mode</a><br>
408&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.19.2. <a href=#post>File Mode</a><br>
409&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.19.3. <a href=#conffile>Configuration File</a><br>
410&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.19.4. <a href=#confopt>Configuration Options</a><br>
411</p>
412
413<p><a name="topmenu"><h4>3.1. Top Menu Bar</h4></p>
414<p>
415The top menu bar allows selecting a font for the BNC windows, save configured options, or quit the program execution. It also provides access to program documentation.
416</p>
417
418<p><a name="file"><h4>3.1.1 File</h4></p>
419
420<p>
421The 'File' button lets you
422<ul>
423<li> select an appropriate font.<br>
424Use smaller font size if the BNC main window exceeds the size of your screen.
425</li>
426<li> save selected options in configuration file.<br>
427When using 'Save &amp; Reread Configuration' while BNC is already processing data, some configuration options become immediately effective on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads. See annexed section 'Configuration Examples' for a list of on-the-fly changeable configuration options.
428</li>
429<li> quit the BNC program.
430</li>
431</ul>
432</p>
433
434<p><a name="help"><h4>3.1.2 Help</h4></p>
435
436<p>
437The 'Help' button provides access to
438<ul>
439<li>
440help contents.<br>
441You may keep the 'Help Contents' window open while configuring BNC.
442</li>
443<li>
444a 'Flow Chart' showing BNC linked to a real-time GNSS network engine such as RTNet.
445</li>
446<li>
447general information about BNC.<br>
448Close the 'About BNC' window to continue working with BNC.
449</li>
450</ul>
451</p>
452<p>
453BNC comes with a help system providing online information about its functionality and usage. Short descriptions are available for any widget. Focus to the relevant widget and press Shift+F1 to request help information. A help text appears immediately; it disappears as soon as the user does something else. The dialogs on some operating systems may provide a &quot;?&quot; button that users can click; click the relevant widget to pop up the help text.
454</p>
455
456<p><a name="network"><h4>3.2. Network</h4></p>
457<p>
458You may need to specify a proxy when running BNC in a protected network. You may also like to use the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols for secure NTRIP communication over the Internet.
459</p>
460<p><a name="proxy"><h4>3.2.1 Proxy - Usage in a protected LAN</h4></p>
461<p>
462If you are running BNC within a protected Local Area Network (LAN), you might need to use a proxy server to access the Internet. Enter your proxy server IP and port number in case one is operated in front of BNC. If you don't know the IP and port of your proxy server, check the proxy server settings in your Internet browser or ask your network administrator.</p>
463<p>
464Note that IP streaming is often not allowed in a LAN. In this case you need to ask your network administrator for an appropriate modification of the local security policy or for the installation of a TCP relay to the NTRIP Broadcasters. If these are not possible, you might need to run BNC outside your LAN on a host that has unobstructed connection to the Internet.
465</p>
466
467<p><a name="ssl"><h4>3.2.2 SSL - Transport Layer Security</h4></p>
468<p>Communication with an NTRIP Broadcaster over SSL requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Specify the path to a directory where you save certificates on your system. You may like to check out <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/Certificates</u> for a list of known NTRIP Server certificates. You may also just try communication via SSL to check out whether this is supported by the involved NTRIP Broadcaster. </p>
469<p>SSL communication may involve queries coming from the NTRIP Broadcaster. Tick 'Ignore SSL authorization errors' if you don't want to be bothered with this. Note that SSL communication is usually done over port 443.</p>
470
471<p><a name="general"><h4>3.3. General</h4></p>
472<p>
473The following defines general settings for BNC's logfile, file handling, reconfiguration on-the-fly, and auto-start.
474</p>
475
476<p><a name="genlog"><h4>3.3.1 Logfile - optional</h4></p>
477<p>
478Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '_YYMMDD' carrying the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously for extended. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the NTRIP Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file.
479</p>
480
481<p><a name="genapp"><h4>3.3.2 Append Files - optional</h4></p>
482<p>
483When BNC is started, new files are created by default and any existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or when BNC crashed. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
484</p>
485
486<p><a name="genconf"><h4>3.3.3 Reread Configuration - optional</h4></p>
487<p>
488When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), some configuration options can nevertheless be changed on-the-fly without interrupting the running process. For that you force the program to reread parts of its configuration in pre-defined intervals from the disk. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' to let BNC reread on-the-fly changeable configuration options every full minute, hour, or day. This lets in between edited options become effective without interrupting uninvolved threads. See annexed section 'Configuration Examples' for a configuration file example and a list of on-the-fly changeable options.
489</p>
490
491<p><a name="genstart"><h4>3.3.4 Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
492<p>
493You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required i.e. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory /etc/init.d (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
494</p>
495<p>
496 See BNC's command line option -nw for an auto-start of BNC in 'no window' mode.
497</p>
498
499<p><a name="rawout"><h4>3.3.5 Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
500<p>
501BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes and it is not meant for Post Processing.
502</p>
503<p>
504Data will be saved in blocks in the received format separated by ASCII time stamps like (example):
505<pre>
5062010-08-03T18:05:28 RTCM3EPH RTCM_3 67
507</pre>
508</p>
509<p>
510This example block header tells you that 67 bytes were saved in the data block following this time stamp. The information in this block is encoded in RTCM Version 3 format, comes from mountpoint RTCM3EPH and was received at 18:05:29 UTC on 2010-08-03. BNC adds its own time stamps in order to allow the reconstruction of a recorded real-time situation.
511</p>
512<p>
513The default value for 'Raw output file' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save all raw data into one single daily file.
514</p>
515
516<p><a name="rinex"><h4>3.4. RINEX Observations</h4></p>
517<p>
518Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS and BeiDou. In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000'. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system.
519</p>
520<p>
521It is important to understand that converting RTCM streams to RINEX files requires a-priori information on observation types for specifying a complete RINEX header. Regarding the RINEX Version 2 file header, BNC simply introduces all observation types defined in the Version 2 standard and later reports "0.000" for all observations which are not received. However, following this approach is not possible for RINEX Version 3 files from RTCM Version 3 MSM streams because of the huge number of observation types which might in principle show up. The solution implemented in BNC is to start with RINEX Version 3 observation type records from skeleton files (see section 'Skeleton Extension') and switch to a default selection of observation types when such skeleton file is not available or it does not contain the required information. The 'Default selection of observation types specified' for a RINEX Version 3 file would be as follows:
522</p>
523<pre>
524C 12 C2 L2 D2 S2 C6 L6 D6 S6 C7 L7 D7 S7 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
525E 20 C1 L1 D1 S1 C5 L5 D5 S5 C6 L6 D6 S6 C7 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
526 L7 D7 S7 C8 L8 D8 S8 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
527G 20 C1C L1C D1C S1C C1P L1P D1P S1P C2C L2C D2C S2C C2P SYS / # / OBS TYPES
528 L2P D2P S2P C5 D5 L5 S5 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
529J 16 C1 L1 D1 S1 C2 L2 D2 S2 C5 L5 D5 S5 C6 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
530 D6 L6 S6 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
531R 16 C1C L1C D1C S1C C1P L1P D1P S1P C2C L2C D2C S2C C2P SYS / # / OBS TYPES
532 L2P D2P S2P SYS / # / OBS TYPES
533S 8 C1 L1 D1 S1 C5 L5 D5 S5 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
534</pre>
535
536<p>
537The screenshot below shows an example setup of BNC when converting streams to RINEX. Streams are coming from various NTRIP Broadcasters as well as from a serial communication link. Specifying a decoder string 'ZERO' means to not convert the affected stream contents but save its contents as received.
538</p>
539<p><img src="IMG/screenshot16.png"/></p>
540<p><u>Figure 7:</u> BNC translating incoming streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 files.</p>
541
542
543<p><a name="rnxname"><h4>3.4.1 RINEX File Names</h4></p>
544<p>
545RINEX file names are derived by BNC from the first 4 characters of the corresponding stream's mountpoint (4Char Station ID). For example, data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and WETTZELL will have hourly RINEX Observation files named</p>
546<p>
547FRAN{ddd}{h}.{yy}O<br>
548WETT{ddd}{h}.{yy}O
549</p>
550<p>
551where 'ddd' is the day of year, 'h' is a letter which corresponds to an hour long UTC time block and 'yy' is the year.
552</p>
553<p>
554If there is more than one stream with identical 4Char Station ID (same first 4 characters for their mountpoints), the mountpoint strings are split into two sub-strings and both become part of the RINEX file name. For example, when simultaneously retrieving data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and FRANCE, their hourly RINEX Observation files are named as</p>
555<p>
556FRAN{ddd}{h}_KFURT.{yy}O<br>
557FRAN{ddd}{h}_CE.{yy}O.
558</p>
559<p>
560If several streams show exactly the same mountpoint name (example: BRUS0 from <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> and BRUS0 from <u>www.igs-ip.net</u>), BNC adds an integer number to the file name leading i.e. to hourly RINEX Observation files like</p>
561<p>
562BRUS{ddd}{h}_0.{yy}O<br>
563BRUS{ddd}{h}_1.{yy}O.
564</p>
565<p>
566Note that RINEX file names for all intervals less than 1 hour follow the file name convention for 15 minutes RINEX Observation files i.e.</p>
567<p>
568FRAN{ddd}{h}{mm}.{yy}O
569</p>
570<p>
571where 'mm' is the starting minute within the hour.
572</p>
573
574<p><a name="rnxdir"><h4>3.4.2 Directory - optional</h4></p>
575<p>
576Here you can specify the path to where the RINEX Observation files will be stored. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Observation files. Default value for 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Observation files will be written.
577</p>
578
579<p><a name="rnxinterval"><h4>3.4.3 File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
580<p>
581Select the length of the RINEX Observation file generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
582</p>
583
584<p><a name="rnxsample"><h4>3.4.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Directory' is set </h4></p>
585<p>
586Select the RINEX Observation sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all received epochs into RINEX. This is the default value.
587</p>
588
589<p><a name="rnxskl"><h4>3.4.5 Skeleton Extension - optional</h4></p>
590<p>
591Whenever BNC starts generating RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived from sitelogs. A HTTP link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table. See <u>http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl</u> for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for the Brussels EPN station.
592</p>
593<p>
594However, sometimes public RINEX header skeleton files are not available, their contents is not up to date, or you need to put additional/optional records in the RINEX header. For that BNC allows using personal skeleton files that contain the header records you would like to include. You can derive a personal RINEX header skeleton file from the information given in an up to date sitelog. A file in the RINEX Observations 'Directory' with a 'Skeleton extension' suffix is interpreted by BNC as a personal RINEX header skeleton file for the corresponding stream.
595</p>
596<p>
597Examples for personal skeleton file name convention: RINEX Observation files for mountpoints WETTZELL, FRANKFURT and FRANCE (same 4Char Station ID), BRUS0 from <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> and BRUS0 from <u>www.igs-ip.net</u> (same 4Char Station ID, identical mountpoint stings) would accept personal skeleton files named</p>
598<p>
599WETT.skl<br>
600FRAN_KFURT.skl<br>
601FRAN_CE.skl<br>
602BRUS_0.skl<br>
603BRUS_1.skl</p>
604<p>
605if 'Skeleton extension' is set to 'skl'.
606</p>
607<p>
608Note the following regulations regarding personal RINEX header skeleton files:
609<ul>
610<li>If such a file exists in the 'RINEX directory', the corresponding public RINEX header skeleton file is ignored. The RINEX header is generated solely from the contents of the personal skeleton.</li>
611<li>Personal skeletons should contain a complete first header record of type
612<br>- &nbsp; RINEX VERSION / TYPE<br></li>
613<li>They should then contain an empty header record of type
614<br>- &nbsp; PGM / RUN BY / DATE<br>
615BNC will complete this line and include it in the RINEX file header.</li>
616<li>They should further contain complete header records of type
617<br>- &nbsp; MARKER NAME
618<br>- &nbsp; OBSERVER / AGENCY
619<br>- &nbsp; REC # / TYPE / VERS
620<br>- &nbsp; ANT # / TYPE
621<br>- &nbsp; APPROX POSITION XYZ
622<br>- &nbsp; ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N
623<br>- &nbsp; WAVELENGTH FACT L1/2 (RINEX Version 2)</li>
624<br>- &nbsp; SYS / # / OBS TYPES (RINEX Version 3, will be ignored when writing Version 2 files)</li>
625<li>They may contain any other optional complete header record as defined in the RINEX documentation.</li>
626<li>They should also contain an empty header records of type
627<br>- &nbsp; # / TYPES OF OBSERV (only RINEX Version 2, will be ignored when writing RINEX Version 3 files)
628<br>BNC will include these lines in the final RINEX file header together with an additional
629<br>- &nbsp; COMMENT
630<br>line describing the source of the stream.</li>
631<li>They should finally contain an empty header record of type
632<br>- &nbsp; END OF HEADER (last record)</li>
633
634<li>They must not contain a header record of type
635<br>- &nbsp; TIME OF FIRST OBS</li>
636
637</ul>
638<p>
639If neither a public nor a personal RINEX header skeleton file is available for BNC, a default header will be used.
640</p>
641<p>
642The following is a skeleton example for a RINEX file:
643</p>
644<p>
645<pre>
646 OBSERVATION DATA M (Mixed) RINEX VERSION / TYPE
647DUND MARKER NAME
64850212M003 MARKER NUMBER
6494635120796 TRIMBLE NETR9 1.15 REC # / TYPE / VERS
65012626150 TRM41249.00 NONE ANT # / TYPE
651 -4388121.1700 726671.0500 -4556535.6300 APPROX POSITION XYZ
652 0.0020 0.0000 0.0000 ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N
653GeoNet Reception GNS OBSERVER / AGENCY
654G 28 21C L1C D1C S1C C1W L1W D1W S1W C5X L5X D5X S5X C2W SYS / # / OBS TYPES
655 L2W D2W S2W C2X L2X D2X S2X SYS / # / OBS TYPES
656R 16 C1C L1C D1C S1C C1P L1P D1P S1P C2P L2P D2P S2P C2C SYS / # / OBS TYPES
657 L2C D2C S2C SYS / # / OBS TYPES
658S 12 C1C L1C D1C S1C C1W L1W D1W S1W C5I L5I D5I S5I SYS / # / OBS TYPES
659E 8 C1 L1 D1 S1 C5 L5 D5 S5 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
660C 4 C2I L2I D2I S2I SYS / # / OBS TYPES
661J 12 C1C L1C D1C S1C C2 L2 D2 S2 C5 L5 D5 S5 SYS / # / OBS TYPES
662PORTIONS OF THIS HEADER GENERATED BY BKG FROM COMMENT
663SITELOG dund_20070806.log COMMENT
664</pre>
665<p>
666
667<p><a name="rnxscript"><h4>3.4.6 Script - optional</h4></p>
668<p>
669Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path of the script/batch file here. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (%1 on Windows systems, $1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
670</p>
671<p>
672The triggering event for calling the script or batch file is the end of a RINEX Observation file 'Interval'. If that is overridden by a stream outage, the triggering event is the stream reconnection.
673</p>
674<p>
675As an alternative to initiating file uploads through BNC, you may like to call an upload script or batch file through your crontable or Task Scheduler (independent from BNC) once every one or two minutes after the end of each RINEX file 'Interval'.
676</p>
677
678<p><a name="rnxvers"><h4>3.4.7 Version - optional</h4></p>
679<p>
680The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you would like to save observations in RINEX Version 3 format.
681</p>
682
683<p><a name="ephemeris"><h4>3.5. RINEX Ephemeris</h4></p>
684<p>
685Broadcast Ephemeris can be saved as RINEX Navigation files when received via RTCM Version 3 e.g. as message types 1019 (GPS) or 1020 (GLONASS) or 1045 (Galileo). The file name convention follows the details given in section 'RINEX File Names' except that the first four characters are 'BRDC' and the last character is
686</p>
687<ul>
688<li>'N' or 'G' for GPS or GLONASS ephemeris in two separate RINEX Version 2.11 Navigation files, or</li>
689<li>'P' for GPS plus GLONASS plus Galileo ephemeris saved together in one RINEX Version 3 Navigation file.
690</ul>
691
692<p>
693Note that streams dedicated to carry Broadcast Ephemeris messages in RTCM Version 3 format in high repetition rates are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>.
694</p>
695
696<p><a name="ephdir"><h4>3.5.1 Directory - optional</h4></p>
697<p>
698Specify a path for saving Broadcast Ephemeris data as RINEX Navigation files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Navigation files. Default value for Ephemeris 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Navigation files will be created.
699</p>
700
701<p><a name="ephint"><h4>3.5.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
702<p>
703Select the length of the RINEX Navigation file generated. The default value is 1 day.
704</p>
705
706<p><a name="ephport"><h4>3.5.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
707<p>
708BNC can output Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII ephemeris output via IP port is generated.
709</p>
710<p>
711The source code for BNC comes with an example perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's ASCII ephemeris output from the IP port.
712</p>
713
714<p><a name="ephvers"><h4>3.5.4 Version - optional</h4></p>
715<p>
716Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format.
717</p>
718<p>
719Note that this does not concern the Broadcast Ephemeris output through IP port which is always in RINEX Version 3 format.
720</p>
721
722<p><a name="reqc"><h4>3.6. RINEX Editing & QC</h4></p>
723<p>
724Besides stream conversion from RTCM to RINEX, BNC allows editing RINEX files or concatenate their contents. RINEX Observation and Navigation files can be handled. BNC can also carry out a RINEX file quality check. In summary this functionality in BNC covers
725<ul>
726<li>Stream <u>T</u>ranslation</li>
727<li>File <u>E</u>diting and concatenation</li>
728<li>File <u>Q</b></u>uality <u>C</u>heck</li>
729<ul>
730<li>Multipath analysis sky plots (see Estey and Meertens 1999)</li>
731<li>Signal-to-noise ratio sky plots</li>
732<li>Satellite availability plots</li>
733<li>Satellite elevation plots</li>
734<li>PDOP plots</li>
735</ul>
736</ul>
737and hence follows UNAVCO's famous 'TEQC' program. The remarkable thing about BNC in this context is that it supports RINEX Version 3 under GNU General Public License.
738</p>
739
740<p><a name="reqcact"><h4>3.6.1 Action - optional</h4></p>
741<p>Select an action. Options are 'Edit/Concatenate' and 'Analyze'.
742<ul>
743<li>Select 'Edit/Concatenate' if you want to edit RINEX file contents according to options specified under 'Set Edit Options' or if you want to concatenate several RINEX files.</li>
744<li>Select 'Analyze' if you are interested in a quality check of your RINEX file contents.</li>
745</ul>
746</p>
747
748<p><a name="reqcgnss"><h4>3.6.2 Sky Plots - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
749
750<p>Once the 'Analyze' action is selected, you have to specify the GNSS system(s) whoes observations you want to analyze for multipath and signal-to-noise ratio sky plots. Possible options are 'ALL', 'GPS', 'GLONASS', and 'Galileo'. Default is 'ALL', meaning that observations from all GNSS will be analyzed.
751</p>
752
753<p>
754<ul>
755<li>CnC observation types (n = band / frequency) are used for the multipath analysis.</li>
756<li>GPS and GLONASS multipath plots are presented for L1 and L2 frequencies.</li>
757<li>Galileo multipath plots are presented for L1 and L5 frequencies.</li>
758<li>Multipath analysis for GPS L5, and Galileo L5, L7, and L8 is not yet implemented.
759</ul>
760</p>
761
762<p><a name="reqcedit"><h4>3.6.3 Set Edit Options - mandatory if 'Edit/Concatenate' is set</h4></p>
763<p>Once the 'Edit/Concatenate' action is selected, you have to 'Set Edit Options'. BNC lets you specify the RINEX version, sampling interval, begin and end of file, operator, comment lines, and marker, antenna, receiver details. Note that sampling, begin/end and marker/antenna/receiver specification are only meaningful for RINEX Observation files.
764</p>
765<p>
766When converting RINEX Version 2 to RINEX Version 3 Observation files, the tracking mode or channel information in the (last character out of the three characters) observation code is left blank if unknown. When converting RINEX Version 3 to RINEX Version 2 Observation files:
767<ul>
768<li>C1P in RINEX Version 3 is mapped to P1 in RINEX Version 2</li>
769<li>C2P in RINEX Version 3 is mapped to P2 in RINEX Version 2</li>
770<li>If several observations in RINEX Version 3 come with the same observation type and same band/frequency but different tracking modes, BNC uses only the one provided first for creating RINEX Version 2 while ignoring others.</li>
771</ul>
772</p>
773<p>Optionally you may specify a comment line text to be added to the emerging new RINEX file header. Any introduction of a newline through '\n' in this enforces the beginning of a further comment line. Comment line(s) will be added to the header immediately after the 'PGM / RUN BY / DATE' record. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no additional comment line will be added to the RINEX header.</p>
774
775<p>Specifying a 'RUN BY' string to be included in the emerging new RINEX file header is another option. Default is an empty option field meaning the operator's ID is automatically used as 'RUN BY' string.</p>
776<p>
777If you specify a 'New' but no 'Old' marker/antenna/receiver name, the corresponding data field in the emerging new RINEX Observation file will be filled accordingly. If you in addition specify an 'Old' marker/antenna/receiver name, the corresponding data field in the emerging new RINEX Observation file will only be filled accordingly where 'Old' specifications match existing file contents.
778</p>
779
780<p><img src="IMG/screenshot27.png"/></p>
781<p><u>Figure 8:</u> Example for 'RINEX Editing Options' window.</p>
782
783<p><a name="reqcinput"><h4>3.6.4 Input Files - mandatory if 'Action' is set</h4></p>
784<p>
785Specify full path to input RINEX Observation file(s), and<br>
786specify full path to input RINEX Navigation file(s).
787</p>
788<p>When specifying several input files BNC will concatenate their contents. Note that you may specify several RINEX Version 2 Navigation files for GPS and GLONASS.</p>
789
790<p><a name="reqcoutput"><h4>3.6.5 Output Files - mandatory if 'Action' is set</h4></p>
791<p>
792If 'Edit/Concatenate' is selected, specifying the a path to output RINEX Observation file(s) and specifying a full path to output RINEX Navigation file(s) is mandatory.</p>
793
794<p><img src="IMG/screenshot25.png"/></p>
795<p><u>Figure 9:</u> Example for RINEX file editing with BNC in Post Processing mode.</p>
796
797<p>
798If 'Analyze' is selected, specifying a 'Log' file to output analysis results is mandatory. The following is a RINEX quality check analysis logfile example:
799<pre>
800Analyze File
801------------
802File: cut02530.12o
803Marker name: CUT0
804Receiver: TRIMBLE NETR9
805Antenna: TRM59800.00 SCIS
806Start time: 2012-09-09 00:00:00.000
807End time: 2012-09-09 23:59:30.000
808Interval: 30
809# Sat.: 56
810# Obs.: 54159
811# Slips (file): 295
812# Slips (found): 52
813Mean MP1: 0.25382
814Mean MP2: 0.163092
815Mean SNR1: 4.83739
816Mean SNR2: 5.09455
817</pre>
818<p>
819
820<p><a name="reqcplots"><h4>3.6.6 Directory for Plots - optional if 'Action' is set</h4></p>
821<p>
822If 'Analyze' is selected, specifying the path to a directory where plot files will be saved is optional. File names will be composed from the RINEX input file name(s) plus suffix 'PNG' to indicate the plot file format in use. </p>
823
824<p><img src="IMG/screenshot29.png"/></p>
825<p><u>Figure 10:</u> Example for RINEX quality check graphics output with BNC. A multipath and a signal-to-noise ratio analysis are presented in terms of a sky plot.</p>
826
827<p><img src="IMG/screenshot30.png"/></p>
828<p><u>Figure 11:</u> Example for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP plots as a result of a RINEX quality check with BNC.</p>
829
830<p><a name="reqccommand"><h4>3.6.7 Command Line, No Window - optional</h4></p>
831<p>
832BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the contents of the configuration file remains unchanged, see section on 'Command Line Options'. The syntax for that looks as follows
833</p>
834<p>
835--key &lt;keyName&gt; &lt;keyValue&gt;
836</p>
837<p>
838where &lt;keyName&gt; stands for the name of an option contained in the configuration file and &lt;keyValue&gt; stands for the value you want to assign to it. This functionality may be helpful in the 'RINEX Editing & QC' context when running BNC on a routine basis for maintaining a RINEX file archive.
839</p>
840The following example for a Linux platform calls BNC in 'no window' mode with a local configuration file 'rnx.conf' for concatenating four 15min RINEX files from station TLSE residing in the local directory to produce an hourly RINEX Version 3 file with 30 seconds sampling interval:
841</p>
842<p>
843./bnc --nw --conf rnx.conf --key reqcAction Edit/Concatenate --key reqcObsFile "tlse119b00.12o,tlse119b15.12o,tlse119b30.12o,tlse119b45.12o" --key reqcOutObsFile tlse119b.12o --key reqcRnxVersion 3 --key reqcSampling 30
844</p>
845<p>
846You may use asterisk '*' and/or question mark '?' wildcard characters as shown with the following globbing command line option to specify a selection of files in a local directory:
847</p>
848<p>
849--key reqcObsFile "tlse*"<br>
850or:<br>
851--key reqcObsFile tlse\*
852</p>
853
854<p>The following Linux command line produces RINEX QC plots (see Estey and Meertens 1999) offline in 'no window' mode and saves them in directory '/home/user'. Introducing a dummy configuration file /dev/null makes sure that no configuration options previously saved on disc are used:</p>
855<p>
856/home/user/bnc --conf /dev/null --key reqcAction Analyze --key reqcObsFile CUT02070.12O --key reqcNavFile BRDC2070.12P --key reqcOutLogFile CUT0.txt --key reqcPlotDir /home/user --nw
857</p>
858<p></p>
859<p>The following Linux command line produces the same RINEX QC plots in interactive autoStart mode:</p>
860<p>
861/home/user/bnc --conf /dev/null --key reqcAction Analyze --key reqcObsFile CUT02070.12O --key reqcNavFile BRDC2070.12P --key reqcOutLogFile CUT0.txt --key --key startTab 4 --key autoStart 2
862</p>
863
864<p>
865The following is a list of available keynames for '<u>R</u>INEX <u>E</u>diting & <u>QC</u>' (short: REQC, pronounced 'rek') options and their meaning, cf. section 'Configuration Examples':
866</p>
867
868<table>
869<tr></tr>
870<tr><td><b>Keyname</b></td><td><b>Meaning</b></td></tr>
871<tr><td>reqcAction</td><td>RINEX Editing & QC action</td></tr>
872<tr><td>reqcObsFile</td><td>RINEX Observation input file(s)</td></tr>
873<tr><td>reqcNavFile</td><td>RINEX Navigation input files(s)</td></tr>
874<tr><td>reqcOutObsFile</td><td>RINEX Observation output file</td></tr>
875<tr><td>reqcPlotDir</td><td>RINEX QC plot directory</td></tr>
876<tr><td>reqcOutNavFile</td><td>RINEX Navigation output file</td></tr>
877<tr><td>reqcOutLogFile</td><td>Logfile</td></tr>
878<tr><td>reqcPlotDir</td><td>Plot file directory</td></tr>
879<tr><td>reqcSkyPlotSystem</td><td>GNSS system spedificaion</td></tr>
880<tr><td>reqcRnxVersion</td><td>RINEX version of emerging new file</td></tr>
881<tr><td>reqcSampling</td><td>Sampling interval of emerging new RINEX file</td></tr>
882<tr><td>reqcStartDateTime</td><td>Begin of emerging new RINEX file</td></tr>
883<tr><td>reqcEndDateTime</td><td>End of emerging new RINEX file</td></tr>
884<tr><td>reqcRunBy</td><td>Operator name</td></tr>
885<tr><td>reqcComment</td><td>Additional comment lines</td></tr>
886<tr><td>reqcOldMarkerName</td><td>Old marker name</td></tr>
887<tr><td>reqcNewMarkerName</td><td>New marker name</td></tr>
888<tr><td>reqcOldAntennaName</td><td>Old antenna name</td></tr>
889<tr><td>reqcNewAntennaName</td><td>New antenna name</td></tr>
890<tr><td>reqcOldReceiverName</td><td>Old receiver name</td></tr>
891<tr><td>reqcNewReceiverName</td><td>New receiver name</td></tr>
892</table>
893
894<p><a name="correct"><h4>3.7. Broadcast Corrections</h4></p>
895<p>
896Differential GNSS and RTK operation using RTCM streams is currently based on corrections and/or raw measurements from single or multiple reference stations. This approach to differential positioning is using 'observation space' information. The representation with the RTCM standard can be called 'ObservationSpace Representation' (OSR).
897</p>
898<p>
899An alternative to the observation space approach is the so called 'sate space' approach. The principle here is to provide information on individual error sources. It can be called 'State Space Representation' (SSR). For a rover position, state space information concerning precise satellite clocks, orbits, ionosphere, troposphere et cetera can be converted into observation space and used to correct the rover observables for more accurate positioning. Alternatively the state information can directly be used in the rover's processing or adjustment model.
900</p>
901<p>
902RTCM has developed Version 3 messages to transport satellite orbit and clock corrections in real-time. Note that corrections refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). The current set of SSR messages concerns:
903<ul>
904<li>Orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
905<li>Clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
906<li>Code biases</li>
907<li>Combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
908<li>User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
909<li>High-rate GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
910</ul>
911<p>
912RTCM Version 3 streams carrying these messages may be used i.e. to support real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) applications.
913</p>
914<p>
915When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as dt = -2 (R * V) / c^2 where R * V is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and c is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006.
916</p>
917
918<p>
919Orbit corrections are provided in along-track, cross-track and radial components. These components are defined in the Earth-centered, Earth-fixed reference frame of the broadcast ephemerides. For an observer in this frame, the along-track component is aligned in both direction and sign with the velocity vector, the cross-track component is perpendicular to the plane defined by the satellite position and velocity vectors, and the radial direction is perpendicular to the along track and cross-track ones. The three components form a right-handed orthogonal system.
920</p>
921
922<p>
923After applying corrections, the satellite position and clock is referred to the 'ionospheric free' phase center of the antenna which is compatible with the broadcast orbit reference.
924</p>
925
926<p>
927The orbit and clock corrections do not include local effects (like Ocean Loading or Solid Earth Tides) or atmospheric effects (Ionosphere and/or troposphere). Depending on the accuracy of your application you should correct for such effects by other means. There is currently no RTCM SSR message for ionospheric state parameters. Such messages are needed for accurate single frequency applications. The development of Iono messages will be the next step in the schedule of the RTCM State Space Representation Working Group.
928</p>
929
930<p>
931Broadcast Corrections can be saved by BNC in files. The file name convention for Broadcast Correction files follows the convention for RINEX files except for the last character of the file name suffix which is set to &quot;C&quot;.
932</p>
933
934<p>
935Saved files contain blocks of records in plain ASCII format where - separate for each GNSS, message type, stream, and epoch - the begin of a block is indicated by a line like (examples):
936</p>
937<p>
938! Orbits/Clocks: 30 GPS 0 Glonass CLK11<br>
939or<br>
940! Orbits/Clocks: 0 GPS 19 Glonass CLK11
941<p>
942Such line informs you about the number of records (here 30 and 19) carrying GPS or GLONASS related parameters you should receive next.
943</p>
944<p>
945The first five parameters in each Broadcast Corrections record are:
946</p>
947<p>
948<ul>
949<li>RTCM Version 3 message type number</li>
950<li>SSR message update interval indicator</li>
951<ul>
952<li>0 = 1 sec</li>
953<li>1 = 2 sec</li>
954<li>2 = 5 sec</li>
955<li>3 = 10 sec</li>
956<li>4 = 15 sec</li>
957<li>5 = 30 sec</li>
958<li>6 = 60 sec</li>
959<li>7 = 120 sec</li>
960<li>8 = 240 sec</li>
961<li>9 = 300 sec</li>
962<li>10 = 600 sec</li>
963<li>11 = 900 sec</li>
964<li>12 = 1800 sec</li>
965<li>13 = 3600 sec</li>
966<li>14 = 7200 sec</li>
967<li>15 = 10800 sec</li>
968</ul>
969<li>GPS Week</li>
970<li>Second in GPS Week</li>
971<li>GNSS Indicator and Satellite Vehicle Pseudo Random Number</li>
972</ul>
973</p>
974<p>
975In case of RTCM message types 1057 or 1063 (see Annex) these parameters are followed by
976</p>
977<p>
978<ul>
979<li>IOD referring to Broadcast Ephemeris set</li>
980<li>Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
981<li>Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
982<li>Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
983<li>Velocity of Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
984<li>Velocity of Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
985<li>Velocity of Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
986<p>
987</ul>
988</p>
989<p>
990Undefined parameters would be set to zero &quot;0.000&quot;.<br>Example:
991<pre>
992...
9931057 0 1686 283200.0 G02 21 1.062 -0.791 1.070 -0.00025 -0.00031 -0.00005
9941057 0 1686 283200.0 G03 25 1.765 -2.438 -0.290 -0.00009 -0.00060 0.00028
9951057 0 1686 283200.0 G04 14 1.311 -0.862 0.334 0.00005 -0.00038 -0.00015
996
997...
9981063 0 1686 283200.0 R01 39 0.347 1.976 -1.418 0.00048 -0.00091 0.00008
9991063 0 1686 283200.0 R02 39 0.624 -2.092 -0.155 0.00005 -0.00054 0.00053
10001063 0 1686 283200.0 R03 39 0.113 5.655 -1.540 0.00003 -0.00079 -0.00003
10011063 0 1686 283200.0 R05 39 0.237 1.426 -1.282 0.00054 -0.00020 0.00027
1002...
1003</pre>
1004<p>
1005In case of RTCM message types 1058 or 1064 (see Annex) the first five parameters in each record are followed by
1006</p>
1007<ul>
1008<li>IOD set to zero &quot;0&quot;</li>
1009<li>C0 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1010<li>C1 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
1011<li>C2 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s**2]</li>
1012</ul>
1013Example:
1014</p>
1015<pre>
1016...
10171058 0 1538 211151.0 G18 0 1.846 0.000 0.000
10181058 0 1538 211151.0 G16 0 0.376 0.000 0.000
10191058 0 1538 211151.0 G22 0 2.727 0.000 0.000
1020...
10211064 0 1538 211151.0 R08 0 8.956 0.000 0.000
10221064 0 1538 211151.0 R07 0 14.457 0.000 0.000
10231064 0 1538 211151.0 R23 0 6.436 0.000 0.000
1024...
1025</pre>
1026</p>
1027<p>
1028In case of RTCM message types 1060 or 1066 (see Annex) the first five parameters in each record are followed by
1029<p>
1030<ul>
1031<li>IOD referring to Broadcast Ephemeris set</li>
1032<li>C0 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1033<li>Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1034<li>Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1035<li>Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1036<li>C1 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1037<li>Velocity of Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
1038<li>Velocity of Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
1039<li>Velocity of Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
1040<li>C2 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
1041</ul>
1042Example:
1043</p>
1044<pre>
1045...
10461060 0 1538 211610.0 G30 82 2.533 0.635 -0.359 -0.598 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
10471060 0 1538 211610.0 G31 5 -4.218 -0.208 0.022 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
10481060 0 1538 211610.0 G32 28 -2.326 0.977 -0.576 0.142 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1049...
10501066 0 1538 211610.0 R22 27 1.585 2.024 2.615 -2.080 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
10511066 0 1538 211610.0 R23 27 6.277 2.853 4.181 1.304 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
10521066 0 1538 211610.0 R24 27 0.846 1.805 13.095 6.102 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1053...
1054</pre>
1055</p>
1056<p>
1057In case of RTCM message types 1059 or 1065 (see Annex) the first five parameters in each record are followed by
1058<ul>
1059<li>Number of Code Biases</li>
1060<li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
1061<li>Code Bias</li>
1062<li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
1063<li>Code Bias</li>
1064<li>etc.</li>
1065</ul>
1066Example:
1067</p>
1068<pre>
1069...
10701059 0 1538 211151.0 G18 2 0 -0.010 11 -0.750
10711059 0 1538 211151.0 G16 2 0 -0.040 11 -0.430
10721059 0 1538 211151.0 G22 2 0 -0.630 11 -2.400
1073...
1074</pre>
1075
1076<p><a name="corrdir"><h4>3.7.1 Directory, ASCII - optional</h4></p>
1077<p>
1078Specify a directory for saving Broadcast Corrections in files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Broadcast Correction files. Default value for Broadcast Corrections 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction files will be created.
1079</p>
1080
1081<p><a name="corrint"><h4>3.7.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
1082<p>
1083Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is 1 day.
1084</p>
1085
1086<p><a name="corrport"><h4>3.7.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
1087<p>
1088BNC can output epoch by epoch synchronized Broadcast Corrections in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction output via IP port is generated.
1089</p>
1090<p>
1091The output format equals the format used for saving Broadcast Corrections in a file with the exception that the Mountpoint is added at each line's end.
1092</p>
1093<p>
1094The following is an example output for streams from mountpoints RTCMSSR, CLK10 and CLK11:
1095<pre>
1096...
10971057 0 1538 211151.0 G18 1 0.034 0.011 -0.064 0.000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
10981057 0 1538 211151.0 G16 33 -0.005 0.194 -0.091 0.000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
10991057 0 1538 211151.0 G22 50 0.008 -0.082 -0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
1100...
11011058 0 1538 211151.0 G18 0 1.846 0.000 RTCMSSR
11021058 0 1538 211151.0 G16 0 0.376 0.000 RTCMSSR
11031058 0 1538 211151.0 G22 0 2.727 0.000 RTCMSSR
1104...
11051059 0 1538 211151.0 G18 2 0 -0.010 11 -0.750 RTCMSSR
11061059 0 1538 211151.0 G16 2 0 -0.040 11 -0.430 RTCMSSR
11071059 0 1538 211151.0 G22 2 0 -0.630 11 -2.400 RTCMSSR
1108...
11091063 0 1538 211151.0 R09 111 -0.011 -0.014 0.005 0.0000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
11101063 0 1538 211151.0 R10 43 0.000 -0.009 -0.002 0.0000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
11111063 0 1538 211151.0 R21 75 -0.029 0.108 0.107 0.0000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
1112...
11131064 0 1538 211151.0 R08 0 8.956 0.000 RTCMSSR
11141064 0 1538 211151.0 R07 0 14.457 0.000 RTCMSSR
11151064 0 1538 211151.0 R23 0 6.436 0.000 RTCMSSR
1116...
11171066 0 1538 211610.0 R24 27 0.846 1.805 13.095 6.102 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK11
11181066 0 1538 211610.0 R23 27 6.277 2.853 4.181 1.304 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK11
11191066 0 1538 211610.0 R22 27 1.585 2.024 2.615 -2.080 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK11
1120...
11211060 0 1538 211610.0 G32 28 -2.326 0.977 -0.576 0.142 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK10
11221060 0 1538 211610.0 G31 5 -4.218 -0.208 0.022 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK10
11231060 0 1538 211610.0 G30 82 2.533 0.635 -0.359 -0.598 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK10
1124...
1125</pre>
1126</p>
1127<p>
1128The source code for BNC comes with an example perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's Broadcast Corrections from the IP port.
1129</p>
1130
1131<p><a name="corrwait"><h4>3.7.4 Wait for Full Corr Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
1132<p>
1133When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine (see 'Feed Engine') waiting epoch by epoch for synchronized Broadcast Corrections, or when you 'Combine Corrections' BNC drops (only concerning IP port output) whatever is received later than 'Wait for full corr epoch' seconds. A value of 2 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming Broadcast Corrections stream and the delay acceptable by your application. A message such as &quot;COCK1: Correction over aged by 5 sec&quot; shows up in BNC's logfile if 'Wait for full corr epoch' is exceeded.
1134</p>
1135<p>
1136Specifying a value of '0' means that BNC immediately outputs all incoming Broadcast Ephemeris Corrections and does not drop any of them for latency reasons.
1137</p>
1138
1139<p><a name="syncout"><h4>3.8. Feed Engine</h4></p>
1140<p>
1141BNC can generate synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a local file. The output is always in plain ASCII format.
1142</p>
1143<p>
1144Any epoch in the output begins with a line containing the GPS week number and the seconds within the GPS week. Following lines begin with the mountpoint string of the stream which provides the observations followed by a satellite ID and - in case of GLONASS - a channel number. Observation types are specified by the three character observation code defined in RINEX Version 3. In case of phase observations a Slip Count is added which is put to "-1" if it is not set. The end of an epoch in indicated by an empty line.
1145</p>
1146
1147<p>Note on 'Slip Count':<br>
1148It is the current understanding of BNC's authors that different Slip Counts could be referred to different phase measurements (i.e. L1C and L1P). The 'loss-of-lock' flags in RINEX are an example for making such kind of information available per phase measurement. However, it looks like we do have only one Slip Count in RTCM Version 3 for all phase measurements. As it could be that a receiver generates different Slip Counts for different phase measurements, we output one Slip Count per phase measurement to a listening real-time GNSS network engine.
1149</p>
1150
1151<p>
1152The following is an output example which presents observations from BeiDou, SBAS, Galileo, QZSS, GLONASS and GPS satellites as collected through streams UNBS7 and CUT07:
1153<pre>
1154> 1732 593302.0000000
1155UNBS7 C14 C7I 25052046.546 L7I 100874271.744 0 D7I 1486.532 S7I 46.500
1156UNBS7 S38 C1C 39122425.353 L1C 205589229.175 -1 D1C 86.305 S1C 44.750
1157UNBS7 S35 C1C 40790275.076 L1C 214353819.664 16 D1C 86.396 S1C 40.000
1158UNBS7 S33 C1C 38444117.173 L1C 202025092.065 16 D1C 146.701 S1C 42.000
1159UNBS7 S20 C1C 39361772.796 L1C 206847552.895 -1 D1C 81.035 S1C 39.500
1160UNBS7 R24 -3 C1C 22718781.328 L1C 121275028.082 -1 D1C 3442.434 S1C 46.000 C2C 22718787.496 L2C 94325035.777 -1 D2C 2677.455 S2C 39.500 C2P 22718787.023 L2P 94325035.786 -1 D2P 2677.328 S2P 39.750
1161UNBS7 R23 -2 C1C 22423222.452 L1C 119739364.426 16 D1C 429.909 S1C 46.750 C2C 22423230.235 L2C 93130629.910 -1 D2C 334.321 S2C 44.000 C2P 22423229.861 L2P 93130630.899 -1 D2P 334.416 S2P 42.750
1162UNBS7 R22 6 C1C 24329473.162 L1C 130283179.927 10 D1C -2789.020 S1C 38.250 C2C 24329479.274 L2C 101331552.779 10 D2C -2169.209 S2C 30.750 C2P 24329479.101 L2P 101331552.861 10 D2P -2169.287 S2P 32.500
1163UNBS7 R15 5 C1C 20871814.352 L1C 111729327.604 -1 D1C 2285.734 S1C 47.000 C2C 20871821.926 L2C 86900608.285 -1 D2C 1777.801 S2C 47.000 C2P 20871821.312 L2P 86900608.292 -1 D2P 1777.743 S2P 47.000
1164UNBS7 G32 C1C 22269376.201 L1C 117025713.468 -1 D1C -895.284 S1C 47.500 C1W 22269375.437 S1W 35.500 C2W 22269376.328 L2W 91188879.803 -1 D2W -697.623 S2W 35.500
1165UNBS7 G31 C1C 20329833.770 L1C 106833781.981 -1 D1C -234.551 S1C 51.000 C2L 20329831.962 L2L 83246841.788 -1 D2L -182.773 S2L 48.500 C1W 20329833.694 S1W 44.500 C2W 20329832.346 L2W 83246841.786 -1 D2W -182.768 S2W 44.500
1166UNBS7 G30 C1C 21209171.329 L1C 111454457.690 -1 D1C 2716.975 S1C 50.000 C1W 21209170.435 S1W 39.000 C2W 21209171.093 L2W 86847652.883 -1 D2W 2117.122 S2W 39.000
1167UNBS7 G29 C1C 22801055.880 L1C 119820804.004 -1 D1C 1368.562 S1C 45.500 C2L 22801056.654 L2L 93366882.194 -1 D2L 1066.392 S2L 40.000 C1W 22801055.755 S1W 30.250 C2W 22801056.554 L2W 93366882.205 -1 D2W 1066.414 S2W 30.250
1168UNBS7 G25 C1C 23013893.698 L1C 120939208.651 -1 D1C -3105.851 S1C 44.250 C2L 23013897.434 L2L 94238034.169 -1 D2L -2420.224 S2L 41.500 C1W 23013893.198 S1W 29.250 C2W 23013898.030 L2W 94238292.170 -1 D2W -2420.137 S2W 29.250 C5Q 23013898.880 L5Q 90311704.304 -1 D5Q -2319.279 S5Q 46.250
1169UNBS7 G23 C1C 24711598.869 L1C 129860912.236 15 D1C 3635.708 S1C 44.500 C1W 24711598.302 S1W 25.500 C2W 24711599.100 L2W 101189889.915 -1 D2W 2833.013 S2W 25.500
1170UNBS7 G20 C1C 22693412.509 L1C 119254789.031 -1 D1C 345.848 S1C 44.500 C1W 22693411.651 S1W 30.250 C2W 22693412.822 L2W 92925615.674 -1 D2W 269.495 S2W 30.250
1171UNBS7 G16 C1C 23353606.131 L1C 122723608.709 15 D1C 3777.040 S1C 44.000 C1W 23353605.488 S1W 25.500 C2W 23353607.090 L2W 95629319.017 -1 D2W 2943.136 S2W 25.500
1172UNBS7 G14 C1C 22184760.935 L1C 116582179.095 15 D1C -2720.563 S1C 46.000 C1W 22184760.444 S1W 30.750 C2W 22184760.626 L2W 90842916.546 -1 D2W -2119.922 S2W 30.750
1173CUT07 C30 C6I 23552328.090 L6I 99658188.910 0 S6I 41.875 C7I 23552339.168 L7I 94836018.626 0 S7I 41.875
1174CUT07 C13 C6I 26550829.789 L6I 112344714.991 0 S6I 38.500 C7I 26550838.289 L7I 106908681.113 0 S7I 37.312
1175CUT07 C11 C6I 24441732.656 L6I 103420995.512 0 S6I 45.500 C7I 24441741.211 L7I 98416843.099 0 S7I 45.875
1176CUT07 C10 C6I 36878536.836 L6I 156044795.610 0 S6I 48.188 C7I 36878545.391 L7I 148494240.588 0 S7I 46.812
1177CUT07 C09 C6I 38776716.851 L6I 164077362.627 0 S6I 42.812 C7I 38776726.929 L7I 156138136.444 0 S7I 44.312
1178CUT07 C08 C6I 37904174.730 L6I 160384993.342 0 S6I 44.812 C7I 37904182.937 L7I 152624453.741 0 S7I 44.875
1179CUT07 C07 C6I 36491034.918 L6I 154405738.912 0 S6I 49.812 C7I 36491042.773 L7I 146934558.057 0 S7I 49.375
1180CUT07 C06 C6I 39838468.129 L6I 168569233.545 0 S6I 38.688 C7I 39838475.922 L7I 160412657.495 0 S7I 38.312
1181CUT07 C05 C6I 39489041.449 L6I 167090530.921 0 S6I 39.000 C7I 39489046.664 L7I 159005505.607 0 S7I 39.188
1182CUT07 C04 C6I 38503753.496 L6I 162921979.975 0 S6I 43.188 C7I 38503758.770 L7I 155038658.931 0 S7I 42.375
1183CUT07 C03 C6I 36740707.453 L6I 155461583.445 0 S6I 49.125 C7I 36740711.731 L7I 147939248.283 0 S7I 48.375
1184CUT07 C02 C6I 38014807.625 L6I 160853150.858 0 S6I 43.812 C7I 38014810.320 L7I 153069938.765 0 S7I 44.000
1185CUT07 C01 C6I 37257719.649 L6I 157649701.045 0 S6I 46.188 C7I 37257724.105 L7I 150021495.952 0 S7I 47.875
1186CUT07 J01 C1C 43881526.609 L1C 230598490.131 -1 D1C -44.758 S1C 34.125 C2X 43881530.754 L2X 179687612.756 -1 S2X 35.375 C5X 43881536.680 L5X 172200662.527 -1 S5X 40.375 C6L 43881525.555 L6L 187174573.616 0 S6L 29.875 C1Z 43881519.262 L1Z 230598986.947 -1 S1Z 32.875 C1X 43881528.066 L1X 230598490.127 -1 S1X 38.000
1187CUT07 S37 C1C 37602298.469 L1C 197602164.710 -1 D1C 168.586 S1C 41.812
1188CUT07 S29 C1C 37367280.766 L1C 196366452.064 16 D1C 172.070 S1C 42.625
1189CUT07 S28 C1C 37813587.344 L1C 198711737.222 16 D1C 162.395 S1C 42.125
1190CUT07 S27 C1C 39891507.890 L1C 209631339.001 16 D1C 168.379 S1C 35.500
1191CUT07 E20 C5X 25169051.723 L5X 98768754.234 -1 S5X 49.188 C7X 25169049.472 L7X 101345326.261 0 S7X 48.625 C8X 25169050.110 L8X 100573783.320 0 S8X 53.500
1192CUT07 E19 C5X 28361979.223 L5X 111299065.507 -1 S5X 35.625 C7X 28361977.535 L7X 114202519.202 0 S7X 34.000 C8X 28361978.015 L8X 113333091.535 0 S8X 38.875
1193CUT07 R21 0 C1C 23802964.055 L1C 127196451.213 -1 D1C 3981.018 S1C 37.375 C2C 23802966.360 L2C 98929650.279 -1 S2C 31.875 C1P 23802962.137 L1P 127196451.240 -1 S1P 36.000 C2P 23802966.555 L2P 98929650.279 -1 S2P 32.000
1194CUT07 R20 5 C1C 22343638.078 L1C 119607514.243 -1 D1C 2865.940 S1C 41.000 C2C 22343644.137 L2C 93028226.213 -1 S2C 41.500 C1P 22343638.156 L1P 119607514.262 -1 S1P 39.188 C2P 22343643.864 L2P 93028226.216 -1 S2P 41.375
1195CUT07 R19 1 C1C 22867512.133 L1C 122239323.823 -1 D1C -128.617 S1C 45.625 C2C 22867513.149 L2C 95076008.606 -1 S2C 40.000 C1P 22867511.508 L1P 122239322.823 -1 S1P 43.875 C2P 22867513.578 L2P 95075804.758 -1 S2P 39.875
1196CUT07 R09 -2 C1C 23348341.930 L1C 124678720.439 -1 D1C -2371.129 S1C 43.125 C2C 23348346.816 L2C 96972337.490 -1 S2C 38.625 C1P 23348342.359 L1P 124678720.448 -1 S1P 41.875 C2P 23348347.949 L2P 96972021.497 -1 S2P 37.312
1197CUT07 R08 6 C1C 19789643.508 L1C 105973418.989 16 D1C -1646.246 S1C 54.125 C2C 19789644.758 L2C 82423770.486 16 S2C 49.812 C1P 19789642.058 L1P 105973418.998 16 S1P 52.125 C2P 19789645.188 L2P 82423770.483 16 S2P 48.875
1198CUT07 G28 C1C 19876464.688 L1C 104452182.303 14 D1C -925.301 S1C 50.375 C2W 19876465.715 L2W 81391310.427 14 S2W 43.812
1199CUT07 G26 C1C 21228880.773 L1C 111558728.212 -1 D1C 2146.406 S1C 50.812 C2W 21228883.324 L2W 86928571.609 -1 S2W 42.375
1200CUT07 G24 C1C 25532167.125 L1C 134172129.977 14 D1C 2546.594 S1C 32.812 C2X 25532172.324 L2X 104550408.875 -1 S2X 36.375 C2W 25532171.199 L2W 104549682.856 -1 S2W 13.875 C5X 25532177.137 L5X 100194136.711 -1 S5X 42.375
1201CUT07 G17 C1C 22982846.906 L1C 120775586.132 -1 D1C 3266.969 S1C 44.875 C2X 22982849.821 L2X 94111331.364 -1 S2X 42.312 C2W 22982850.219 L2W 94111214.362 -1 S2W 31.375
1202CUT07 G15 C1C 23470338.258 L1C 123337157.406 -1 D1C 3415.176 S1C 45.125 C2X 23470340.996 L2X 96106783.651 -1 S2X 42.312 C2W 23470341.101 L2W 96107522.655 -1 S2W 29.312
1203CUT07 G10 C1C 23714849.813 L1C 124621860.377 15 D1C -3319.340 S1C 40.500 C2W 23714854.707 L2W 97107942.926 14 S2W 22.500
1204CUT07 G09 C1C 21719005.391 L1C 114134798.755 -1 D1C 1004.351 S1C 49.500 C2W 21719007.297 L2W 88936209.534 -1 S2W 40.188
1205CUT07 G08 C1C 22413796.969 L1C 117784586.324 -1 D1C -1906.422 S1C 45.500 C2W 22413801.219 L2W 91780776.741 -1 S2W 33.688
1206CUT07 G07 C1C 24328207.219 L1C 127845525.401 -1 D1C -2184.074 S1C 42.000 C2X 24328209.020 L2X 99619834.161 -1 S2X 37.375 C2W 24328209.770 L2W 99619888.148 -1 S2W 23.188
1207CUT07 G05 C1C 21955999.242 L1C 115378829.111 15 D1C -1707.133 S1C 48.688 C2X 21956001.395 L2X 89906678.277 14 S2X 46.125 C2W 21956001.617 L2W 89906678.279 14 S2W 38.625
1208
1209> 1732 593303.0000000
1210CUT07 C30 C6I 23551839.488 L6I 99656121.652 0 S6I 42.375 C7I 23551850.508 L7I 94834051.391 0 S7I 42.188
1211CUT07 C13 C6I 26551402.223 L6I 112347137.247 0 S6I 38.688 C7I 26551410.664 L7I 106910986.173 0 S7I 37.875
1212CUT07 C11 C6I 24441668.156 L6I 103420723.118 0 S6I 45.125 C7I 24441676.477 L7I 98416583.891 0 S7I 45.688
1213...
1214...
1215</pre>
1216<p>
1217The source code for BNC comes with a perl script called 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's (synchronized or unsynchronized) ASCII observation output from the IP port and print it on standard output.
1218</p>
1219<p>
1220Note that any socket connection of an application to BNC's synchronized or unsynchronized observations ports is recorded in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window together with a connection counter, resulting in log records like 'New client connection on sync/usync port: # 1'.
1221</p>
1222
1223<p>
1224The following figure shows the screenshot of a BNC configuration where a number of streams is pulled from different NTRIP Broadcasters to feed a GNSS engine via IP port output.
1225</p>
1226<p><img src="IMG/screenshot12.png"/></p>
1227<p><u>Figure 12:</u> Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine.</p>
1228
1229<p><a name="syncport"><h4>3.8.1 Port - optional</h4></p>
1230<p>
1231BNC can produce synchronized observations in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Synchronized means that BNC collects all observation data for any specific epoch which become available within a certain number of latency seconds (see 'Wait for Full Obs Epoch' option). It then - epoch by epoch - outputs whatever has been received. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no binary synchronized output is generated.</p>
1232</p>
1233
1234<p><a name="syncwait"><h4>3.8.2 Wait for Full Obs Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
1235<p>
1236When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting for synchronized observations epoch by epoch, BNC drops whatever is received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds. A value of 3 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming streams and the delay acceptable for your real-time GNSS product. Default value for 'Wait for full obs epoch' is 5 seconds.
1237</p>
1238<p>
1239Note that 'Wait for full obs epoch' does not affect the RINEX Observation file content. Observations received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds will still be included in the RINEX Observation files.
1240</p>
1241
1242<p><a name="syncsample"><h4>3.8.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set</h4></p>
1243<p>
1244Select the synchronized observation output sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to send/store all received epochs. This is the default value.
1245</p>
1246
1247<p><a name="syncfile"><h4>3.8.4 File - optional</h4></p>
1248<p>
1249Specify the full path to a 'File' where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format. The default value is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII output file is created.
1250</p>
1251<p>
1252Beware that the size of this file can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming streams. This option is primarily meant for testing and evaluation.
1253</p>
1254
1255<p><a name="syncuport"><h4>3.8.5 Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
1256<p>
1257BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated.</p>
1258<p>
1259
1260<p><a name="serial"><h4>3.9. Serial Output</h4></p>
1261<p>
1262You may use BNC to feed a serial connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. The following figure shows the screenshot of an example situation where BNC pulls a VRS stream from an NTRIP Broadcaster to feed a serial connected RTK rover.
1263</p>
1264<p><img src="IMG/screenshot11.png"/></p>
1265<p><u>Figure 13:</u> BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serial connected RTK rover.</p>
1266
1267<p><a name="sermount"><h4>3.9.1 Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
1268<p>
1269Enter a 'Mountpoint' to forward its corresponding stream to a serial connected GNSS receiver.
1270</p>
1271<p>
1272When selecting one of the serial communication options listed below, make sure that you pick those configured to the serial connected receiver.
1273</p>
1274
1275<p><a name="serport"><h4>3.9.2 Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1276<p>
1277Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the serial connected receiver. Valid port names are
1278</p>
1279<pre>
1280Windows: COM1, COM2
1281Linux: /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyS1
1282FreeBSD: /dev/ttyd0, /dev/ttyd1
1283Digital Unix: /dev/tty01, /dev/tty02
1284HP-UX: /dev/tty1p0, /dev/tty2p0
1285SGI/IRIX: /dev/ttyf1, /dev/ttyf2
1286SunOS/Solaris: /dev/ttya, /dev/ttyb
1287</pre>
1288<p>
1289Note that you must plug a serial cable in the port defined here before you start BNC.
1290</p>
1291
1292<p><a name="serbaud"><h4>3.9.3 Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1293<p>
1294Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial output link. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.
1295</p>
1296
1297<p><a name="serflow"><h4>3.9.4 Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1298<p>
1299Select a 'Flow control' for the serial output link. Note that your selection must equal the flow control configured to the serial connected device. Select 'OFF' if you don't know better.
1300</p>
1301
1302<p><a name="serparity"><h4>3.9.5 Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1303<p>
1304Select the 'Parity' for the serial output link. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.
1305</p>
1306
1307<p><a name="serdata"><h4>3.9.6 Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1308<p>
1309Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '8' data bits are used.
1310</p>
1311
1312<p><a name="serstop"><h4>3.9.7 Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1313<p>
1314Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.
1315</p>
1316
1317<p><a name="serauto"><h4>3.9.8 NMEA - mandatory for VRS streams</h4></p>
1318<p>
1319Select 'Auto' to automatically forward all NMEA-GGA messages coming from your serial connected GNSS receiver to the NTRIP Broadcaster and/or save them in a file.
1320</p>
1321<p>
1322Forwarding valid NMEA-GGA messages to the NTRIP Broadcaster is required for receiving 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) streams. Thus, in case your serial connected receiver is not capable to provide them, the alternative for VRS streams is a 'Manual' simulation of an initial NMEA-GGA message. Its content is based on the approximate (editable) latitude/longitude from the broadcaster's source-table and an approximate VRS height to be specified.
1323</p>
1324<p>
1325In summary: select 'Manual' only when handling a VRS stream and your serial connected GNSS receiver doesn't generate NMEA-GGA messages. Select 'Auto' otherwise.
1326</p>
1327
1328<p><a name="serfile"><h4>3.9.9 File - optional if 'Auto' NMEA is set</h4></p>
1329<p>Specify the full path to a file where NMEA messages coming from your serial connected receiver are saved.
1330</p>
1331<p><a name="serheight"><h4>3.9.10 Height - mandatory if 'Manual' NMEA is set</h4></p>
1332<p>
1333Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meter for your VRS to simulate an initial NMEA-GGA message. Latitude and longitude for that (editable) are taken from the broadcaster's source-table.
1334</p>
1335<p>
1336This option concerns only 'Virtual Reference Stations' (VRS). Its setting is ignored in case of streams coming from physical reference stations.
1337</p>
1338
1339<p><a name="advnote"><h4>3.10. Outages</h4></p>
1340
1341<p>
1342At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that necessary measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
1343</p>
1344<p>
1345<u>Stream outages:</u> BNC considers a connection to be broken when there are no incoming data detected for more than 20 seconds. When this occurs, BNC will attempt to reconnect at a decreasing rate. It will first try to reconnect with 1 second delay and again in 2 seconds if the previous attempt failed. If the attempt is still unsuccessful, it will try to reconnect within 4 seconds after the previous attempt and so on. The wait time doubles each time with a maximum wait time of 256 seconds.
1346</p>
1347<p>
1348<u>Stream corruption:</u> Not all bits chunk transfers to BNC's internal decoders return valid observations. Sometimes several chunks might be needed before the next observation can be properly decoded. BNC buffers all the outputs (both valid and invalid) from the decoder for a short time span (size derived from the expected 'Observation rate') and then determines whether a stream is valid or corrupted.
1349</p>
1350<p>
1351Outage and corruption events are reported in the 'Log' tab. They can also be passed on as parameters to a shell script or batch file to generate an advisory note to BNC operator or affected stream providers. This functionality lets users utilize BNC as a real-time performance monitor and alarm system for a network of GNSS reference stations.
1352</p>
1353
1354<p><a name="obsrate"><h4>3.10.1 Observation Rate - mandatory if 'Failure threshold', 'Recovery threshold' and 'Script' is set</h4></p>
1355<p>
1356BNC can collect all returns (success or failure) coming from a decoder within a certain short time span to then decide whether a stream has an outage or its content is corrupted. This procedure needs a rough a priory estimate of the expected observation rate of the incoming streams.</p><p>An empty option field (default) means that you don't want explicit information from BNC about stream outages and incoming streams that cannot be decoded.
1357</p>
1358
1359<p><a name="advfail"><h4>3.10.2 Failure Threshold - optional</h4></p>
1360<p>
1361Event 'Begin_Failure' will be reported if no data is received continuously for longer than the 'Failure threshold' time. Similarly, event 'Begin_Corrupted' will be reported when corrupted data is detected by the decoder continuously for longer than this 'Failure threshold' time. The default value is set to 15 minutes and is recommended so not to inundate user with too many event reports.
1362</p>
1363<p>
1364Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Failure threshold' will force BNC to report any stream failure immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'.
1365</p>
1366
1367<p><a name="advreco"><h4>3.10.3 Recovery Threshold - optional</h4></p>
1368<p>
1369Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check for when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are again detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended so not to inundate users with too many event reports.
1370</p>
1371<p>
1372Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Recovery threshold' will force BNC to report any stream recovery immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'.
1373</p>
1374
1375<p><a name="advscript"><h4>3.10.4 Script - optional </h4></p>
1376<p>
1377As mentioned previously, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the events described are reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information.
1378</p>
1379<p>
1380Leave the 'Script' field empty if you do not wish to use this option. An invalid path will also disable this option.
1381</p>
1382<p>
1383Examples for command line parameter strings passed on to the advisory 'Script' are:
1384<pre>
1385FFMJ0 Begin_Outage 08-02-21 09:25:59
1386FFMJ0 End_Outage 08-02-21 11:36:02 Begin was 08-02-21 09:25:59
1387</pre>
1388</p>
1389<p>
1390Sample script for Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems:
1391</p>
1392<pre>
1393#!/bin/bash
1394sleep $((60*RANDOM/32767))
1395cat | mail -s &quot;NABU: $1&quot; email@address &lt;&lt;!
1396Advisory Note to BNC User,
1397Please note the following advisory received from BNC.
1398Stream: $*
1399Regards, BNC
1400!
1401</pre>
1402</p>
1403<p>
1404Note the sleep command in this script which causes the system to wait for a random period of up to 60 seconds before sending the email. This should avoid overloading your mail server in case of a simultaneous failure of many streams.
1405</p>
1406
1407<p><a name="misc"><h4>3.11. Miscellaneous</h4></p>
1408<p>
1409This section describes several miscellaneous options which can be applied for a single stream (mountpoint) or for all configured streams.
1410</p>
1411
1412<p>
1413The following figure shows RTCM message numbers and observation types contained in stream 'CUT07' and the message latencies recorded every 2 seconds.
1414</p>
1415<p><img src="IMG/screenshot14.png"/></p>
1416<p><u>Figure 14:</u> RTCM message numbers, latencies and observation types.</p>
1417
1418
1419<p><a name="miscmount"><h4>3.11.1 Mountpoint - optional </h4></p>
1420<p>
1421Specify a mountpoint to apply one or several of the 'Miscellaneous' options to the corresponding stream. Enter 'ALL' if you want to apply these options to all configured streams. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to apply any of these options.
1422</p>
1423
1424<p><a name="miscperf"><h4>3.11.2 Log Latency - optional </h4></p>
1425<p>
1426 BNC can average latencies per stream over a certain period of GPS time, the 'Log latency' interval. Mean latencies are calculated from the individual latencies of one (first incoming) observation or Broadcast Correction per second. The mean latencies are then saved in BNC's logfile. Note that computing correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. Note further that visualized latencies from the 'Latency' tab on the bottom of the main window represent individual latencies and not the mean latencies for the logfile.
1427</p>
1428<p>
1429<u>Latency:</u> Latency is defined in BNC by the following equation:
1430</p>
1431<pre>
1432 UTC time provided by BNC's host
1433 - GPS time of currently processed epoch
1434 + Leap seconds between UTC and GPS time
1435 --------------
1436 = Latency
1437</pre>
1438<p>
1439<u>Statistics:</u> BNC counts the number of GPS seconds covered by at least one observation. It also estimates an observation rate (independent from the a priory specified 'Observation rate') from all observations received throughout the first full 'Log latency' interval. Based on this rate, BNC estimates the number of data gaps when appearing in subsequent intervals.
1440</p>
1441<p>
1442Latencies of observations or corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and statistical information can be recorded in the 'Log' tab at the end of each 'Log latency' interval. A typical output from a 1 hour 'Log latency' interval would be:
1443</p>
1444<pre>
144508-03-17 15:59:47 BRUS0: Mean latency 1.47 sec, min 0.66, max 3.02, rms 0.35, 3585 epochs, 15 gaps
1446</pre>
1447<p>
1448Select a 'Log latency' interval to activate this function or select the empty option field if you do not want BNC to log latencies and statistical information.
1449</p>
1450
1451
1452<p><a name="miscscan"><h4>3.11.3 Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
1453<p>
1454When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types observation types. As reliable information concerning stream contents should be available i.e. for NTRIP Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a-priori to the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'InspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. Stoecker.
1455</p>
1456<p>
1457Tick 'Scan RTCM' to scan RTCM Version 2 or 3 streams and log all contained
1458</p>
1459<ul>
1460<li>Numbers of incoming message types</li>
1461<li>Antenna Reference Point (ARP) coordinates</li>
1462<li>Antenna Phase Center (APC) coordinates</li>
1463<li>Antenna height above marker</li>
1464<li>Antenna descriptor.</li>
1465</ul>
1466In case of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams the output includes
1467<ul>
1468<li>RINEX Version 3 Observation Types</li>
1469</ul>
1470</p>
1471
1472<p>
1473Note that in RTCM Version 2 the message types 18 and 19 carry only the observables of one frequency. Hence it needs two type 18 and 19 messages per epoch to transport the observations from dual frequency receivers.
1474</p>
1475<p>
1476
1477<p>Logged time stamps refer to message reception time and allow understanding repetition rates. Enter 'ALL' if you want to log this information from all configured streams. Beware that the size of the logfile can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming RTCM streams.
1478</p>
1479<p>This option is primarily meant for testing and evaluation. Use it to figure out what exactly is produced by a specific GNSS receiver's configuration. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to print the message type numbers and antenna information carried in RTCM streams.
1480</p>
1481
1482<p><a name="pppclient"><h4>3.12. PPP Client</h4></p>
1483<p>
1484BNC can derive coordinates for a rover position following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses either code or code plus phase data in ionosphere free linear combinations P3 or L3. Besides pulling a stream of observations from a dual frequency receiver, this also
1485<ul>
1486<li>requires pulling in addition a stream carrying satellite orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages. Note that for BNC these Broadcast Corrections need to be referred to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u>. Stream 'CLK11' on NTRIP Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
1487<li>may require pulling a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris available as RTCM Version 3 message types 1019, 1020, and 1045. This is a must only when the stream coming from the receiver does not contain Broadcast Ephemeris or provides them only at very low repetition rate. Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
1488</ul>
1489</p>
1490<p>
1491The following figure provides the screenshot of an example PPP session with BNC.
1492</p>
1493
1494<p><img src="IMG/screenshot03.png"/></p>
1495<p><u>Figure 15:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1.</p>
1496
1497<p><img src="IMG/screenshot18.png"/></p>
1498<p><u>Figure 16:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 2.</p>
1499
1500<p>
1501PPP results are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of BNC's main window. Depending on the processing options, the following values are shown about once per second (example):
1502<pre>
150310-09-08 09:14:06 FFMJ1 PPP 09:14:04.0 12 4053457.429 +- 2.323 617730.551 +- 1.630 4869395.266 +- 2.951
1504</pre>
1505</p>
1506<p>
1507The selected mountpoint in that is followed by a PPP time stamp in GPS Time, the number of processed satellites, and XYZ coordinates with their formal errors as derived from the implemented filter in [m]. The implemented algorithm includes outlier and cycle slip detection. The maximum for accepted residuals is hard coded to 10 meters for code observations and 10 centimeters for phase observations.
1508</p>
1509
1510<p>
1511More detailed PPP results are saved in BNC's logfile. Depending on the selected processing options you find
1512<ul>
1513<li>code and phase residuals for GPS and GLONASS and Galileo in [m], </li>
1514<li>receiver clock errors in [m], </li>
1515<li>a-priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
1516<li>time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m],
1517<li>L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities', given per satellite.
1518</ul>
1519These parameters are saved together with their standard deviation. The following is an example extract from a log file when BNC was in 'Single Point Positioning' (SPP) mode:
1520</p>
1521<p>
1522<pre>
152310-12-06 18:10:50 Single Point Positioning of Epoch 18:10:48.0
1524--------------------------------------------------------------
152518:10:48.0 RES G04 L3 0.0165 P3 -0.1250
152618:10:48.0 RES G11 L3 0.0150 P3 0.7904
152718:10:48.0 RES G13 L3 0.0533 P3 0.4854
152818:10:48.0 RES G17 L3 -0.0277 P3 1.2920
152918:10:48.0 RES G20 L3 -0.0860 P3 -0.1186
153018:10:48.0 RES G23 L3 0.0491 P3 -0.1052
153118:10:48.0 RES G31 L3 0.0095 P3 -3.2929
153218:10:48.0 RES G32 L3 0.0183 P3 -3.8800
153318:10:48.0 RES R05 L3 -0.0077
153418:10:48.0 RES R06 L3 0.0223
153518:10:48.0 RES R15 L3 -0.0020
153618:10:48.0 RES R16 L3 0.0156
153718:10:48.0 RES R20 L3 -0.0247
153818:10:48.0 RES R21 L3 0.0014
153918:10:48.0 RES R22 L3 -0.0072
154018:10:48.0 RES E52 L3 -0.0475 P3 -0.1628
154118:10:48.0 RES G04 L3 0.0166 P3 -0.1250
154218:10:48.0 RES G11 L3 0.0154 P3 0.7910
154318:10:48.0 RES G13 L3 0.0535 P3 0.4855
154418:10:48.0 RES G17 L3 -0.0272 P3 1.2925
154518:10:48.0 RES G20 L3 -0.0861 P3 -0.1188
154618:10:48.0 RES G23 L3 0.0489 P3 -0.1055
154718:10:48.0 RES G31 L3 0.0094 P3 -3.2930
154818:10:48.0 RES G32 L3 0.0183 P3 -3.8800
154918:10:48.0 RES R05 L3 -0.0079
155018:10:48.0 RES R06 L3 0.0223
155118:10:48.0 RES R15 L3 -0.0020
155218:10:48.0 RES R16 L3 0.0160
155318:10:48.0 RES R20 L3 -0.0242
155418:10:48.0 RES R21 L3 0.0016
155518:10:48.0 RES R22 L3 -0.0072
155618:10:48.0 RES E52 L3 -0.0474 P3 0.1385
1557
1558 clk = 64394.754 +- 0.045
1559 trp = 2.185 +0.391 +- 0.001
1560 offset = -415.400 +- 0.137
1561 amb G17 = 11.942 +- 0.045
1562 amb G23 = 248.892 +- 0.044
1563 amb G31 = 254.200 +- 0.045
1564 amb G11 = -12.098 +- 0.044
1565 amb G20 = -367.765 +- 0.044
1566 amb G04 = 259.588 +- 0.044
1567 amb E52 = 6.124 +- 0.130
1568 amb G32 = 201.496 +- 0.045
1569 amb G13 = -265.658 +- 0.044
1570 amb R22 = -106.246 +- 0.044
1571 amb R21 = -119.605 +- 0.045
1572 amb R06 = 41.328 +- 0.044
1573 amb R15 = 163.453 +- 0.044
1574 amb R20 = -532.746 +- 0.045
1575 amb R05 = -106.603 +- 0.044
1576 amb R16 = -107.830 +- 0.044
1577</pre>
1578</p>
1579
1580<p>
1581Note that for debugging or Post Processing purposes BNC's 'PPP' functionality option can also be used offline.
1582<ul>
1583<li>
1584<u>Debugging:</u> Apply the 'File Mode' 'Command Line' option for that to read a file containing synchronized observations, orbit and clock correctors, and Broadcast Ephemeris. Such a file must be generated before using BNC's 'Raw output file' option. Example:<br>
1585bnc.exe --conf c:\temp\PPP.bnc --file c:\temp\FFMJ1
1586</li>
1587<li>
1588<u>Post Processing:</u> Apply the 'Post Processing' option as described below.
1589</li>
1590</ul>
1591</p>
1592
1593<p>When using the PPP option, it is important to understand which effects are corrected by BNC.
1594</p>
1595<ul>
1596<li>BNC does correct for Solid Earth Tides and Phase Windup.</li>
1597<li>Satellite antenna phase center offsets are not corrected because applied orbit/clock corrections are referred to the satellite's antenna phase center.</li>
1598<li>Satellite antenna phase center variations are neglected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
1599<li>Observations can be corrected for a Receiver Antenna Offset. Depending on whether or not this correction is applied, the estimated position is either that of the receiver's antenna phase center or that of the receiver's Antenna Reference Point.</li>
1600<li>Receiver antenna phase center variations are not included in the model. The bias caused by this neglect depends on the receiver antenna type. For most antennas it is smaller than a few centimeters.</li>
1601<li>Ocean and atmospheric loading is neglected. Atmospheric loading is pretty small. Ocean loading is usually also a small effect but may reach up to about 10 centimeters for coastal stations.</li>
1602<li>Rotational deformation due to polar motion (Polar Tides) is not corrected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
1603</ul>
1604</p>
1605
1606<p><a name="pppmode"><h4>3.12.1 Mode & Mountpoints - optional</h4></p>
1607<p>
1608Specify the Point Positioning mode you want to apply and the mountpoints for observations and Broadcast Corrections.
1609</p>
1610
1611<p><a name="pppmodus"><h4>3.12.1.1 Mode - optional</h4></p>
1612<p>
1613Choose between plain Single Point Positioning (SPP) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in 'Realtime' or 'Post-Processing' mode. Options are 'Realtime-PPP', 'Realtime-SPP', and 'Post-Processing'.
1614</p>
1615
1616<p><a name="pppobsmount"><h4>3.12.1.2 Obs Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
1617<p>
1618Specify an 'Observations Mountpoint' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to derive coordinates for the affected rover position through a Point Positioning solution.
1619</p>
1620
1621<p><a name="pppcorrmount"><h4>3.12.1.3 Corr Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
1622<p>
1623Specify a Broadcast Ephemeris 'Corrections Mountpoint' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to correct your positioning solution accordingly. Not that the stream's corrections must refer to the satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC).
1624</p>
1625
1626<p><a name="pppxyz"><h4>3.12.2 Marker Coordinates - optional</h4></p>
1627<p>
1628Enter the reference coordinate XYZ of the receiver's position in meters if known. This option makes only sense for static observations. Defaults are empty option fields, meaning that the antenna's XYZ position is unknown.
1629</p>
1630<p>
1631Once a XYZ coordinate is defined, the 'PPP' line in BNC's logfile is extended by North, East and Up displacements to (example):
1632</p>
1633<pre>
163410-08-09 06:01:56 FFMJ1 PPP 06:02:09.0 11 4053457.628 +- 2.639 617729.438 +- 1.180 4869396.447 +- 1.921 NEU -0.908 -0.571 1.629
1635</pre>
1636<p>
1637The parameters following the 'NEU' string provide North, East and Up components of the current coordinate displacement in meters.
1638</p>
1639
1640<p><a name="pppneu"><h4>3.12.3 Antenna Eccentricity - optional</h4></p>
1641<p>
1642You may like to specify North, East and Up components of an antenna eccentricity which is the difference between a nearby marker position and the antenna phase center. If you do so BNC will produce coordinates referring to the marker position and not referring to the antenna phase center.
1643</p>
1644
1645<p><a name="pppoutput"><h4>3.12.4 NMEA & Plot Output - optional</h4></p>
1646<p>
1647BNC allows to output results from Precise Point Positioning in NMEA format. It can also plot a time series of North, East and UP displacements.
1648</p>
1649
1650<p><a name="pppnmeafile"><h4>3.12.4.1 NMEA File - optional</h4></p>
1651<p>
1652The NMEA sentences generated about once per second are pairs of
1653<ul>
1654<li> GPGGA sentences which mainly carry the estimated latitude, longitude, and height values, plus</li>
1655<li> GPRMC sentences which mainly carry date and time information.</li>
1656</ul>
1657</p>
1658<p>
1659Specify the full path to a file where Point Positioning results are saved as NMEA messages. The default value for 'NMEA file' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not saved NMEA messages into a file.
1660</p>
1661<p>
1662Note that Tomoji Takasu has written a program called RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA strings. It is available from <u>http://gpspp.sakura.ne.jp/rtklib/rtklib.htm</u> and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
1663</p>
1664
1665<p><a name="pppnmeaport"><h4>3.12.4.2 NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
1666<p>
1667Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA messages. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA messages vi IP port. Note that the NMEA file output and the NMEA IP port output are the same.
1668</p>
1669<p>
1670NASA's 'World Wind' software (see <u>http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download</u>) can be used for real-time visualization of positions provided through BNC's NMEA IP output port. You need the 'GPS Tracker' plug-in available from <u>http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker</u> for that. The 'Word Wind' map resolution is not meant for showing centimeter level details.
1671</p>
1672
1673<p><a name="ppppost"><h4>3.12.5 Post Processing - optional</h4></p>
1674<p>When in 'Post-Processing' mode
1675<ul>
1676<li>specifying a RINEX Observation, a RINEX Navigation and a Broadcast Corrections file leads to a PPP solution.</li>
1677<li>specifying only a RINEX Observation and a RINEX Navigation file and no Broadcast Corrections file leads to a SPP solution.</li>
1678</ul>
1679</p>
1680<p>BNC accepts RINEX Version 2 as well as RINEX Version 3 Observation or Navigation file formats. Files carrying Broadcast Corrections must have the format produced by BNC through the 'Broadcast Corrections' tab.
1681<p>
1682Post Processing PPP results can be saved in a specific output file.
1683</p>
1684
1685<p><a name="ppprecant"><h4>3.12.6 Antennas - optional</h4></p>
1686<p>
1687BNC allows correcting observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations.
1688</p>
1689
1690<p><a name="pppantex"><h4>3.12.6.1 ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
1691<p>
1692IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations. It allows you to specify the name of your receiver's antenna (as contained in the ANTEX file) to apply such corrections.
1693</p>
1694<p>
1695Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want to correct observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations.
1696</p>
1697
1698<p><a name="ppprecantenna"><h4>3.12.6.2 Receiver Antenna Name - optional if 'ANTEX File' is set</h4></p>
1699<p>
1700Specify the receiver's antenna name as defined in your ANTEX file. Observations will be corrected for the antenna phase center's offset which may result in a reduction of a few centimeters at max. Corrections for phase center variations are not yet applied by BNC. The specified name must consist of 20 characters. Add trailing blanks if the antenna name has less than 20 characters. Examples:
1701<pre>
1702'JPSREGANT_SD_E ' (no radome)
1703'LEIAT504 NONE' (no radome)
1704'LEIAR25.R3 LEIT' (radome)
1705</pre>
1706</p>
1707<p>
1708Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want to correct observations for antenna phase center offsets.
1709</p>
1710
1711<p><a name="pppbasics"><h4>3.12.7 Basics</h4></p>
1712<p>BNC allows using different Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. It also allows introducing specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for reference coordinates and troposphere estimates. You may also like to carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold.
1713</p>
1714
1715<p><a name="pppphase"><h4>3.12.7.1 Use Phase Obs - optional</h4></p>
1716<p>
1717By default BNC applies a Point Positioning solution using an ionosphere free P3 linear combination of code observations. Tick 'Use phase obs' for an ionosphere free L3 linear combination of phase observations.
1718</p>
1719
1720<p><a name="ppptropo"><h4>3.12.7.2 Estimate Tropo - optional</h4></p>
1721<p>
1722BNC estimates the tropospheric delay according to equation
1723<pre>
1724T(z) = T_apr(z) + dT / cos(z)
1725</pre>
1726where T_apr is the a-priori tropospheric delay derived from Saastamoinen model.
1727</p>
1728<p>
1729By default BNC does not estimate troposphere parameters. Tick 'Estimate tropo' to estimate troposphere parameters together with the coordinates and save T_apr and dT/cos(z) in BNC's log file.
1730</p>
1731
1732<p><a name="pppglo"><h4>3.12.7.3 Use GLONASS - optional</h4></p>
1733<p>
1734By default BNC does not process GLONASS but only GPS observations when in Point Positioning mode. Tick 'Use GLONASS' to use GLONASS observations in addition to GPS (and Galileo if specified) for estimating coordinates in Point Positioning mode.
1735</p>
1736
1737<p><a name="pppgal"><h4>3.12.7.4 Use Galileo - optional</h4></p>
1738<p>
1739By default BNC does not process Galileo but only GPS observations when in Point Positioning mode. Tick 'Use Galileo' to use Galileo observations in addition to GPS (and GLONASS if specified) for estimating coordinates in Point Positioning mode.
1740</p>
1741
1742<p><a name="pppsync"><h4>3.12.7.5 Sync Corr - optional</h4></p>
1743<p>
1744Zero value (or empty field) means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after its arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. Non-zero value 'Sync Corr' means that the epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed till the satellite clock corrections not older than 'Sync Corr' are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections as 'Sync Corr' (i.e. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate.
1745</p>
1746<p>
1747Using observations in sync with the corrections can avoid a possible high frequency noise of PPP solutions. Such noise could result from processing observations regardless of how late after a clock correction they were received. Note that applying the 'Sync Corr' option significantly reduces the PPP computation effort for BNC.
1748</p>
1749<p>
1750Default is an empty option field, meaning that you want BNC to process observations immediately after their arrival through applying the latest received clock correction.
1751</p>
1752
1753<p><a name="pppaverage"><h4>3.12.7.6 Averaging - optional if XYZ is set</h4></p>
1754<p>
1755Enter the length of a sliding time window in minutes. BNC will continuously output moving average values and their RMS as computed from those individual values obtained most recently throughout this period. RMS values presented for XYZ coordinates and tropospheric zenith path delays are bias reduced while RMS values for North/East/Up (NEU) displacements are not. Averaged values for XYZ coordinates and their RMS are marked with string &quot;AVE-XYZ&quot; in BNC's log file and 'Log' section while averaged values for NEU displacements and their RMS are marked with string &quot;AVE-NEU&quot; and averaged values for the tropospheric delays and their RMS are marked with string &quot;AVE-TRP&quot;. Example:
1756</p>
1757<pre>
175810-09-08 09:13:05 FFMJ1 AVE-XYZ 09:13:04.0 4053455.948 +- 0.284 617730.422 +- 0.504 4869397.692 +- 0.089
175910-09-08 09:13:05 FFMJ1 AVE-NEU 09:13:04.0 1.043 +- 0.179 0.640 +- 0.456 1.624 +- 0.331
176010-09-08 09:13:05 FFMJ1 AVE-TRP 09:13:04.0 2.336 +- 0.002
1761</pre>
1762<p>
1763Entering any positive value up to 1440 (24h mean value) is allowed. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to output moving average positions into the log file and the 'Log' section. Note that averaging positions makes only sense for a stationary receiver.
1764</p>
1765
1766<p><a name="pppquick"><h4>3.12.7.7 Quick-Start - optional if XYZ is set</h4></p>
1767<p>
1768Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to a known XYZ coordinate. Constraining coordinates is done in BNC through setting the 'XYZ White Noise' temporarily to zero.
1769</p>
1770<p>
1771This so-called Quick-Start option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the know position throughout the defined period. A value of 60 is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Quick-Start'. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want BNC to start in 'Quick-Start' mode.
1772<p>
1773You may need to create your own reference coordinate through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the 'Quick-Start' option. Don't forget to introduce a realistic sigma 'XYZ Ini' according to the coordinate's precision.
1774</p>
1775
1776<p><img src="IMG/screenshot17.png"/></p>
1777<p><u>Figure 17:</u> BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode (PPP, Panel 1)</p>
1778
1779<p><img src="IMG/screenshot22.png"/></p>
1780<p><u>Figure 18:</u> BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode (PPP, Panel 2)</p>
1781
1782<p><a name="pppgap"><h4>3.12.7.8 Maximal Solution Gap - optional if Quick-Start is set</h4></p>
1783<p>
1784Specify a 'Maximum Solution Gap' in seconds. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed this limit, the algorithm returns into the 'Quick-Start' mode and fixes the introduced reference coordinate for the specified 'Quick-Start' period. A value of '60' seconds could be an appropriate choice.
1785</p>
1786<p>
1787This option makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver where solution convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the rover position is known. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want BNC to return into the 'Quick-Start' mode after failures caused i.e. by longer lasting outages.
1788</p>
1789
1790<p><a name="pppaudio"><h4>3.12.7.9 Audio Response - optional if Quick-Start is set</h4></p>
1791<p>
1792For natural hazard prediction and monitoring it may be appropriate to generate audio alerts. For that you can specify an 'Audio response' threshold in meters. A beep is produced by BNC whenever a horizontal PPP coordinate component differs by more than the threshold value from the specified marker coordinate.
1793</p>
1794<p>
1795Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want BNC to produce acoustic warning signals.
1796</p>
1797
1798<p><a name="pppsigmas"><h4>3.12.8 Sigmas</h4></p>
1799<p>
1800You may like to introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations and for the estimation of troposphere parameters.
1801</p>
1802
1803<p><a name="pppsigc"><h4>3.12.8.1 Code - mandatory if 'Use Phase Obs' is set</h4></p>
1804<p>
1805When 'Use phase obs' is set in BNC, the PPP solution will be carried out using both, code and phase observations. A sigma of 10.0 m for code observations and a sigma of 0.02 m for phase observations (defaults) are used to combine both types of observations. As the convergence characteristic of a PPP solution can be influenced by the ratio of the sigmas for code and phase, you may like to introduce you own sigmas for code and phase observations which differ from the default values.
1806<ul>
1807<li>Introducing a smaller sigma (higher accuracy) for code observations or a larger sigma for phase observations leads to better results shortly after program start. However, it may take more time till you finally get the best possible solution.</li>
1808<li>Introducing a larger sigma (lower accuracy) for code observations or a smaller sigma for phase observations may lead to less accurate results shortly after program start and thus a prolonged period of convergence but could provide better positions in the long run.</li>
1809</ul>
1810</p>
1811<p>
1812Specify a sigma for code observations. Default is 10.0 m.
1813</p>
1814
1815<p><a name="pppsigp"><h4>3.12.8.2 Phase - mandatory if 'Use Phase Obs' is set</h4></p>
1816<p>
1817Specify a sigma for phase observations. Default is 0.02 m.
1818</p>
1819
1820<p><a name="pppsigxyzi"><h4>3.12.8.3 XYZ Init - mandatory</h4></p>
1821<p>
1822Enter a sigma in meters for the initial XYZ coordinate. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (i.e. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with known XZY position in Quick-Start mode.
1823</p>
1824
1825<p><a name="pppsigxyzn"><h4>3.12.8.4 XYZ White Noise - mandatory</h4></p>
1826<p>
1827Enter a sigma in meters for the 'White Noise' of estimated XYZ coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be appropriate when considering possible sudden movements of a rover.
1828</p>
1829
1830<p><a name="pppsigtrpi"><h4>3.12.8.5 Tropo Init - mandatory if 'Estimate tropo' is set</h4></p>
1831<p>
1832Enter a sigma in meters for the a-priory model based tropospheric delay estimation. A value of 0.1 (default) may be an appropriate choice.
1833</p>
1834
1835<p><a name="pppsigtrpn"><h4>3.12.8.6 Tropo White Noise - mandatory if 'Estimate tropo' is set</h4></p>
1836<p>
1837Enter a sigma in meters per second to describe the expected variation of the tropospheric effect. Supposing 1Hz observation data, a value of 3e-6 (default) would mean that the tropospheric effect may vary for 3600 * 3e-6 = 0.01 meters per hour.
1838</p>
1839
1840<p><a name="pppplots"><h4>3.12.9 PPP Plot - optional</h4></p>
1841<p>
1842PPP time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) displacements will be plotted in the 'PPP Plot' tab when this option is ticked. Values will be either referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified) or referred to the first estimated XYZ coordinate. The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes.
1843</p>
1844<p>
1845Note that a PPP time series makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver.
1846</p>
1847
1848<p><a name="ppptracepos"><h4>3.12.10 Track Plot</h4></p>
1849<p>
1850You make like to track your rover position using Google Maps or Open StreetMap as a background map. Track maps can be produced with BNC in 'Realtime-PPP', 'Realtime-SPP' and 'Post-Processing' PPP mode.
1851</p>
1852<p>
1853When in 'Post-Processing' mode you should not forget to specify a proxy under the 'Network' tab if that is operated in front of BNC.
1854</p>
1855
1856<br>
1857<p><img src="IMG/screenshot32.png"/></p>
1858<p><u>Figure 19:</u> Track of positions from BNC with Google Maps in the background.</p>
1859
1860<p><a name="pppmap"><h4>3.12.10.1 Open Map - optional</h4></p>
1861<p>
1862The 'Open Map' button opens a windows showing a map according to options specified below.
1863</p>
1864
1865<p><a name="pppmaptype"><h4>3.12.10.2 Google/OSM - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
1866<p>
1867Specify either 'Google' or 'OSM' as the background for your rover positions.
1868</p>
1869
1870<p><a name="pppdot"><h4>3.12.10.3 Dot Size - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
1871<p>
1872Specify the size of dots showing the rover position. A dot size of '3' may be appropriate. The maximum possible dot size is '10'. An empty option field or a size of '0' would mean that you don't want BNC to show the rover's track on the map.
1873</p>
1874
1875<p><a name="pppcolor"><h4>3.12.10.4 Dot Color - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
1876<p>
1877Specify the color of dots showing the rover track.
1878</p>
1879
1880<p><a name="pppspeed"><h4>3.12.10.5 Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
1881<p>
1882With BNC in PPP post-processing mode you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Speed' on-the-fly while BNC is processing your observatins.
1883</p>
1884
1885<p><a name="combi"><h4>3.13. Combine Corrections</h4></p>
1886<p>
1887BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as the product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference has the possibility to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a 'Kalman' Filter approach.
1888</p>
1889<p>
1890In the Kalman Filter approach satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters with appropriate white noise.
1891 The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints.
1892</p>
1893<p>
1894Removing the AC-dependent biases as well as possible is a major issue with clock combinations. Since they vary in time, it can be tricky to do this. Otherwise, there will be artificial jumps in the combined clock stream if one or more AC contributions drop out for certain epochs. Here the Kalman Filter approach is expected to do better than the Single-Epoch approach.
1895</p>
1896<p>
1897In view of IGS real-time products, the 'Combine Corrections' functionality has been integrated in BNC because
1898<ul>
1899<li>The software with its Graphic User Interface and wide range of supported Operating Systems represents a perfect platform to process many Broadcast Correction streams in parallel;</li>
1900<li>Outages of single AC product streams can be mitigated through merging several incoming streams into a combined product;</li>
1901<li>Generating a combination product from several AC products allows detecting and rejecting outliers;</li>
1902<li>A Combination Center (CC) can operate BNC to globally disseminate a combination product via NTRIP broadcast;</li>
1903<li>An individual AC could prefer to disseminate a stream combined from primary and backup IT resources to reduce outages;</li>
1904<li>It enables a BNC PPP user to follow his own preference in combining streams from individual ACs for Precise Point Positioning;</li>
1905<li>It allows an instantaneous quality control of the combination process not only in the time domain but also in the space domain; this can be done through direct application of the combined stream in a PPP solution even without prior upload to an NTRIP Broadcaster;</li>
1906<li>It provides the means to output SP3 and Clock RINEX files containing precise orbit and clock information for further processing using other tools than BNC.</li>
1907</ul>
1908</p>
1909<p>
1910Note that the combination process requires real-time access to Broadcast Ephemeris. So, in addition to the orbit and clock correction streams BNC must pull a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 messages. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster <u>products.igs-ip.net</u> is an example for that.
1911</p>
1912<p>
1913Note further that you need to tick the 'Use GLONASS' option which is part of the 'PPP (2)' panel in case you want to produce an GPS plus GLONASS combination.
1914</p>
1915<p>
1916A combination is carried out following a specified sampling interval. If incoming streams have different rates, only epochs that correspond to the sampling interval are used.
1917</p>
1918<p>
1919With respect to IGS, it is important to understand that a major effect in the combination of GNSS orbit and clock correction streams is the selection of ACs to include. It is likely that a combination product could be improved in accuracy by using only the best two or three ACs. However, with only a few ACs to depend on, the reliability of the combination product could suffer and the risk of total failures increases. So there is an important tradeoff here that must be considered when selecting streams for a combination. The major strength of a combination product is its reliability and stable median performance which can be much better than that of any single AC product.
1920</p>
1921<p>
1922This comment applies in situations where we have a limited number of solutions to combine and their quality varies significantly. The situation may be different when the total number of ACs is larger and the range of AC variation is smaller. In that case, a standard full combination is probably the best.
1923</p>
1924<p>
1925The following recursive algorithm is used to detect orbit outliers in the Kalman Filter combination when Broadcast Corrections are provided by several ACs:
1926<br>
1927Step 1: We don't produce a combination for a certain satellite if only one AC provides corrections for it.
1928<br>
1929Step 2: A mean satellite position is calculated as the average of positions from all ACs.
1930<br>
1931Step 3: For each AC and satellite the 3D distance between individual and mean satellite position is calculated.
1932<br>
1933Step 4: We find the greatest difference between AC specific and mean satellite positions.
1934<br>
1935Step 5: If that is less than a threshold, the conclusion is that we don't have an outlier and can proceed to the next epoch.
1936<br>
1937Step 6: If that is greater than a threshold, then corrections of the affiliated AC are ignored for the affected epoch and the outlier detection restarts with step 1.
1938</p>
1939<p>
1940Note that BNC can produce an internal PPP solution from combined Broadcast Corrections. For that you have to specify the keyword 'INTERNAL' as 'Corrections Mountpoint' in the PPP (1) panel.
1941</p>
1942<p>
1943The part of BNC which enables the combination of Broadcast Corrections is not intended for publication under GNU General Public License (GPL). However, pre-compiled BNC binaries which support the 'Combine Corrections' option are made available.
1944</p>
1945
1946<p><a name="combimounttab"><h4>3.13.1 Combine Corrections Table - optional</h4></p>
1947<p>
1948Hit the 'Add Row' button, double click on the 'Mountpoint' field, enter a Broadcast Corrections mountpoint from the 'Streams' section and hit Enter. Then double click on the 'AC Name' field to enter your choice of an abbreviation for the Analysis Center (AC) providing the Antenna Phase Center (APC) related stream. Finally, double click on the 'Weight' field to enter a weight to be applied to this stream in the combination. The stream processing can already be started with only one corrections stream configured for combination.
1949</p>
1950<p>
1951Note that an appropriate 'Wait for full corr epoch' value needs to be specified for the combination under the 'Broadcast Corrections' tab. To give an example: a value of 15 sec would make sense if the update rate of incoming clock corrections is 10 sec.
1952</p>
1953<p>
1954The sequence of entries in the 'Combine Corrections' table is not of importance. Note that the orbit information in the final combination stream is just copied from one of the incoming streams. The stream used for providing the orbits may vary over time: if the orbit providing stream has an outage then BNC switches to the next remaining stream for getting hold of the orbit information.</p>
1955<p>
1956Default is an empty 'Combine Corrections' table meaning that you don't want BNC to combine orbit and clock correction streams.
1957</p>
1958<p>
1959It is possible to specify only one Broadcast Ephemeris corrections stream in the 'Combine Corrections' table. Instead of combining corrections from several sources BNC will then merge the single corrections stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in SP3 and/or Clock RINEX format when specified accordingly under the 'Upload Corrections' tab.
1960</p>
1961
1962<p><a name="combiadd"><h4>3.13.1.1 Add Row, Delete - optional</h4></p>
1963<p>
1964Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the 'Combine Corrections' table or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
1965</p>
1966
1967<p>
1968The following screenshots describe an example setup of BNC when combining Broadcast Correction streams and uploading them to an NTRIP Broadcaster. Note that it requires specifying options under tabs 'Combine Corrections' and 'Upload Corrections'. The example uses the combination product to simultaneously carry out an 'INTERNAL' PPP solution in 'Quick-Start' mode which allows monitoring the quality of the combination product in the space domain.
1969</p>
1970
1971<br>
1972<p><img src="IMG/screenshot20.png"/></p>
1973<p><u>Figure 20:</u> BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams.</p>
1974<p><br></p>
1975<p><img src="IMG/screenshot21.png"/></p>
1976<p><u>Figure 21:</u> BNC uploading the combined Broadcast Corrections stream.</p>
1977<p></p>
1978<p><img src="IMG/screenshot23.png"/></p>
1979<p><u>Figure 22:</u> 'INTERNAL' PPP with BNC using combined Broadcast Corrections stream.</p>
1980
1981<p><a name="combimethod"><h4>3.13.1.2 Method - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
1982<p>
1983Select a clock combination method. Available options are Kalman 'Filter' and 'Single-Epoch. It is suggested to use the Kalman Filter approach in case the combined stream of Broadcast Corrections is intended for Precise Point Positioning.
1984</p>
1985
1986<p><a name="combimax"><h4>3.13.1.3 Maximal Residuum - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
1987
1988<p>BNC combines all incoming clocks according to specified weights. Individual clock estimates that differ by more than 'Maximal Residuum' meters from the average of all clocks will be ignored.<p>
1989</p>It is suggested to specify a value of about 0.2 m for the Kalman filter combination approach and a value of about 3.0 meters for the Single-Epoch combination approach.</p>
1990<p>Default is a 'Maximal Residuum' of 999.0 meters</p>
1991
1992<p><a name="combismpl"><h4>3.13.1.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
1993<p>Specify a combination sampling interval. Orbit and clock corrections will be produced following that interval. A value of 10 sec may be an appropriate choice.</p>
1994
1995
1996<p><a name="upclk"><h4>3.14. Upload Corrections</h4></p>
1997<p>
1998BNC can upload streams carrying orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in radial, along-track and cross-track components if they are<ol type=a>
1999<li>
2000either generated by BNC as a combination of several individual Broadcast Correction streams coming from an number of real-time Analysis Centers (ACs), see section 'Combine Corrections',</li>
2001<li>
2002or generated by BNC while the program receives an ASCII stream of precise satellite orbits and clocks via IP port from a connected real-time GNSS engine. Such a stream would be expected in a plain ASCII format and the associated 'decoder' string would have to be 'RTNET', see format description below. </li>
2003</ol>
2004The procedure taken by BNC to generate the orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and upload them to an NTRIP Broadcaster is as follow:
2005<ul>
2006<li>Continuously receive up-to-date Broadcast Ephemeris carrying approximate orbits and clocks for all satellites. Read new Broadcast Ephemeris immediately whenever they become available. This information may come via a stream of RTCM messages generated from another BNC instance.</li>
2007</ul>
2008Then, epoch by epoch:
2009<ul>
2010<li>Continuously receive the best available orbit and clock estimates for all satellites in XYZ Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed IGS08 reference system. Receive them every epoch in plain ASCII format as provided by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNet or generate them following a combination approach. </li>
2011<li>Calculate XYZ coordinates from Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. </li>
2012<li>Calculate differences dX,dY,dZ between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS08 orbits. </li>
2013<li>Transform these differences into radial, along-track and cross-track corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. </li>
2014<li>Calculate corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris clocks as differences between Broadcast Ephemeris clocks and IGS08 clocks. </li>
2015<li>Encode Broadcast Ephemeris orbit and clock corrections in RTCM Version 3 format. </li>
2016<li>Upload Broadcast Corrections stream to NTRIP Broadcaster. </li>
2017</ul>
2018<p>
2019The orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris are usually referred to the latest set of broadcast messages, which are generally also received in real-time by a GNSS rover. However, the use of the latest broadcast message is delayed for a period of 60 seconds, measured from the time of complete reception of ephemeris and clock parameters, in order to accommodate rover applications to obtain the same set of broadcast orbital and clock parameters. This procedure is recommended in the RTCM SSR standard.
2020</p>
2021</p>
2022Because the encoding process may put a significant load on the communication link between BNC and the real-time GNSS engine, it is recommended to run both programs on the same host. However, doing so is not compulsory.
2023</p>
2024<p>
2025The usual handling of BNC when uploading a stream with Broadcast Corrections is that you first specify Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Correction streams. You then specify an NTRIP Broadcaster for stream upload before you start the program.
2026</p>
2027<p>
2028<u>'RTNET' Stream Format</u><br>
2029When uploading an SSR stream generated according to b. then BNC requires precise GNSS orbits and clocks in the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system and in a specific ASCII format named 'RTNET' because the data may come from a real-time engine such as RTNet. The sampling interval for data transmission should not exceed 15 sec. Note that otherwise tools involved in IP streaming such as NTRIP Broadcasters or NTRIP Clients may respond with a timeout.
2030</p>
2031<p>
2032Below you find an example for the 'RTNET' ASCII format coming from a real-time GNSS engine. Each epoch begins with an asterisk character followed by the time as year, month, day of month, hour, minute and second. Subsequent records provide the following set of parameters for each satellite:
2033</p>
2034<p>
2035&lt;SatelliteID&gt; &lt;key&gt; &lt;numValues&gt; &lt;value1 value2 ...&gt; &lt;key&gt; &lt;numValues&gt; &lt;value1 value2 ...&gt; ...
2036&nbsp;
2037</p>
2038<p>
2039The following keys and values are currently specified in BNC:
2040</p>
2041<table>
2042<tr><td><i>Key&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</i></td><td><i>Values</i></td></tr>
2043<tr><td>APC</td><td>Satellite Antenna Phase Center coordinates in meters</td></tr>
2044<tr><td>Clk</td><td>Satellite clock correction in meters, relativistic correction applied like in broadcast clocks</td></tr>
2045<tr><td>Vel</td><td>Satellite velocity in meters per second</td></tr>
2046<tr><td>CoM</td><td>Satellite Center of Mass coordinates in meters</td></tr>
2047</table>
2048</p>
2049
2050<p>
2051Because each keyword is associated to a certain number of values, an 'old' BNC could be operated with an incoming 'new' RTNET stream containing so far unknown keys - they would just be skipped in BNC.
2052</p>
2053<p>
2054Example for 'RTNET' stream contents and format:
2055</p>
2056<p>
2057<pre>
2058* 2013 3 21 7 19 55.00000000
2059G01 APC 3 19869258.4381 9158001.1526 15095321.8460 Clk 1 2755.5447 Vel 3 977.3298 1661.2202 -2283.9009 CoM 3 19869259.6565 9158001.3302 15095322.8837
2060G02 APC 3 -13043930.7341 -22955958.1832 4995469.3779 Clk 1 126894.0959 Vel 3 601.6561 298.3845 3009.2928 CoM 3 -13043931.1120 -22955958.8484 4995469.5227
2061G03 APC 3 13851298.3819 11694861.0159 -19987853.3966 Clk 1 55007.9399 Vel 3 -2324.2934 726.4814 -1194.1615 CoM 3 13851299.8073 11694861.9880 -19987855.6102
2062...
2063G29 APC 3 -25369875.6774 5450979.1186 -5498874.2923 Clk 1 125546.6568 Vel 3 -721.4418 -217.8014 3085.5017 CoM 3 -25369876.4972 5450979.2947 -5498874.4700
2064G31 APC 3 4557628.7816 22320564.7677 13588043.6852 Clk 1 92143.1903 Vel 3 -1131.5857 -1287.0559 2553.6555 CoM 3 4557628.9485 22320565.5851 13588044.1828
2065G32 APC 3 12930439.3226 8685237.4669 21670974.7431 Clk 1 -163317.4919 Vel 3 -1292.6073 2393.9556 -138.1822 CoM 3 12930440.6397 8685238.1194 21670977.1159
2066R01 APC 3 -3814353.2138 18413537.6447 17242362.8036 Clk 1 -52077.3861 Vel 3 -1372.0183 1923.0403 -2354.6867 CoM 3 -3814353.2950 18413539.7944 17242364.1896
2067R02 APC 3 10258656.7268 4879144.7080 22835835.8517 Clk 1 -111012.6585 Vel 3 -1918.7777 2467.7616 336.1703 CoM 3 10258657.8278 4879145.6898 22835837.9019
2068R03 APC 3 17433868.5658 -10441288.0804 15458488.7196 Clk 1 -35553.9312 Vel 3 -1394.4972 1587.8467 2649.6173 CoM 3 17433870.5544 -10441288.6421 15458490.3309
2069...
2070R04 APC 3 15129778.1437 -20496855.9071 -1285420.7894 Clk 1 9829.4493 Vel 3 -22.5415 -241.9958 3566.2367 CoM 3 15129779.9938 -20496857.4962 -1285420.9249
2071R05 APC 3 3891203.2705 -18477936.6471 -17158415.7654 Clk 1 -51351.8469 Vel 3 1362.4084 -1912.5526 2371.0748 CoM 3 3891203.9447 -18477938.1061 -17158417.7428
2072R06 APC 3 -9778050.0154 -5421735.2196 -22945142.5344 Clk 1 7950.7063 Vel 3 1930.2638 -2471.0432 -241.4578 CoM 3 -9778050.8478 -5421735.2350 -22945144.9123
2073...
2074R22 APC 3 -13369019.8840 7674786.2487 -20266888.3543 Clk 1 23397.9930 Vel 3 -2765.5953 -321.7786 1715.1396 CoM 3 -13369020.9431 7674787.4768 -20266890.2198
2075R23 APC 3 6011527.0765 11338911.0638 -22044448.4214 Clk 1 -148199.1269 Vel 3 -2980.2013 -485.6643 -1062.5898 CoM 3 6011527.7482 11338912.5512 -22044450.1556
2076R24 APC 3 21300823.5162 8426171.8952 -11241665.2306 Clk 1 -27112.9305 Vel 3 -1498.4393 -376.6107 -3125.3066 CoM 3 21300825.4800 8426173.2206 -11241666.1521
2077EOE
2078* 2013 3 21 7 20 0.00000000
2079G01 APC 3 19874144.1634 9166303.6499 15083898.3374 Clk 1 2755.5498 Vel 3 976.9602 1659.7789 -2285.5025 CoM 3 19874145.3821 9166303.8281 15083899.3746
2080G02 APC 3 -13040919.4263 -22954462.9892 5010514.5569 Clk 1 126894.1080 Vel 3 602.8672 299.6930 3008.7787 CoM 3 -13040919.8041 -22954463.6543 5010514.7021
2081G03 APC 3 13839675.6507 11698495.4721 -19993819.1341 Clk 1 55007.9600 Vel 3 -2324.7994 727.3013 -1192.1337 CoM 3 13839677.0746 11698496.4446 -19993821.3483
2082...
2083</pre>
2084</p>
2085<p>
2086Note that the end of an epoch in the incoming stream is indicated by an ASCII string 'EOE' (for End Of Epoch).
2087</p>
2088<p>
2089When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as dt = -2 (R * V) / c^2 where R *V is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and c is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006.
2090</p>
2091
2092<p><a name="upadd"><h4>3.14.1 Add, Delete Row - optional</h4></p>
2093<p>Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the stream 'Upload Table' or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
2094</p>
2095<p>
2096Having an empty 'Upload Table' is default and means that you don't want BNC to upload orbit and clock correction streams to any NTRIP Broadcaster.
2097</p>
2098
2099<p><a name="uphost"><h4>3.14.2 Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
2100
2101<p>Specify the domain name or IP number of an NTRIP Broadcaster for uploading the stream. Furthermore, specify the caster's listening IP port, an upload mountpoint and an upload password. Note that NTRIP Broadcasters are often configured to provide access on more than one port, usually port 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s).
2102</p>
2103<p>
2104BNC uploads a stream to the NNTRIP Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify here the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a four character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
2105<p>The stream upload may be protected through an upload 'Password'. Enter the password you received from the NTRIP Broadcaster operator along with the mountpoint(s).</p>
2106<p>
2107If 'Host', 'Port', 'Mountpoint' and 'Password' are set, the stream will be encoded in RTCM's 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages and uploaded to the specified broadcaster following the NTRIP Version 1 transport protocol.
2108</p>
2109
2110<p><a name="upsystem"><h4>3.14.3 System - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
2111<p>
2112BNC allows configuring several Broadcast Correction streams for upload so that they refer to different reference systems and different NTRIP Broadcasters. You may use this functionality for parallel support of a backup NTRIP Broadcaster or for simultaneous support of various regional reference systems. Available options for transforming orbit and clock corrections to specific target reference systems are
2113<p>
2114<ul>
2115<li>IGS08 which stands for the GNSS-based IGS realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF2008), and</li>
2116<li>ETRF2000 which stands for the European Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 adopted by EUREF, and</li>
2117<li>NAD83 which stands for the North American Datum 1983 as adopted for the U.S.A., and</li>
2118<li>GDA94 which stands for the Geodetic Datum Australia 1994 as adopted for Australia, and</li>
2119<li>SIRGAS2000 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Brazil, and</li>
2120<li>SIRGAS95 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted i.e. for Venezuela, and</li>
2121<li>'Custom' which allows a transformation of Broadcast Corrections from the IGS08 system to any other system through specifying up to 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters.</li>
2122</ul>
2123</p>
2124
2125<p>
2126Because a mathematically strict transformation to a regional reference system is not possible on the BNC server side when a scale factor is involved, the program follows an approximate solution. While <u>orbits</u> are transformed in full accordance with given equations, a transformed <u>clock</u> is derived through applying correction term
2127</p>
2128<pre>
2129dC = (s - 1) / s * &rho; / c
2130</pre>
2131<p>
2132where s is the transformation scale, c is the speed of light, and &rho; are the topocentric distance between an (approximate) center of the transformation's validity area and the satellite.
2133</p>
2134<p>
2135From a theoretical point of view this kind of approximation leads to inconsistencies between orbits and clocks and is therefore not allowed. However, it has been proved that resulting errors in Precise Point Positioning are on millimeter level for horizontal components and below the one centimeter for height components. The Australian GDA94 transformation with its comparatively large scale parameter is an exception in this as descrepancies may reach up to two centimeters there.
2136</p>
2137
2138<p>
2139<u>IGS08:</u> As the orbits and clocks coming from real-time GNSS engine are expected to be in the IGS08 system, no transformation is carried out if this option is selected.
2140</p>
2141
2142<p>
2143<u>ETRF2000:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;ETRF2000' are taken from 'Claude Boucher and Zuheir Altamimi 2008: Specifications for reference frame fixing in the analysis of EUREF GPS campaign', see <u>http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr/memo-V8.pdf</u>. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced:
2144</p>
2145<p>
2146<pre>
2147Translation in X at epoch To: 0.0521 m
2148Translation in Y at epoch To: 0.0493 m
2149Translation in Z at epoch To: -0.0585 m
2150Translation rate in X: 0.0001 m/y
2151Translation rate in Y: 0.0001 m/y
2152Translation rate in Z: -0.0018 m/y
2153Rotation in X at epoch To: 0.891 mas
2154Rotation in Y at epoch To: 5.390 mas
2155Rotation in Z at epoch To: -8.712 mas
2156Rotation rate in X: 0.081 mas/y
2157Rotation rate in Y: 0.490 mas/y
2158Rotation rate in Z: -0.792 mas/y
2159Scale at epoch To : 0.00000000134
2160Scale rate: 0.00000000008 /y
2161To: 2000.0
2162</pre>
2163</p>
2164
2165<p>
2166<u>NAD83:</u> Formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2005-&gt;NAD83' are taken from 'Chris Pearson, Robert McCaffrey, Julie L. Elliott, Richard Snay 2010: HTDP 3.0: Software for Coping with the Coordinate Changes Associated with Crustal Motion, Journal of Surveying Engineering'.
2167</p>
2168<p>
2169<pre>
2170Translation in X at epoch To: 0.9963 m
2171Translation in Y at epoch To: -1.9024 m
2172Translation in Z at epoch To: -0.5219 m
2173Translation rate in X: 0.0005 m/y
2174Translation rate in Y: -0.0006 m/y
2175Translation rate in Z: -0.0013 m/y
2176Rotation in X at epoch To: 25.915 mas
2177Rotation in Y at epoch To: 9.426 mas
2178Rotation in Z at epoch To: 11.599 mas
2179Rotation rate in X: 0.067 mas/y
2180Rotation rate in Y: -0.757 mas/y
2181Rotation rate in Z: -0.051 mas/y
2182Scale at epoch To : 0.00000000078
2183Scale rate: -0.00000000010 /y
2184To: 1997.0
2185</pre>
2186</p>
2187
2188<p>
2189<u>GDA94:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;GDA94' are taken from 'John Dawson, Alex Woods 2010: ITRF to GDA94 coordinate transformations', Journal of Applied Geodesy, 4 (2010), 189-199, de Gruyter 2010. DOI 10.1515/JAG.2010.019'.
2190</p>
2191<p>
2192<pre>
2193Translation in X at epoch To: -0.08468 m
2194Translation in Y at epoch To: -0.01942 m
2195Translation in Z at epoch To: 0.03201 m
2196Translation rate in X: 0.00142 m/y
2197Translation rate in Y: 0.00134 m/y
2198Translation rate in Z: 0.00090 m/y
2199Rotation in X at epoch To: 0.4254 mas
2200Rotation in Y at epoch To: -2.2578 mas
2201Rotation in Z at epoch To: -2.4015 mas
2202Rotation rate in X: -1.5461 mas/y
2203Rotation rate in Y: -1.1820 mas/y
2204Rotation rate in Z: -1.1551 mas/y
2205Scale at epoch To : 0.000000009710
2206Scale rate: 0.000000000109 /y
2207To: 1994.0
2208</pre>
2209</p>
2210
2211<p>
2212<u>SIRGAS2000:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;SIRGAS2000' were provided via personal communication from CGED-Coordenacao de Geodesia, IBGE/DGC - Diretoria de Geociencias, Brazil.</u>.
2213</p>
2214<p>
2215<pre>
2216Translation in X at epoch To: 0.0020 m
2217Translation in Y at epoch To: 0.0041 m
2218Translation in Z at epoch To: 0.0039 m
2219Translation rate in X: 0.0000 m/y
2220Translation rate in Y: 0.0000 m/y
2221Translation rate in Z: 0.0000 m/y
2222Rotation in X at epoch To: 0.170 mas
2223Rotation in Y at epoch To: -0.030 mas
2224Rotation in Z at epoch To: 0.070 mas
2225Rotation rate in X: 0.000 mas/y
2226Rotation rate in Y: 0.000 mas/y
2227Rotation rate in Z: 0.000 mas/y
2228Scale at epoch To : 0.000000000000
2229Scale rate: 0.000000000000 /y
2230To: 0000.0
2231</pre>
2232</p>
2233
2234<p>
2235<u>SIRGAS95:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2005-&gt;SIRGAS95' were provided via personal communication from Gustavo Acuha, Laboratorio de Geodesia Fisica y Satelital at Zulia University (LGFS-LUZ), parameters based on values from Table 4.1 of "Terrestrial Reference Frames (April 10, 2009), Chapter 4" in http://tai.bipm.org/iers/convupdt/convupdt_c4.html.</u>.
2236</p>
2237<p>
2238<pre>
2239Translation in X at epoch To: 0.0077 m
2240Translation in Y at epoch To: 0.0058 m
2241Translation in Z at epoch To: -0.0138 m
2242Translation rate in X: 0.0000 m/y
2243Translation rate in Y: 0.0000 m/y
2244Translation rate in Z: 0.0000 m/y
2245Rotation in X at epoch To: 0.000 mas
2246Rotation in Y at epoch To: 0.000 mas
2247Rotation in Z at epoch To: -0.003 mas
2248Rotation rate in X: 0.000 mas/y
2249Rotation rate in Y: 0.000 mas/y
2250Rotation rate in Z: 0.000 mas/y
2251Scale at epoch To : 0.00000000157
2252Scale rate: -0.000000000000 /y
2253To: 1995.4
2254</pre>
2255</p>
2256
2257<p>
2258<u>Custom:</u> Feel free to specify your own 14 Helmert Transformation parameters for transformations from IGS08/ITRF2008 into your own target system.
2259</p>
2260
2261<p><a name="upcom"><h4>3.14.4 Center of Mass - optional</h4></p>
2262<p>
2263BNC allows to either referring Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM.
2264</p>
2265
2266<p><a name="upsp3"><h4>3.14.5 SP3 File - optional</h4></p>
2267<p>Specify a path for saving the generated orbit corrections as SP3 orbit files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create SP3 orbit files. The following is a path example for a Linux system:<br>/home/user/BNC${GPSWD}.sp3<br>Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the file name.</p>
2268<p>
2269Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want BNC to save the uploaded stream contents in daily SP3 files.
2270</p>
2271<p>
2272As an SP3 file contents should be referred to the satellites Center of Mass (CoM) while Broadcast Corrections are referred to the satellites APC, an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see section 'ANTEX File'). You should therefore specify the 'ANTEX File' path under tab 'PPP (2)' if you want to save the stream contents in SP3 format. If you don't specify an 'ANTEX File' path there, the SP3 file contents will be referred to the satellites APCs.
2273</p>
2274<p>
2275The file names for the daily SP3 files follow the convention for SP3 file names. The first three characters of each file name are set to 'BNC'. Note that clocks in the SP3 orbit files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect.
2276</p>
2277<p>
2278In case the 'Combine Corrections' table contains only one Broadcast Corrections stream, BNC will merge that stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in files specified here through SP3 and/or Clock RINEX file path. In such a case you have to define only the SP3 and Clock RINEX file path and no further option in the 'Upload Corrections' table.
2279</p>
2280
2281<p>
2282Note that BNC outputs a complete list of SP3 'Epoch Header Records' even if no 'Position and Clock Records' are available for certain epochs because of stream outages. Note further that the 'Number of Epochs' in the first SP3 header record may not be correct because that number is not available when the file is created. Depending on your processing software (e.g. Bernese GNSS Software, BSW) it could therefore be necessary to correct an incorrect 'Number of Epochs' in the file before you use in Post Processing.
2283</p>
2284
2285<p><a name="uprinex"><h4>3.14.6 RNX File - optional</h4></p>
2286<p>
2287The clock corrections generated by BNC for upload can be logged in Clock RINEX format. The file naming follows the RINEX convention.
2288</p>
2289<p>
2290Specify a path for saving the generated clock corrections as Clock RINEX files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Clock RINEX files. The following is a path example for a Linux system:<br>/home/user/BNC${GPSWD}.clk<br>Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the file name.
2291</p>
2292<p>
2293Note further that clocks in the Clock RINEX files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect.
2294</p>
2295
2296<p><a name="upinter"><h4>3.14.7 Interval - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
2297<p>
2298Select the length of Clock RINEX files and SP3 Orbit files. The default value is 1 day.
2299</p>
2300
2301<p><a name="upclksmpl"><h4>3.14.8 Sampling - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
2302<p>BNC requires an orbit corrections sampling interval for the stream to be uploaded and sampling intervals for SP3 and Clock RINEX files. The outgoing stream's clock correction sampling interval follows that of incoming corrections and is therefore nothing to be specified here.</p>
2303
2304<p><a name="upclkorb"><h4>3.14.8.1 Orbits - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
2305<p>Select the stream's orbit correction sampling interval in seconds. A value of 60 sec may be appropriate.</p>
2306<p> A value of zero '0' tells BNC to upload all orbit correction samples coming in from the real-time GNSS engine along with the clock correction samples to produce combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris (1060 for GPS, 1066 for GLONASS).
2307</p>
2308
2309<p><a name="upclksp3"><h4>3.14.8.2 SP3 - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
2310<p>Select the SP3 orbit file sampling interval in minutes. A value of 15 min may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all available samples into SP3 orbit files.</p>
2311
2312<p><a name="upclkrnx"><h4>3.14.8.3 RINEX - mandatory if 'RNX File' is specified</h4></p>
2313<p>Select the Clock RINEX file sampling interval in seconds. A value of 10 sec may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all available samples into Clock RINEX files.</p>
2314
2315<p><a name="upcustom"><h4>3.14.9 Custom Trafo - optional if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
2316<p>Hit 'Custom Trafo' to specify your own 14 parameter Helmert Transformation instead of selecting a predefined transformation through 'System' button.</p>
2317
2318<p>
2319The following screenshot shows the encoding and uploading of a stream of precise orbits and clocks coming from a real-time engine in 'RTNET' ASCII format. The stream is uploaded to NTRIP Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net'. It is referred to APC and IGS08. Uploaded data are locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. The SSR Provider ID is set to 3. The SSR Solution ID is and the Issue of Data SSR are set to 1. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'.
2320</p>
2321<p><img src="IMG/screenshot26.png"/></p>
2322<p><u>Figure 23:</u> Producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an NTRIP Broadcaster.</p>
2323
2324<p><a name="upeph"><h4>3.15. Upload Ephemeris</h4></p>
2325<p>
2326BNC can upload a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in RTCM Version 3 format to an NTRIP Broadcaster.
2327</p>
2328
2329<p><a name="brdcserver"><h4>3.15.1 Host &amp; Port - optional</h4></p>
2330<p>
2331Specify the 'Host' IP name or number of an NTRIP Broadcaster to upload the stream. An empty option field means that you don't want to upload Broadcast Ephemeris.
2332</p>
2333<p>
2334Enter the NTRIP Broadcaster's IP 'Port' number for stream upload. Note that NTRIP Broadcasters are often configured to provide access on more than one port, usually
2335port 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s).
2336</p>
2337
2338<p><a name="brdcmount"><h4>3.15.2 Mountpoint &amp; Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
2339<p>
2340BNC uploads a stream to the NTRIP Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a four character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
2341<p>The stream upload may be protected through an upload 'Password'. Enter the password you received from the NTRIP Broadcaster operator along with the mountpoint.</p>
2342</p>
2343
2344<p><a name="brdcsmpl"><h4>3.15.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
2345Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5' meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds.
2346</p>
2347
2348<p><img src="IMG/screenshot28.png"/></p>
2349<p><u>Figure 24:</u> Producing a Broadcast Ephemeris stream from navigation messages of globally distributed RTCM streams and uploading them in RTCM Version 3 format to an NTRIP Broadcaster.</p>
2350
2351<p><a name="streams"><h4>3.16. Streams</h4></p>
2352<p>
2353Each stream on an NTRIP Broadcaster (and consequently on BNC) is defined using a unique source ID called mountpoint. An NTRIP Client like BNC accesses the desired stream by referring to its mountpoint. Information about streams and their mountpoints is available through the source-table maintained by the NTRIP Broadcaster. Note that mountpoints could show up in BNC more than once when retrieving streams from several NTRIP Broadcasters.
2354</p>
2355
2356<p>
2357Streams selected for retrieval are listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. The list provides the following information either extracted from source-table(s) produced by the NTRIP Broadcasters or introduced by BNC's user:
2358</p>
2359<p>
2360<table>
2361<tr><td>'resource loader'&nbsp; </td><td>NTRIP Broadcaster URL and port, or<br>TCP/IP host and port, or<br>UDP port, or<br>Serial input port specification.</td></tr>
2362<tr><td>'mountpoint' &nbsp;</td><td>Mountpoint introduced by NTRIP Broadcaster, or<br>Mountpoint introduced by BNC's user.</td></tr>
2363<tr><td>'decoder' &nbsp;</td><td>Name of decoder used to handle the incoming stream content according to its format; editable.</td></tr>
2364<tr><td>'lat' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate latitude of reference station, in degrees, north; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
2365<tr><td>'long' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate longitude of reference station, in degrees, east; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
2366<tr><td>'nmea' &nbsp;</td><td>Indicates whether or not streaming needs to be initiated by BNC through sending NMEA-GGA message carrying position coordinates in 'lat' and 'long'.</td></tr>
2367<tr><td>'ntrip' &nbsp;</td><td>Selected NTRIP transport protocol version (1, 2, 2s, R, or U), or<br>'N' for TCP/IP streams without NTRIP, or<br>'UN' for UDP streams without NTRIP, or<br>'S' for serial input streams without NTRIP.</td></tr>
2368<tr><td>'bytes' &nbsp;</td><td>Number of bytes received.
2369</table>
2370</p>
2371
2372<p><a name="streamedit"><h4>3.16.1 Edit Streams</h4></p>
2373<ul>
2374<li>
2375BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. The accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x' and 'RTNET'.
2376</li>
2377<li>
2378In case you need to log the raw data as is, BNC allows users to by-pass its decoders and directly save the input in daily log files. To do this, specify the decoder string as 'ZERO'. The generated file names are created from the characters of the streams mountpoints plus two-digit numbers each for year, month, and day. Example: Setting the 'decoder' string for mountpoint WTZZ0 to 'ZERO' and running BNC on March 29, 2007 would save the raw data in a file named WTZZ0_070329.
2379</li>
2380<li>
2381BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the NTRIP Broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by Network-RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the NTRIP Broadcaster via NMEA-GGA messages.
2382<br>If NMEA-GGA messages are not coming from a serial connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in most cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position must preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.
2383<br>Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner when not using the NTRIP Version 2 transport protocol..
2384</li>
2385</ul>
2386
2387<p><a name="streamdelete"><h4>3.16.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
2388<p>
2389To remove a stream from the 'Streams' canvas in the main window, highlight it by clicking on it and hit the 'Delete Stream' button. You can also remove multiple streams simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift and +Ctrl.</p>
2390
2391<p><a name="streamconf"><h4>3.16.3 Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</h4></p>
2392<p>
2393The streams selection can be changed on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads in the running BNC process.
2394</p>
2395<p>
2396<u>Window mode:</u> Hit 'Save &amp; Reread Configuration' while BNC is in window mode and already processing data to let changes of your streams selection immediately become effective.
2397<p>
2398<u>No window mode:</u> When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), you force BNC to reread its 'mountPoints' configuration option from disk at pre-defined intervals. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' as 'Reread configuration' option to reread the 'mountPoints' option every full minute, hour, or day. This lets a 'mountPoints' option edited in between in the configuration file become effective without terminating uninvolved threads. See annexed section 'Configuration Examples' for a configuration file example and a list of other on-the-fly changeable options.
2399</p>
2400
2401<p><a name="logs"><h4>3.17. Logging</h4></p>
2402<p>
2403A tabs section on the bottom of the main window provides online control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available to show the records saved in a logfile, for a plot to control the bandwidth consumption, for a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
2404</p>
2405<p><a name="logfile"><h4>3.17.1 Log</h4></p>
2406<p>
2407Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. They can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field.
2408</p>
2409
2410<p><a name="throughput"><h4>3.17.2 Throughput</h4></p>
2411<p>
2412The bandwidth consumption per stream is shown in the 'Throughput' tab in bits per second (bps) or kilo bits per second (kbps). The following figure shows an example for the bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.
2413</p>
2414
2415<p><img src="IMG/screenshot08.png"/></p>
2416<p><u>Figure 25:</u> Bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.</p>
2417
2418<p><a name="latency"><h4>3.17.3 Latency</h4></p>
2419<p>
2420The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (i.e. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. The next figure shows an example for the latency of incoming streams.
2421</p>
2422
2423<p><img src="IMG/screenshot07.png"/></p>
2424<p><u>Figure 26:</u> Latency of incoming streams.</p>
2425
2426<p><a name="ppptab"><h4>3.17.4 PPP Plot</h4></p>
2427<p>
2428Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Origin' option is defined. Values are either referred to reference coordinates (if specified) or referred to the first estimated set of coordinate components. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more till the first PPP solutions becomes available. The following figure shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate components.
2429</p>
2430
2431<p><img src="IMG/screenshot13.png"/></p>
2432<p><u>Figure 27:</u> Time series plot of PPP session.</p>
2433
2434<p><a name="bottom"><h4>3.18. Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
2435<p>
2436The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows user to select one of several input communication links, see figure below.
2437</p>
2438
2439<p><img src="IMG/screenshot06.png"/></p>
2440<p><u>Figure 28:</u> Steam input communication links.</p>
2441
2442<p><a name="streamadd"><h4>3.18.1 Add Stream</h4></p>
2443<p>
2444Button 'Add Stream' allows you to pull streams either from an NTRIP Broadcaster or from a TCP/IP port, a UPD port, or a serial port.
2445</p>
2446
2447<p><a name="streamcaster"><h4>3.18.1.1 Add Stream - Coming from Caster</h4></p>
2448
2449<p>
2450Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Caster' then opens a window that allows user to select data streams from an NTRIP Broadcaster according to their mountpoints and show a distribution map of offered streams.
2451</p>
2452
2453<p><a name="streamhost"><h4>3.18.1.1.1 Caster Host and Port - mandatory</h4></p>
2454<p>
2455Enter the NTRIP Broadcaster host IP and port number. Note that EUREF and IGS operate NTRIP Broadcasters at <u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u>, <u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u>, <u>http://www.products.igs-ip.net/home</u> and <u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u>.
2456</p>
2457
2458<p><a name="streamtable"><h4>3.18.1.1.2 Casters Table - optional</h4></p>
2459<p>
2460It may be that you are not sure about your NTRIP Broadcasters host and port number or you are interested in other broadcaster installations operated elsewhere. Hit 'Show' for a table of known broadcasters maintained at <u>www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u>. A window opens which allows selecting a broadcaster for stream retrieval, see figure below.
2461</p>
2462</p>
2463<p><img src="IMG/screenshot04.png"/></p>
2464
2465<p><u>Figure 29:</u> Casters table.</p>
2466
2467<p><a name="streamuser"><h4>3.18.1.1.3 User and Password - mandatory for protected streams</h4></p>
2468<p>
2469Some streams on NTRIP Broadcasters may be restricted. Enter a valid 'User' ID and 'Password' for access to protected streams. Accounts are usually provided per NTRIP Broadcaster through a registration procedure. Register through <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/registeruser</u> for access to protected streams from EUREF and IGS.
2470</p>
2471
2472<p><a name="gettable"><h4>3.18.1.1.4 Get Table</h4></p>
2473<p>
2474Use the 'Get Table' button to download the source-table from the NTRIP Broadcaster. Pay attention to data fields 'format' and 'format-details'. Keep in mind that BNC can only decode and convert streams that come in RTCM Version 2, RTCM Version 3, or RTNET format. For access to observations, Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Corrections in RTCM format streams must contain a selection of appropriate message types as listed in the Annex, cf. data field 'format-details' for available message types and their repetition rates in brackets. Note that in order to produce RINEX Navigation files RTCM Version 3 streams containing message types 1019 (GPS) and 1020 (GLONASS) and 1045 (Galileo) are required. Select your streams line by line, use +Shift and +Ctrl when necessary. The figure below provides an example source-table.
2475</p>
2476<p>
2477The contents of data field 'nmea' tells you whether a stream retrieval needs to be initiated by BNC through sending an NMEA-GGA message carrying approximate position coordinates (virtual reference station).
2478</p>
2479<p>
2480Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process again to retrieve streams from different casters.
2481</p>
2482<p><img src="IMG/screenshot05.png"/></p>
2483<p><u>Figure 30:</u> Broadcaster source-table.</p>
2484
2485<p><a name="ntripv"><h4>3.18.1.1.5 NTRIP Version - mandatory</h4></p>
2486<p>
2487Some limitations and deficiencies of the NTRIP Version 1 stream transport protocol are solved in NTRIP Version 2. Improvements mainly concern a full HTTP compatibility in view of requirements coming from proxy servers. Version 2 is backwards compatible to Version 1. Options implemented in BNC are:
2488</p>
2489<p>
2490&nbsp; 1:&nbsp; NTRIP Version 1, TCP/IP.<br>
2491&nbsp; 2:&nbsp; NTRIP Version 2 in TCP/IP mode.<br>
2492&nbsp; 2s:&nbsp; NTRIP Version 2 in TCP/IP mode via SSL.<br>
2493&nbsp; R:&nbsp; NTRIP Version 2 in RTSP/RTP mode.<br>
2494&nbsp; U:&nbsp; NTRIP Version 2 in UDP mode.
2495</p>
2496<p>
2497If NTRIP Version 2 is supported by the broadcaster:
2498</p>
2499<ul>
2500<li>Try using option '2' if your streams are otherwise blocked by a proxy server operated in front of BNC.</li>
2501<li>Option 'R' or 'U' may be selected if latency is more important than completeness for your application. Note that the latency reduction is likely to be in the order of 0.5 sec or less. Note further that options 'R' (RTSP/RTP mode) and 'U' (UDP mode) are not accepted by proxy servers and a mobile Internet Service Provider may not support it.</li>
2502</ul>
2503<p>
2504Select option '1' if you are not sure whether the broadcaster supports NTRIP Version 2.</li>
2505</p>
2506
2507<p><a name="castermap"><h4>3.18.1.1.6 Map - optional</h4></p>
2508<p>
2509Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the caster's streams. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
2510</p>
2511
2512<p><img src="IMG/screenshot24.png"/></p>
2513<p><u>Figure 31:</u> Stream distribution map derived from NTRIP Broadcaster source-table.</p>
2514
2515<p><a name="streamip"><h4>3.18.1.2 Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</h4></p>
2516<p>
2517Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from TCP/IP Port' allows to retrieve streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the NTRIP transport protocol. For that you:
2518<ul>
2519<li>Enter the IP address of the stream providing host.</li>
2520<li>Enter the IP port number of the stream providing host.</li>
2521<li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
2522<li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
2523<li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
2524<li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
2525</ul>
2526</p>
2527<p>
2528Streams directly received from a TCP/IP port show up with an 'N' for 'No NTRIP' in the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
2529<p>
2530</p>
2531Note that this option works only if no proxy server is involved in the communication link.
2532</p>
2533
2534<p><a name="streamudp"><h4>3.18.1.3 Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</h4></p>
2535<p>
2536Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from UDP Port' allows to pick up streams arriving directly at one of the local host's UDP ports without using the NTRIP transport protocol. For that you:
2537<ul>
2538<li>Enter the local port number where the UDP stream arrives.</li>
2539<li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
2540<li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
2541<li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
2542<li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
2543</ul>
2544</p>
2545<p>
2546Streams directly received at a UDP port show up with a 'UN' for 'UDP, No NTRIP' in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
2547<p>
2548
2549<p><a name="streamser"><h4>3.18.1.4 Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</h4></p>
2550<p>
2551Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Serial Port' allows to retrieve streams from a GNSS receiver via serial port without using the NTRIP transport protocol. For that you:
2552<ul>
2553<li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
2554<li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
2555<li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
2556<li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
2557<li>Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the receiver. Valid port names are
2558<pre>
2559Windows: COM1, COM2
2560Linux: /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyS1
2561FreeBSD: /dev/ttyd0, /dev/ttyd1
2562Digital Unix: /dev/tty01, /dev/tty02
2563HP-UX: /dev/tty1p0, /dev/tty2p0
2564SGI/IRIX: /dev/ttyf1, /dev/ttyf2
2565SunOS/Solaris: /dev/ttya, /dev/ttyb
2566</pre>
2567</li>
2568<li>Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial input. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.</li>
2569<li>Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial input. Note that often '8' data bits are used.</li>
2570<li>Select the 'Parity' for the serial input. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.</li>
2571<li>Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial input. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.</li>
2572<li>Select a 'Flow control' for the serial link. Select 'OFF' if you don't know better.</li>
2573</ul>
2574</p>
2575<p>
2576When selecting one of the serial communication options listed above, make sure that you pick those configured to the serial connected GNSS receiver.
2577</p>
2578
2579<p>
2580Streams received from a serial connected GNSS receiver show up with an 'S' (for <u>S</u>erial Port, no NTRIP) in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
2581<p>
2582
2583<p>
2584The following figure shows a BNC example setup for pulling a stream via serial port on a Linux operating system.
2585</p>
2586<p><img src="IMG/screenshot15.png"/></p>
2587<p><u>Figure 32:</u> BNC setup for pulling a stream via serial port.</p>
2588
2589<p><a name="streamsdelete"><h4>3.18.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
2590<p>
2591Button 'Delete Stream' allows you to delete streams previously selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window.
2592</p>
2593
2594<p><a name="streamsmap"><h4>3.18.3 Map</h4></p>
2595<p>
2596Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the streams selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
2597</p>
2598
2599<p><a name="start"><h4>3.18.4 Start</h4></p>
2600<p>
2601Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless the option 'Append files' is ticked.
2602</p>
2603
2604<p><a name="stop"><h4>3.18.5 Stop</h4></p>
2605<p>
2606Hit the 'Stop' button in order to stop BNC.
2607</p>
2608
2609<p><a name="cmd"><h4>3.19. Command Line Options</h4></p>
2610<p>
2611Command line options are available to run BNC in 'no window' mode or let it read data offline from one or several files for debugging or Post Processing purposes. BNC will then use processing options from the involved configuration file. Note that the self-explaining contents of the configuration file can easily be edited. It is possible to introduce a specific configuration file name instead of using the default name 'BNC.bnc'.
2612</p>
2613
2614<p><a name="nw"><h4>3.19.1 No Window Mode - optional</h4></p>
2615<p>
2616Apart from its regular windows mode, BNC can be started on all systems as a batch job with command line option '-nw'. BNC will then run in 'no window' mode, using processing options from its configuration file on disk. Terminate BNC using Windows Task Manager when running it in 'no window' mode on Windows systems.
2617</p>
2618<p>
2619Example:<br><br>
2620bnc.exe -nw
2621</p>
2622<p>
2623It is obvious that BNC requires graphics support when started in interactive
2624mode. But, note that it also requires graphics support when producing plots in
2625batch mode (option -nw). Windows and Mac OS X systems always support graphics. For
2626producing plots in batch mode on Linux systems you must make sure that at
2627least a virtual X-Server such as 'Xvfb' is installed and the '-display' option
2628is used. The following is an example shell script to execute BNC in batch mode
2629for producing QC plots from RINEX files. It could be used via 'crontab':
2630</p>
2631<pre>
2632#!/bin/bash
2633
2634# Save string localhost
2635echo "localhost" > /home/user/hosts
2636
2637# Start virtual X-Server, save process ID
2638/usr/bin/Xvfb :29 -auth /home/user/hosts -screen 0 1280x1024x8 &
2639psID=`echo $!`
2640
2641# Run BNC application with defined display variable
2642/home/user/BNC/bnc --conf /dev/null --key reqcAction Analyze --key reqcObsFile ons12090.12o --key reqcNavFile brdc2090.12p --key reqcOutLogFile multi.txt --key reqcPlotDir /home/user --display localhost:29 --nw
2643
2644# BNC done, kill X-server process
2645kill $psID
2646</pre>
2647
2648<p><a name="post"><h4>3.19.2 File Mode - optional</h4></p>
2649<p>
2650Although BNC is primarily a real-time online tool, for debugging purposes it can be run offline to read data from a file previously saved through option 'Raw output file'. Enter the following command line option for that
2651</p>
2652<p>
2653--file &lt;<u>inputFileName</u>&gt;
2654</p>
2655
2656and specify the full path to an input file containing previously saved data. Example:<br><br>
2657./bnc --file /home/user/raw.output_110301
2658</p>
2659<p>
2660Note that when running BNC offline, it will use options for file saving, interval, sampling, PPP etc. from its configuration file.
2661</p>
2662<p>Note further that option '--file' forces BNC to appy the '-nw' option for running in 'no window' mode.
2663</p>
2664
2665<p><a name="conffile"><h4>3.19.3 Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
2666The default configuration file name is 'BNC.bnc'. You may change this name at startup time using the command line option '--conf &lt;<u>confFileName</u>&gt;'. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. <u>confFileName</u> stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a file name. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started.
2667</p>
2668<p>
2669Example:<br><br>
2670./bnc --conf MyConfig.bnc
2671</p>
2672<p>
2673This leads to a BNC job using configuration file 'MyConfig.bnc'. The configuration file will be saved in the current working directory.
2674</p>
2675
2676<p><a name="confopt"><h4>3.19.4 Configuration Options - optional</h4></p>
2677<p>
2678BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the contents of the configuration file remains unchanged. The command line syntax for that looks as follows
2679</p>
2680<p>
2681--key &lt;keyName&gt; &lt;keyValue&gt;
2682</p>
2683<p>
2684where &lt;keyName&gt; stands for the name of an option contained in the configuration file and &lt;keyValue&gt; stands for the value you want to assign to it. The following is a syntax example for a complete command line:
2685</p>
2686<p>
2687bnc --nw --conf &lt;confFileName&gt --key &lt;keyName1&gt; &lt;keyValue1&gt; --key &lt;keyName2&gt; &lt;keyValue2&gt; ...
2688</p>
2689<p>
2690Example:
2691</p>
2692<p>
2693./bnc --conf CONFIG.bnc --key proxyPort 8001 --key rnxIntr "1 day"
2694</p>
2695
2696<p><a name="limits"><h3>4. Limitations</h3></p>
2697<ul>
2698<li>
2699In Qt-based desktop environments (like KDE) on Unix/Linux platforms it may happen that you experience a crash of BNC at startup even when running the program in the background using the '-nw' option. This is a known bug most likely resulting from an incompatibility of Qt libraries in the environment and in BNC. Entering the command 'unset SESSION_MANAGER' before running BNC may help as a work-around.
2700</li>
2701
2702<li>
2703Using RTCM Version 3 to produce RINEX files, BNC will properly handle most message types. However, when handling message types 1001, 1003, 1009 and 1011 where the ambiguity field is not set, the output will be no valid RINEX. All values will be stored modulo 299792.458 (speed of light).
2704</li>
2705<li>
2706Using RTCM Version 2, BNC will only handle message types 18 and 19 or 20 and 21 together with position and the antenna offset information carried in types 3 and 22. Note that processing carrier phase corrections and pseudo-range corrections contained in message types 20 and 21 needs access to Broadcast Ephemeris. Hence, whenever dealing with message types 20 and 21, make sure that Broadcast Ephemeris become available for BNC through also retrieving at least one RTCM Version 3 stream carrying message types 1019 (GPS ephemeris) and 1020 (GLONASS ephemeris).
2707</li>
2708<li>
2709BNC's 'Get Table' function only shows the STR records of a source-table. You can use an Internet browser to download the full source-table contents of any NTRIP Broadcaster by simply entering its URL in the form of <u>http://host:port</u>. Data field number 8 in the NET records may provide information about where to register for an NTRIP Broadcaster account.
2710</li>
2711<li>
2712EUREF as well as IGS adhere to an open data policy. Streams are made available through NTRIP Broadcasters at <u>www.euref-ip.net</u>, <u>www.igs-ip.net</u> and <u>products.igs-ip.net</u> free of charge to anyone for any purpose. There is no indication up until now how many users will need to be supported simultaneously. The given situation may develop in such a way that it might become difficult to serve all registered users at the same times. In cases where limited resources on the NTRIP Broadcaster side (software restrictions, bandwidth limitation etc.) dictates, first priority in stream provision will be given to stream providers followed by re-broadcasting activities and real-time analysis centers while access to others might be temporarily denied.
2713</li>
2714<li>
2715Once BNC has been started, many of its configuration options cannot be changed as long as it is stopped. See chapter 'Reread Configuration' for on-the-fly configuration exceptions.
2716</li>
2717<li>
2718Drag and drop of configuration file is currently not supported on Mac OS X.
2719</li>
2720
2721</ul>
2722
2723<p><a name="annex"><h3>5. Annex</h3></p>
2724<p>
27255.1. <a href=#history>Revision History</a><br>
27265.2. <a href=#rtcm>RTCM</a><br>
2727&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 5.2.1 NTRIP <a href=#ntrip1>Version 1</a><br>
2728&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 5.2.2 NTRIP <a href=#ntrip2>Version 2</a><br>
2729&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 5.2.3 RTCM <a href=#rtcm2>Version 2</a><br>
2730&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 5.2.4 RTCM <a href=#rtcm3>Version 3</a><br>
27315.3. <a href=#config>Configuration Examples</a><br>
27325.4. <a href=#links>Further Reading</a>
2733</p>
2734
2735<p><a name=history><h4>5.1 Revision History</h3></p>
2736<table>
2737<tr></tr>
2738
2739<tr>
2740<td>Dec 2006 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.0b &nbsp;</td>
2741<td>[Add] First Beta Binaries published based on Qt 4.2.3.</td>
2742</tr>
2743
2744<tr>
2745<td>Jan 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.1b &nbsp;</td>
2746<td>[Add] Observables C2, S1, and S2<br>[Add] Virtual reference station access<br>[Bug] RTCM2 decoder time tag fixed<br>[Mod] Small letters for public RINEX skeleton files<br>[Add] Online help through Shift+F1</td>
2747</tr>
2748
2749<tr>
2750<td>Apr 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.2b &nbsp;</td>
2751<td>[Bug] Output only through IP port<br>[Bug] Method 'reconnecting' now thread-save<br> [Add] ZERO decoder added<br> [Mod] Download public RINEX skeletons once per day<br> [Mod] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.2.3<br> [Mod] Replace 'system' call for RINEX script by 'QProcess'<br> [Add] HTTP Host directive for skeleton file download<br> [Add] Percent encoding for user IDs and passwords<br> [Bug] Exit execution of calling thread for RTCM3 streams<br> [Bug] Signal-slot mechanism for threads</td>
2752</tr>
2753
2754<tr>
2755<td>May 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.3 &nbsp;</td>
2756<td>[Add] Source code published.</td>
2757</tr>
2758
2759<tr>
2760<td>Jul 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.4 &nbsp;</td>
2761<td>[Bug] Skip messages from proxy server<br> [Bug] Call RINEX script through 'nohup'</td>
2762</tr>
2763
2764<tr>
2765<td>Apr 2008 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.5 &nbsp;</td>
2766<td>[Add] Handle ephemeris from RTCM Version 3 streams<br> [Add] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.3.2<br> [Add] Optional RINEX v3 output<br> [Add] SBAS support<br> [Bug] RINEX skeleton download following stream outage<br> [Add] Handle ephemeris from RTIGS streams<br> [Add] Monitor stream failure/recovery and latency<br> [Mod] Redesign of main window<br> [Bug] Freezing of About window on Mac OS X<br> [Bug] Fixed problem with PRN 32 in RTCMv2 decoder<br> [Bug] Fix for Trimble 4000SSI receivers in RTCMv2 decoder<br> [Mod] Major revision of input buffer in RTCMv2 decoder</td>
2767</tr>
2768
2769<tr>
2770<td>Dec 2008 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.6 &nbsp;</td>
2771<td>[Mod] Fill blank columns in RINEXv3 with 0.000<br> [Add] RTCMv3 decoder for orbit and clock corrections<br>[Add] Check RTCMv3 streams for incoming message types<br> [Add] Decode RTCMv2 message types 3, 20, 21, and 22<br> [Add] Loss of lock and lock time indicator<br> [Bug] Rounding error in RTCMv3 decoder concerning GLONASS height<br> [Mod] Accept GLONASS in RTCMv3 when transmitted first<br> [Add] Leap second 1 January 2009<br> [Add] Offline mode, read data from file<br> [Add] Output antenna descriptor, coordinates and eccentricities from RTCMv3<br> [Add] Reconfiguration on-the-fly<br> [Mod] Binary output of synchronized observations<br> [Add] Binary output of unsynchronized observations<br> [Bug] Fixed problem with joined RTCMv3 blocks</td>
2772</tr>
2773
2774<tr>
2775<td>Dec 2008 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.6.1 &nbsp;</td>
2776<td>[Mod] HTTP GET when no proxy in front</td>
2777</tr>
2778
2779<tr>
2780<td>Nov 2009 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.7 &nbsp;</td>
2781<td>[Bug] RINEX Navigation file format<br> [Add] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.5.2<br> [Add] Support of NTRIP v2<br> [Add] Rover support via serial port<br> [Add] Show broadcaster table from www.rtcm-ntrip.org<br> [Add] Enable/disable tab widgets<br> [Add] User defined configuration file name<br> [Mod] Switch to configuration files in ini-Format<br> [Add] Daily logfile rotation<br> [Add] Read from TCP/IP port, by-pass NTRIP transport protocol<br> [Add] Save NMEA messages coming from rover<br> [Add] Auto start<br> [Add] Drag and drop ini files<br> [Add] Read from serial port, by-pass NTRIP transport protocol<br> [Mod] Update of SSR messages following RTCM 091-2009-SC104-542<br> [Add] Read from UPD port, by-pass NTRIP transport protocol<br> [Mod] Output format of Broadcast Corrections<br> [Add] Throughput plot<br> [Add] Latency plot</td>
2782</tr>
2783
2784<tr>
2785<td>Nov 2009 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.8 &nbsp;</td>
2786<td>[Mod] On-the-fly reconfiguration of latency and throughput plots</td>
2787</tr>
2788
2789<tr>
2790<td>Feb 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.0 &nbsp;</td>
2791<td>[Mod] Change sign of Broadcast Corrections<br> [Add] Real-time PPP option</td>
2792</tr>
2793
2794<tr>
2795<td>Jun 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.1 &nbsp;</td>
2796<td>[Bug] SSR GLONASS message generation<br> [Add] PPP in Post Processing mode<br> [Mod] Update of SSR messages following draft dated 2010-04-12<br> [Mod] Generating error message when observation epoch is wrong</td>
2797</tr>
2798
2799<tr>
2800<td>Jul 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.2 &nbsp;</td>
2801<td>[Bug] GLONASS ephemeris time</td>
2802</tr>
2803
2804<tr>
2805<td>Aug 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.3 &nbsp;</td>
2806<td>[Mod] Internal format for saving raw streams<br> [Bug] Outlier detection in GLONASS ambiguity resolution<br> [Mod] Format of PPP logs in logfile<br> [Bug] Complete acceleration terms for GLONASS ephemeris<br> [Bug] Handling ephemeris IOD's in PPP mode</td>
2807</tr>
2808
2809<tr>
2810<td>Dec 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.4 &nbsp;</td>
2811<td>[Add] Output of averaged positions when in PPP mode<br> [Mod] Use always the latest received set of Broadcast Ephemeris<br> [Add] QuickStart PPP option<br> [Mod] Improvement of data sharing efficiency among different threads<br> [Mod] Design of PPP tab section<br> [Add] Sigmas for observations and parameters<br> [Add] Stream distribution map<br> [Bug] GPS Ephemeris in RINEX v3 format</td>
2812</tr>
2813
2814<tr>
2815<td>Feb 2011 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.5 &nbsp;</td>
2816<td>[Add] PPP option for sync of clock observations and corrections<br> [Add] Drafted RTCMv3 Galileo ephemeris messages 1045<br> [Add] Drafted RTCMv3 Multiple Signal Messages<br> [Add] Optional specification of sigmas for coordinates and troposphere in PPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo in SPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via IP port<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via RINEXv3 files<br> [Mod] Interface format for feeding a real-time engine with observations<br> [Add] Correct observations for antenna phase center offsets<br> [Add] Combine orbit/clock correction streams<br> [Add] Specify corrections mountpoint in PPP tab</td>
2817</tr>
2818
2819<tr>
2820<td>Apr 2011 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.6 &nbsp;</td>
2821<td>[Add] Complete integration of BNS in BNC<br> [Add] SP3 and Clock RINEX output<br> [Add] PPP in Post Processing Mode<br> [Add] Some RINEX editing & QC functionality<br> [Add] Threshold for orbit outliers in combination solution<br> [Add] Real-time engine becomes orbit/clock server instead of client<br> [Mod] 'EOE' added to orbit/clock stream from engine<br> [Add] Correction for antenna eccentricities<br> [Add] Quick start mode for PPP<br> [Mod] Design of format for feeding engine changed to follow RINEX v3<br> [Mod] Implementation of SSR message encoding modified according to standard<br> [Add] SSL/TLS Support of NTRIP Version 2<br> [Mod] Switch to Qt version 4.7.3<br> [Add] RINEX editing, concatenation and quality check<br> [Add] Reading all configuration options from command line<br> [Mod] RTCMv3 Galileo Broadcast Ephemeris message 1045<br> [Mod] Change default configuration file suffix from 'ini' to 'bnc'<br> [Add] Specific rates for orbits and clocks in streams and SP3/RNX files</td>
2822</tr>
2823
2824<tr>
2825<td>May 2012 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.6 &nbsp;</td>
2826<td>[Add] Version 2.6 published</td>
2827</tr>
2828
2829<tr>
2830<td>Sep 2012 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.7 &nbsp;</td>
2831<td>[Bug] Bug in L5 decoding fixed<br> [Bug] Bug in on-the-fly configuration fixed<br> [Add] Clock RINEX file header extended<br> [Add] Decoding/converting BeiDou and QZSS added<br> [Add] Work on RINEX v2 and v3 quality check started<br> [Mod] Source code completely re-arranged<br> [Add] QWT and QWTPOLAR graphics libraries added<br> [Add] RINEX QC through multipath analysis sky plot<br> [Add] RINEX QC through signal-to-noise ratio sky plot<br> [Add] RINEX QC through satellite availability plot<br> [Add] RINEX QC through satellite elevation plot<br> [Add RINEX QC through PDOP plot<br> [Bug] Short periodic outages in PPP time series when operated when 'Sync Corr' set to zero<br> |Add] Log observation types contained in RTCM Version 3 MSM streams<br> [Add] Reading RINEX v3 observation type header records from RINEX skeleton files<br> [Add] Logfile for RINEX file editing and concatenation<br>[Add] Save PNG plot files on disk<br> [Mod] Plot stream distribution map from NTRIP Broadcaster source-table<br> [Add] Plot stream distribution map from selected sources<br> [Add] Version 2.7 published</td>
2832</tr>
2833
2834<tr>
2835<td>Mar 2013 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.8 &nbsp;</td>
2836<td>[Mod] Started work on new version in Sep 2012<br> [Bug] Epoch special event flag in RINEX concatenation<br> [Bug] Limit RINEX v2 records length to 80 characters<br> [Bug] SSR message update interval indicator<br> [Bug] Fixed SSR stream encoding and upload<br> [Add] Concatenate RINEX v3 navigation files containing Galileo ephemeris<br> [Mod] Plausibility check of GLONASS ephemeris<br> [Add] Correcting clocks for scale factor involved in transformation<br> [Mod] Orbit/clock interpolation in SSR stream encoding and upload to caster<br> [Add] Version 2.8 published</td>
2837</tr>
2838
2839<tr>
2840<td>Jul 2013 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.9 &nbsp;</td>
2841<td>[Add] Started work on new version in Mar 2013<br>[Bug] SSR stream upload buffering disabled<br>[Mod] Format for feeding a connected GNSS engine<br>[Mod] RTNET format for receiving data from a connected GNSS engine<br>[Add] Include Galileo in SPP<br>[Add] RINEX QC multipath an SNR skyplots for GLONASS and Galileo<br>[Add] Bias estimation for GLONASS clocks in PPP<br>[Add] Trace positions on GM or OSM maps<br>[Add] Version 2.9 published</td>
2842</tr>
2843
2844<tr>
2845<td>Aug 2013 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.10 &nbsp;</td>
2846<td>[Add] Started work on new version in Aug 2013<br>[Bug] Broadcast Ephemeris generation</td>
2847</tr>
2848
2849</table>
2850</p>
2851
2852<p><a name="rtcm"><h4>5.2. RTCM</h4></p>
2853
2854<p>
2855The Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) is an international non-profit scientific, professional and educational organization. Special Committees provide a forum in which governmental and non-governmental members work together to develop technical standards and consensus recommendations in regard to issues of particular concern. RTCM is engaged in the development of international standards for maritime radionavigation and radiocommunication systems. The output documents and reports prepared by RTCM Committees are published as RTCM Recommended Standards. Topics concerning Differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (DGNSS) are handled by the Special Committee SC 104.
2856<p>
2857Personal copies of RTCM Recommended Standards can be ordered through <u>http://www.rtcm.org/orderinfo.php</u>.
2858</p>
2859
2860<p><a name="ntrip1"><h4>5.2.1 NTRIP Version 1</h4></p>
2861
2862<p>
2863'Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol' Version 1.0 (NTRIP) stands for an application-level protocol streaming Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data over the Internet. NTRIP is a generic, stateless protocol based on the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP/1.1. The HTTP objects are enhanced to GNSS data streams.
2864</p>
2865
2866<p>
2867NTRIP Version 1 is an RTCM standard designed for disseminating differential correction data (e.g. in the RTCM-104 format) or other kinds of GNSS streaming data to stationary or mobile users over the Internet, allowing simultaneous PC, Laptop, PDA, or receiver connections to a broadcasting host. NTRIP supports wireless Internet access through Mobile IP Networks like GSM, GPRS, EDGE, or UMTS.
2868</p>
2869
2870<p>
2871NTRIP is implemented in three system software components: NTRIP Clients, NTRIP Servers and NTRIP Broadcasters. The NTRIP Broadcaster is the actual HTTP server program whereas NTRIP Client and NTRIP Server are acting as HTTP clients.
2872</p>
2873
2874<p>
2875NTRIP is an open none-proprietary protocol. Major characteristics of NTRIP's dissemination technique are:
2876<ul>
2877<li>Based on the popular HTTP streaming standard; comparatively easy to implement when having limited client and server platform resources available;</li>
2878<li>Application not limited to one particular plain or coded stream content; ability to distribute any kind of GNSS data;</li>
2879<li>Potential to support mass usage; disseminating hundreds of streams simultaneously for thousands of users possible when applying modified Internet Radio broadcasting software;</li>
2880<li>Considering security needs; stream providers and users don't necessarily get into contact, streams often not blocked by firewalls or proxy servers protecting Local Area Networks;</li>
2881<li>Enables streaming over mobile IP networks because of using TCP/IP.</li>
2882</ul>
2883</p>
2884
2885<p>
2886The NTRIP Broadcaster maintains a source-table containing information on available NTRIP streams, networks of NTRIP streams and NTRIP Broadcasters. The source-table is sent to an NTRIP Client on request. Source-table records are dedicated to one of the following: Data Streams (record type STR), Casters (record type CAS), or Networks of streams (record type NET).
2887</p>
2888
2889<p>
2890Source-table records of type STR contain the following data fields: 'mountpoint', 'identifier', 'format', 'format-details', 'carrier', 'nav-system', 'network', 'country', 'latitude', 'longitude', 'nmea', 'solution', 'generator', 'compr-encryp', 'authentication', 'fee', 'bitrate', 'misc'.
2891</p>
2892<p>
2893Source-table records of type NET contain the following data fields: 'identifiey', 'operator', 'authentication', 'fee', 'web-net', 'web-str', 'web-reg', 'misc'.
2894</p>
2895<p>
2896Source-table records of type CAS contain the following data fields: 'host', 'port', 'identifier', 'operator', 'nmea', 'country', 'latitude', 'longitude', 'misc'.
2897</p>
2898
2899<p><a name="ntrip2"><h4>5.2.2 NTRIP Version 2</h4></p>
2900
2901<p>
2902The major changes of NTRIP Version 2 compared to Version 1.0 are:
2903</p>
2904
2905<ul>
2906<li>Cleared and fixed design problems and HTTP protocol violations;</li>
2907<li>Replaced non standard directives;</li>
2908<li>Chunked transfer encoding;</li>
2909<li>Improvements in header records;</li>
2910<li>Source-table filtering;</li>
2911<li>RTSP communication.</li>
2912</ul>
2913
2914<p>NTRIP Version 2 allows to either communicate in TCP/IP mode or in RTSP/RTP mode or in UDP mode whereas Version 1 is limited to TCP/IP only. It furthermore allows using the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols for secure NTRIP communication over the Internet.
2915</p>
2916
2917<p><a name="rtcm2"><h4>5.2.3 RTCM Version 2</h4></p>
2918<p>
2919Transmitting GNSS carrier phase data can be done through RTCM Version 2 messages. Please note that only RTCM Version 2.2 and 2.3 streams may include GLONASS data. Messages that may be of interest here are:
2920</p>
2921
2922<ul>
2923<li>
2924Type 1 message is the range correction message and is the primary message in code-phase differential positioning (DGPS). It is computed in the base receiver by computing the error in the range measurement for each tracked SV.
2925</li>
2926<li>
2927Type 2 message is automatically generated when a new set of satellite ephemeris is downloaded to the base receiver. It is the computed difference between the old ephemeris and the new ephemeris. Type 2 messages are used when the base station is transmitting Type 1 messages.
2928</li>
2929<li>
2930Type 3 and 22 messages are the base station position and the antenna offset. Type 3 and 22 are used in RTK processing to perform antenna reduction.
2931</li>
2932<li>
2933Type 6 message is a null frame filler message that is provided for data links that require continuous transmission of data, even if there are no corrections to send. As many Type 6 messages are sent as required to fill in the gap between two correction messages (type 1). Message 6 is not sent in burst mode.
2934</li>
2935<li>
2936Type 9 message serves the same purpose as Type 1, but does not require a complete satellite set. As a result, Type 9 messages require a more stable clock than a station transmitting Type 1 's, because the satellite corrections have different time references.
2937</li>
2938<li>
2939Type 16 message is simply a text message entered by the user that is transmitted from the base station to the rover. It is used with code-phase differential.
2940</li>
2941<li>
2942Type 18 and 20 messages are RTK uncorrected carrier phase data and carrier phase corrections.
2943</li>
2944<li>
2945Type 19 and 21 messages are the uncorrected pseudo-range measurements and pseudo-range corrections used in RTK.
2946</li>
2947<li>
2948Type 23 message provides the information on the antenna type used on the reference station.
2949</li>
2950<li>
2951Type 24 message carries the coordinates of the installed antenna's ARP in the GNSS coordinate system coordinates.
2952</li>
2953</ul>
2954
2955<p><a name="rtcm3"><h4>5.2.4 RTCM Version 3</h4></p>
2956<p>
2957RTCM Version 3 has been developed as a more efficient alternative to RTCM Version 2. Service providers and vendors have asked for a standard that would be more efficient, easy to use, and more easily adaptable to new situations. The main complaint was that the Version 2 parity scheme was wasteful of bandwidth. Another complaint was that the parity is not independent from word to word. Still another was that even with so many bits devoted to parity, the actual integrity of the message was not as high as it should be. Plus, 30-bit words are awkward to handle. The Version 3 standard is intended to correct these weaknesses.
2958</p>
2959<p>
2960RTCM Version 3 defines a number of message types. Messages that may be of interest here are:
2961<ul>
2962<li>Type 1001, GPS L1 code and phase.</li>
2963<li>Type 1002, GPS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
2964<li>Type 1003, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
2965<li>Type 1004, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
2966<li>Type 1005, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point.</li>
2967<li>Type 1006, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point and antenna height.</li>
2968<li>Type 1007, Antenna descriptor and ID.</li>
2969<li>Type 1008, Antenna serial number.</li>
2970<li>Type 1009, GLONASS L1 code and phase.</li>
2971<li>Type 1010, GLONASS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
2972<li>Type 1011, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
2973<li>Type 1012, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
2974<li>Type 1013, Modified julian date, leap second, configured message types and interval.</li>
2975<li>Type 1014 and 1017, Network RTK (MAK) messages.</li>
2976<li>Type 1019, GPS ephemeris.</li>
2977<li>Type 1020, GLONASS ephemeris.</li>
2978<li>Type 1045, Galileo ephemeris.</li>
2979<li>Type 4088 and 4095, Proprietary messages.
2980</li>
2981</ul>
2982</p>
2983
2984<p>
2985The following are so-called 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages:
2986<ul>
2987<li>Type 1057, GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2988<li>Type 1058, GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2989<li>Type 1059, GPS code biases</li>
2990<li>Type 1060, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2991<li>Type 1061, GPS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
2992<li>Type 1062, High-rate GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
2993<li>Type 1063, GLONASS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2994<li>Type 1064, GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2995<li>Type 1065, GLONASS code biases</li>
2996<li>Type 1066, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2997<li>Type 1067, GLONASS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
2998<li>Type 1068, High-rate GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2999</ul>
3000</p>
3001
3002<p>
3003The following are so-called 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM):
3004<ul>
3005<li>Type 1071, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges</li>
3006<li>Type 1072, Compact GPS carrier phases</li>
3007<li>Type 1073, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
3008<li>Type 1074, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
3009<li>Type 1075, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
3010<li>Type 1076, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3011<li>Type 1077, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
3012<li>Type 1081, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges</li>
3013<li>Type 1082, Compact GLONASS carrier phases</li>
3014<li>Type 1083, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
3015<li>Type 1084, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
3016<li>Type 1085, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
3017<li>Type 1086, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3018<li>Type 1087, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
3019<li>Type 1091, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges</li>
3020<li>Type 1092, Compact Galileo carrier phases</li>
3021<li>Type 1093, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
3022<li>Type 1094, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
3023<li>Type 1095, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
3024<li>Type 1096, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3025<li>Type 1097, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
3026<li>Type 1121, Compact BeiDou pseudo-ranges</li>
3027<li>Type 1122, Compact BeiDou carrier phases</li>
3028<li>Type 1123, Compact BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
3029<li>Type 1124, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
3030<li>Type 1125, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
3031<li>Type 1126, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3032<li>Type 1127, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3033</ul>
3034</p>
3035
3036<p>
3037The following are proposed 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) under discussion for standardization:
3038<ul>
3039<li>Type 1101, Compact SBAS pseudo-ranges</li>
3040<li>Type 1102, Compact SBAS carrier phases</li>
3041<li>Type 1103, Compact SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
3042<li>Type 1104, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
3043<li>Type 1105, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
3044<li>Type 1106, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3045<li>Type 1107, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
3046<li>Type 1111, Compact QZSS pseudo-ranges</li>
3047<li>Type 1112, Compact QZSS carrier phases</li>
3048<li>Type 1113, Compact QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
3049<li>Type 1114, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
3050<li>Type 1115, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
3051<li>Type 1116, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
3052<li>Type 1117, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
3053</ul>
3054</p>
3055
3056<p><a name="config"><h4>5.3. Configuration Examples</h4></p>
3057
3058<p>
3059BNC comes with a number of configuration examples which can be used on all operating systems. Copy the complete directory 'Example_Configs' which comes with the software including sub-directories 'Input' and 'Output' to your disc. There are two ways to start BNC using one of the example configurations:
3060</p>
3061<ul>
3062<li>
3063On graphical systems (except for Mac systems) you may use the computer mouse to 'drag' a configuration file icon and 'drop' it on top of BNC's program icon.
3064</li>
3065<li>
3066On non-graphical systems you may start BNC using a command line with the following option for a configuration file (example for Windows systems):<br>
3067bnc.exe --conf &lt;configFileName&gt; --nw
3068</li>
3069</ul>
3070<p>
3071Although it's not a must, we suggest that you always create BNC configuration files with the file name extension '.bnc'.
3072</p>
3073
3074<p>
3075We furthermore suggest for convenience reasons that you configure your system to automatically start BNC when you double-click a file with the file name extension '.bnc'. The following describes what to do on Windows systems to associate the BNC program to such configuration files:
3076</p>
3077
3078<ol type=b>
3079<li>Right-click a file that has the extension '.bnc' and then click 'Open'. If the 'Open' command is not available, click 'Open With' or double-click the file.</li>
3080<li>Windows displays a dialog box that says that the system cannot open this file. The dialog box offers several options for selecting a program.</li>
3081<li>Click 'Select the program from a list', and then click 'OK'.</li>
3082<li>The 'Open With' dialog box is displayed. Click 'Browse', locate and then click the BNC program, and then click 'Open'.</li>
3083<li>Click to select the 'Always use the selected program to open this kind of file' check box.</li>
3084<li>Click 'OK'.</li>
3085</ol>
3086
3087<p>
3088Some of the presented example configuration files contain a user ID 'Example' with a password 'Configs' for accessing a few GNSS streams from public Ntrip Broadcasters. This generic account is arranged for convenience reasons only. Please be so kind as to replace the generic account details as well as the place holders 'User' and 'Pass' by the personal user ID and password you receive following an online registration through <u>http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</u>.
3089</p>
3090
3091<p>
3092Note that the account for an Ntrip Broadcaster is usually limited to pulling a specified maximum number of streams at the same time. As running some of the example configurations requires pulling several streams, it is suggested to make sure that you don't exceed your account's limits.
3093</p>
3094
3095<p>
3096Make also sure that sub-directories 'Input' and 'Output' which are part of the example configurations exist on your system or adjust the affected example configuration options according to your needs.
3097</p>
3098
3099<p>
3100Some BNC options require antenna phase center variations as made available from IGS through so-called ANTEX files at <u>ftp://igs.org/pub/station/general</u>. An example ANTEX file 'igs08.atx' is part of the BNC package for convenience.
3101</p>
3102
3103<p>
3104The example configurations assume that no proxy protects your BNC host. Should a proxy be operated in front of BNC then you need to introduce its IP and port in the 'Network' tab.
3105</p>
3106
3107<p>
3108You should be able to run all configuration examples without changing their options. However, configurations 'Upload.bnc' and 'UploadPPP.bnc' are exceptions because they require an input stream from a connected network engine.
3109</p>
3110<ol type=b>
3111
3112<li>File 'RinexObs.bnc'<br>
3113The purpose of this configuration is showing how to convert RTCM streams to RINEX Observation files. The configuration pulls streams from Ntrip Broadcasters using Ntrip version 1 to generate 15min 1Hz RINEX Version 3 Observation files. See http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations for observation stream resources.
3114</li><br>
3115
3116<li>File 'RinexEph.bnc'<br>
3117The purpose of this configuration is showing how to convert a RTCM stream carrying navigation messages to a RINEX Navigation files. The configuration pulls an RTCM Version 3 stream with Broadcast Ephemeris coming from the real-time EUREF and IGS networks. It saves hourly RINEX Version 3 Navigation files. See http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris for further real-time Broadcast Ephemeris resources.
3118</li><br>
3119
3120<li>File 'SSR.bnc'<br>
3121The purpose of this configuration is to save Broadcast Corrections from RTCM SSR messages in a plain ASCII format as hourly files. See http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits for further real-time IGS or EUREF orbit/clock products.
3122</li><br>
3123
3124<li>File 'RinexConcat.bnc'<br>
3125The purpose of this configuration is to concatenate RINEX Version 3 files to produce a concatenated file and edit the marker name in the file header. The sampling interval is set to 30 seconds. See section 'RINEX Editing & QC' in the documentation for examples on how to call BNC from command line in 'no window' mode for RINEX file editing, concatenation and quality checks.
3126</li><br>
3127
3128<li>File 'RinexQC.bnc'<br>
3129The purpose of this configuration is to check the quality of a RINEX Version 3 file through a multipath analysis. The results is saved in disk in terms of a plot in PNG format. See section 'RINEX Editing & QC' in the documentation for examples on how to call BNC from command line in 'no window' mode for RINEX file editing, concatenation and quality checks.
3130</li><br>
3131
3132<li>File 'RTK.bnc'<br>
3133The purpose of this configuration is to feed a serial connected receiver with observations from a reference station for conventional RTK. The stream is scanned for RTCM messages. Message type numbers and latencies of incoming observation are reported in BNC's logfile.
3134</li><br>
3135
3136<li>File 'FeedEngine.bnc'<br>
3137The purpose of this configuration is to feed a real-time GNSS engine with observations from a remote reference stations. The configuration pulls a single stream from an NTRIP Broadcasters. It would of course be possible to pull several streams from different casters. Incoming observations are decoded, synchronized and output through a local IP port and saved into a file. Failure and recovery thresholds are specified to inform about outages.
3138</li><br>
3139
3140<li>File 'PPP.bnc'<br>
3141The purpose of this configuration is Precise Point Positioning from observations of a rover receiver. The configuration reads RTCM Version 3 observations, a Broadcast Ephemeris stream and a stream with Broadcast Corrections. Positions are saved in the logfile.
3142</li><br>
3143
3144<li>File 'PPPQuickStart.bnc'<br>
3145The purpose of this configuration is Precise Point Positioning in Quick-Start mode from observations of a static receiver with precisely known position. The configuration reads RTCM Version 3 observations, Broadcast Corrections and a Broadcast Ephemeris stream. Positions are saved in NMEA format on disc. Positions are also output through IP port for real-time visualization with tools like RTKPLOT. Positions are also saved in the logfile.
3146</li><br>
3147
3148<li>File 'PPPPostProc.bnc'<br>
3149The purpose of this configuration is Precise Point Positioning in Post Processing mode. BNC reads a RINEX Observation and a RINEX Version 3 Navigation files and a Broadcast Corrections files. PPP processing options are set to support the Quick-Start mode. The output is saved in a specific Post Processing logfile and contains the coordinates derived over time following the implemented PPP filter algorithm.
3150</li><br>
3151
3152<li>File 'PPPGoogleMaps.bnc'<br>
3153The purpose of this configuration is to track BNC's point positioning solution using Google Maps or Open StreetMap as background. BNC reads a RINEX Observation file and a RINEX Navigation file to carry out a 'Standard Point Positioning' solution in post-processing mode. Although this is not a real-time application it requires the BNC host to be connected to the Internet. Specify a computation speed, then hit button 'Open Map' to open the track map, then hit 'Start' to visualize receiver positions on top of GM/OSM maps.
3154</li><br>
3155
3156<li>File 'SPPQuickStartGal.bnc'<br>
3157The purpose of this configuration is Single Point Positioning in Quick-Start mode from observations of a static receiver with precisely known position. The configuration uses GPS, GLONASS and Galileo observations and a Broadcast Ephemeris stream.
3158</li><br>
3159
3160<li>File 'Sp3.bnc'<br>
3161The purpose of this configuration is to produce SP3 files from a Broadcast Ephemeris stream and a Broadcast Corrections stream. The Broadcast Corrections stream is formally introduced in BNC's 'Combine Corrections' table. Note that producing SP3 requires an ANTEX file because SP3 file contents should be referred to CoM.
3162</li><br>
3163
3164<li>File 'Sp3ETRF2000PPP.bnc'<br>
3165The purpose of this configuration is to produce SP3 files from a Broadcast Ephemeris stream and a stream carrying ETRF2000 Broadcast Corrections. The Broadcast Corrections stream is formally introduced in BNC's 'Combine Corrections' table. This leads to an SP3 file containing orbits referred also to ETRF2000. Pulling in addition observations from a reference station at precisely known ETRF2000 position allows comparing an 'INTERNAL' PPP solution with ETRF2000 reference coordinates.
3166</li><br>
3167
3168<li>File 'Upload.bnc'<br>
3169The purpose of this configuration is to upload orbits and clocks from a real-time GNSS engine to an NTRIP Broadcaster. For that the configuration reads precise orbits and clocks in RTNET format. It also reads a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris. BNC converts the orbits and clocks into Broadcast Corrections and encodes them in RTCM Version 3 SSR messages to upload them to an NTRIP Broadcaster. The Broadcast Corrections stream is referred to satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC) and IGS08. Orbits are saved on disk in SP3 format and clocks in Clock RINEX format.
3170</li><br>
3171
3172<li>File 'UploadPPP.bnc'<br>
3173This configuration equals the 'Upload.bnc' configuration. However, the Broadcast Corrections are in addition used for an 'INTERNAL' PPP solution based on observations from a static reference station with known precise coordinates. This allows a continuous quality check of the Broadcast Corrections through observing coordinate displacements.
3174</li><br>
3175
3176<li>File 'Combi.bnc'<br>
3177The purpose of this configuration is to pull several streams carrying Broadcast Corrections and a Broadcast Ephemeris stream from an NTRIP Broadcaster to produce a combined Broadcast Corrections stream. BNC encodes the combination product in RTCM Version 3 SSR messages and uploads that to an Ntrip Broadcaster. The Broadcast Corrections stream is not referred to satellite Center of Mass (CoM). It is referred to IGS08. Orbits are saved in SP3 format and clocks in Clock RINEX format.
3178</li><br>
3179
3180<li>File 'CombiPPP.bnc'<br>
3181This configuration equals the 'Combi.bnc' configuration. However, the combined Broadcast Corrections are in addition used for an 'INTERNAL' PPP solutions based on observations from a static reference station with known precise coordinates. This allows a continuous quality check of the combination product through observing coordinate displacements.
3182</li><br>
3183
3184<li>File 'UploadEph.bnc'<br>
3185The purpose of this configuration is to pull a number of streams from reference stations to get hold of contained Broadcast Ephemeris messages. These are encoded then in a RTCM Version 3 stream which only provides Broadcast Ephemeris with an update rate of 5 seconds.
3186</li>
3187
3188<li>File 'Empty.bnc'<br>
3189The purpose of this example is to provide an empty configuration file for BNC which only contains the default settings.
3190</li>
3191
3192</ol>
3193</p>
3194
3195<p>
3196The following table's left column is a list options as contained in BNC's configuration files (default: BNC.bnc).
3197</p>
3198<table>
3199<tr></tr>
3200<tr><td><b>Option</b></td><td><b>Affiliation</b></td></tr>
3201<tr><td>[General]</td><td>Settings: Group</td></tr>
3202<tr><td>startTab=</td><td>Internal: Top tab index</td></tr>
3203<tr><td>statusTab=</td><td>Internal: Bottom tab index</td></tr>
3204<tr><td>font=</td><td>Internal: Used font</td></tr>
3205<tr><td>casterUrlList=</td><td>Internal: Visited URLs</td></tr>
3206<tr><td>mountPoints=</td><td>Add Streams: broadcaster:port/mountpoint</td></tr>
3207<tr><td>ntripVersion=</td><td>Add Stream: NTRIP Version</td></tr>
3208
3209<tr><td>proxyHost=</td><td>Network: Proxy host</td></tr>
3210<tr><td>proxyPort=</td><td>Network: Proxy port</td></tr>
3211<tr><td>sslCaCertPath=</td><td>Network: Path to SSL certificates</td></tr>
3212<tr><td>ignoreSslErrors=</td><td>Network: Ignore ssl authorization errors</td></tr>
3213
3214<tr><td>logFile=</td><td>General: Logfile (full path)</td></tr>
3215<tr><td>rnxAppend=</td><td>General: Append files</td></tr>
3216<tr><td>onTheFlyInterval=</td><td>General: Reread configuration</td></tr>
3217<tr><td>autoStart=</td><td>General: Auto start</td></tr>
3218<tr><td>rawOutFile=</td><td>General: Raw output file (full path)</td></tr>
3219
3220<tr><td>rnxPath=</td><td>RINEX Observations: Directory</td></tr>
3221<tr><td>rnxIntr=</td><td>RINEX Observations: Interval</td></tr>
3222<tr><td>rnxSample=</td><td>RINEX Observations: Sampling</td></tr>
3223<tr><td>rnxSkel=</td><td>RINEX Observations: Skeleton extension</td></tr>
3224<tr><td>rnxScript=</td><td>RINEX Observations: Uplod script</td></tr>
3225<tr><td>rnxV3=</td><td>RINEX Observation: Version 3</td></tr>
3226
3227<tr><td>ephPath=</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Directory</td></tr>
3228<tr><td>ephIntr=</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Interval</td></tr>
3229<tr><td>outEphPort=</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Port</td></tr>
3230<tr><td>ephV3=</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Version 3</td></tr>
3231
3232<tr><td>corrPath=</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Directory, ASCII </td></tr>
3233<tr><td>corrIntr=</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Interval</td></tr>
3234<tr><td>corrPort=</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Port</td></tr>
3235<tr><td>corrTime=</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Wait for full corr epoch</td></tr>
3236
3237<tr><td>outPort=</td><td>Feed Engine: Port</td></tr>
3238<tr><td>waitTime=</td><td>Feed Engine: Wait for full obs epoch</td></tr>
3239<tr><td>binSampl=</td><td>Feed Engine: Sampling</td></tr>
3240<tr><td>outFile=</td><td>Feed Engine: File (full path)</td></tr>
3241<tr><td>outUPort=</td><td>Feed Engine: Port (unsynchronized)</td></tr>
3242
3243<tr><td>serialMountPoint=</td><td>Serial Output: Mountpoint</td></tr>
3244<tr><td>serialPortName=</td><td>Serial Output: Port name</td></tr>
3245<tr><td>serialBaudRate=</td><td>Serial Output: Baud rate</td></tr>
3246<tr><td>serialFlowControl=</td><td>Serial Output: Flow control</td></tr>
3247<tr><td>serialDataBits=</td><td>Serial Output: Data bits</td></tr>
3248<tr><td>serialParity=</td><td>Serial Output: Parity</td></tr>
3249<tr><td>serialStopBits=</td><td>Serial Output: Stop bits</td></tr>
3250<tr><td>serialAutoNMEA=</td><td>Serial Output: NMEA</td></tr>
3251<tr><td>serialFileNMEA=</td><td>Serial Output: NMEA file name</td></tr>
3252<tr><td>serialHeightNMEA=</td><td>Serial Output: Height</td></tr>
3253
3254<tr><td>obsRate=</td><td>Outages: Observation rate</td></tr>
3255<tr><td>adviseFail=</td><td>Outages: Failure threshold</td></tr>
3256<tr><td>adviseReco=</td><td>Outages: Recovery threshold</td></tr>
3257<tr><td>adviseScript=</td><td>Outages: Script (full path)</td></tr>
3258
3259<tr><td>miscMount=</td><td>Miscellaneous: Mountpoint</td></tr>
3260<tr><td>perfIntr=</td><td>Miscellaneous: Log latency</td></tr>
3261<tr><td>scanRTCM=</td><td>Miscellaneous: Scan RTCM</td></tr>
3262
3263<tr><td>pppSPP=</td><td>PPP Client: PPP/SPP</td></tr>
3264<tr><td>pppMount=</td><td>PPP Client: Observations Mountpoint</td></tr>
3265<tr><td>pppCorrMount=</td><td>PPP Client: Corrections Mountpoint</td></tr>
3266<tr><td>pppRefCrdX=</td><td>PPP Client: X coordinate of plot origin</td></tr>
3267<tr><td>pppRefCrdY=</td><td>PPP Client: Y coordinate of plot origin</td></tr>
3268<tr><td>pppRefCrdZ=</td><td>PPP Client: Z coordinate of plot origin</td></tr>
3269<tr><td>pppRefdN=</td><td>PPP Client: North eccentricity</td></tr>
3270<tr><td>pppRefdE=</td><td>PPP Client: East eccentricity</td></tr>
3271<tr><td>pppRefdU=</td><td>PPP Client: Up eccentricity</td></tr>
3272<tr><td>nmeaFile=</td><td>PPP Client: NMEA outputfile</td></tr>
3273<tr><td>nmeaPort=</td><td>PPP Client: NMEA IP output port</td></tr>
3274<tr><td>pppPlotCoordinates=</td><td>PPP Client: Plot NEU time series</td></tr>
3275<tr><td>postObsFile=</td><td>PPP Client: Observations file</td></tr>
3276<tr><td>postNavFile=</td><td>PPP Client: Navigation file</td></tr>
3277<tr><td>postCorrFile=</td><td>PPP Client: Corrections file</td></tr>
3278<tr><td>postOutFile=</td><td>PPP Client: Output file</td></tr>
3279<tr><td>pppAntenna=</td><td>PPP Client: Antenna name</td></tr>
3280<tr><td>pppAntex=</td><td>PPP Client: Path to ANTEX file</td></tr>
3281<tr><td>pppUsePhase=</td><td>PPP Client: Use phase data </td></tr>
3282<tr><td>pppEstTropo=</td><td>PPP Client: Estimate troposphere</td></tr>
3283<tr><td>pppGLONASS=</td><td>PPP Client: Use GLONASS</td></tr>
3284<tr><td>pppGalileo=</td><td>PPP Client: Use Galileo</td></tr>
3285<tr><td>pppSync=</td><td>PPP Client: Sync observations and corrections</td></tr>
3286<tr><td>pppAverage=</td><td>PPP Client: Lenght of time window for moving average</td></tr>
3287<tr><td>pppQuickStart=</td><td>PPP Client: Quick-Start period</td></tr>
3288<tr><td>pppMaxSolGap=</td><td>PPP Client: Maximal Solution Gap</td></tr>
3289<tr><td>pppSigmaCode=</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for Code observations</td></tr>
3290<tr><td>pppSigmaPhase=</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for Phase observations</td></tr>
3291<tr><td>pppSigmaCrd0=</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for initial XYZ coordinate</td></tr>
3292<tr><td>pppSigmaCrdP=</td><td>PPP Client: White noise for XYZ</td></tr>
3293<tr><td>pppSigmaTrp0=</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for initial tropospheric delay</td></tr>
3294<tr><td>pppSigmaTrpP=</td><td>PPP Client: White noise for tropospheric delay</td></tr>
3295
3296<tr><td>reqcAction=</td><td>Reqc: Action</td></tr>
3297<tr><td>reqcComment=</td><td>Reqc: Additional comments</td></tr>
3298<tr><td>reqcEndDateTime=</td><td>Reqc: Stop time</td></tr>
3299<tr><td>reqcNavFile=</td><td>Reqc: Navigation file</td></tr>
3300<tr><td>reqcNewAntennaName=</td><td>Reqc: New antenna</td></tr>
3301<tr><td>reqcNewMarkerName=</td><td>Reqc: New marker</td></tr>
3302<tr><td>reqcNewReceiverName=</td><td>Reqc: New receiver</td></tr>
3303<tr><td>reqcObsFile=</td><td>Reqc: Observations file</td></tr>
3304<tr><td>reqcOldAntennaName=</td><td>Reqc: Old antenna</td></tr>
3305<tr><td>reqcOldMarkerName=</td><td>Reqc: Old marker</td></tr>
3306<tr><td>reqcOldReceiverName=</td><td>Reqc: Old receiver</td></tr>
3307<tr><td>reqcOutLogFile=</td><td>Reqc: Output logfile</td></tr>
3308<tr><td>reqcOutNavFile=</td><td>Reqc: Output navigation file</td></tr>
3309<tr><td>reqcOutObsFile=</td><td>Reqc: Output observations file</td></tr>
3310<tr><td>reqcPlotDir</td><td>Reqc: QC plots directory</td></tr>
3311<tr><td>reqcRnxVersion=</td><td>Reqc: RINEX version</td></tr>
3312<tr><td>reqcRunBy=</td><td>Reqc: Operators name</td></tr>
3313<tr><td>reqcSampling=</td><td>Reqc: RINEX sampling</td></tr>
3314<tr><td>reqcSkyPlotSystem=</td><td>Reqc: GNSS system spedificaion</td></tr>
3315<tr><td>reqcStartDateTime=</td><td>Reqc: Start time</td></tr>
3316
3317<tr><td>combineStreams=</td><td>Combination: List of correction streams</td></tr>
3318<tr><td>cmbMethod=Filter</td><td>Combination: Approach</td></tr>
3319<tr><td>cmbMaxres=</td><td>Combination: Clock outlier threshold</td></tr>
3320<tr><td>cmbSampl=</td><td>Combination: Orbit and clock sampling</td></tr>
3321
3322<tr><td>uploadIntr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: File interval</td></tr>
3323<tr><td>uploadMountpointsOut=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Upload streams</td></tr>
3324<tr><td>uploadSamplClkRnx=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Clock sampling</td></tr>
3325<tr><td>uploadSamplSp3=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Orbit sampling</td></tr>
3326<tr><td>uploadSamplRtcmEphCorr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Orbit sampling</td></tr>
3327<tr><td>trafo_dx=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Translation X</td></tr>
3328<tr><td>trafo_dy=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Translation Y</td></tr>
3329<tr><td>trafo_dz=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Translation Z</td></tr>
3330<tr><td>trafo_dxr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Translation change X</td></tr>
3331<tr><td>trafo_dyr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Translation change Y</td></tr>
3332<tr><td>trafo_dzr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Translation change Z</td></tr>
3333<tr><td>trafo_ox=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Rotation X</td></tr>
3334<tr><td>trafo_oy=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Rotation Y</td></tr>
3335<tr><td>trafo_oz=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Rotation Z</td></tr>
3336<tr><td>trafo_oxr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Rotation change X</td></tr>
3337<tr><td>trafo_oyr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Rotation change Y</td></tr>
3338<tr><td>trafo_ozr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Rotation change Z</td></tr>
3339<tr><td>trafo_sc=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Scale</td></tr>
3340<tr><td>trafo_scr=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Scale change</td></tr>
3341<tr><td>trafo_t0=</td><td>Upload Corrections: Reference year</td></tr>
3342<tr><td>uploadEphHost=</td><td>Upload Ephemeris: Host</td></tr>
3343<tr><td>uploadEphPort=</td><td>Upload Ephemeris: Port</td></tr>
3344<tr><td>uploadEphMountpoint=</td><td>Upload Ephemeris: Moutpoint</td></tr>
3345<tr><td>uploadEphPassword=</td><td>Upload Ephemeris: Password</td></tr>
3346<tr><td>uploadEphSample=</td><td>Upload Ephemeris: Samplig</td></tr>
3347</table>
3348</p>
3349<p>
3350Note that the following configuration options saved on disk can be changed/edited on-the-fly while BNC is already processing data:
3351</p>
3352<p>
3353<ul>
3354<li>'mountPoints' to change the selection of streams to be processed, see section 'Streams';</li>
3355<li>'waitTime' to change the 'Wait for full obs epoch' option, see section 'Feed Engine';</li>
3356<li>'binSampl' to change the 'Sampling' option, see section 'Feed Engine'.</li>
3357</ul>
3358</p>
3359<p>
3360</p>
3361
3362<p><a name="links"><h4>5.4 Futher Reading</h3></p>
3363
3364<table>
3365<tr></tr>
3366<tr><td><b>Links</b></td></tr>
3367<tr><td>NTRIP &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/index</u></td></tr>
3368<tr><td>EUREF-IP NTRIP Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
3369<tr><td>IGS-IP NTRIP Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
3370<tr><td>IGS products NTRIP Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
3371<tr><td>IGS M-GEX NTRIP Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
3372<tr><td>IGS Real-time Service &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://rts.igs.org</u></td></tr>
3373<tr><td>Distribution of IGS-IP streams &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs.oma.be/real_time/</u></td></tr>
3374<tr><td>Completeness and latency of IGS-IP data &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs.oma.be/highrate/</u></td></tr>
3375<tr><td>NTRIP Broadcaster overview &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u></td></tr>
3376<tr><td>NTRIP Open Source software code &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org</u></td></tr>
3377<tr><td>EUREF-IP Project &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.epncb.oma.be/euref_IP</u></td></tr>
3378<tr><td>Real-time IGS Pilot Project &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtigs.net/pilot</u></td></tr>
3379<tr><td>Radio Technical Commission<br>for Maritime Services &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtcm.org</u>
3380</table>
3381
3382<br>
3383<table>
3384<tr><td><b>Publications</b></td></tr>
3385
3386<tr><td>Weber, G., D. Dettmering, H. Gebhard and R. Kalafus </td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (Ntrip), IP-Streaming for Real-Time GNSS Applications, ION GNSS 2005.</td></tr>
3387
3388<tr><td>Weber, G, L. Mervart, Z. Lukes, C. Rocken and J. Dousa </td><td>Real-time Clock and Orbit Corrections for Improved Point Positioning via NTRIP, ION GNSS 2007.</td></tr>
3389
3390<tr><td>Mervart, L., Z. Lukes, C. Rocken and T. Iwabuchi </td><td>Precise Point Positioning With Ambiguity Resolution in Real-Time, ION GNSS 2008.</td></tr>
3391
3392<tr><td>Weber, G. and L. Mervart </td><td>The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC), Report on EUREF Symposium 2007 in London, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Band 42, Frankfurt, 2009.</td></tr>
3393
3394<tr><td>Weber, G. and L. Mervart </td><td>Real-time Combination of GNSS Orbit and Clock Correction Streams Using a Kalman Filter Approach, ION GNSS 2010.</td></tr>
3395
3396<tr><td>Huisman, L., P. Teunissen and C. Hu </td><td>GNSS Precise Point Positioning in Regional Reference Frames Using Real-time Broadcast Corrections, Journal of Applied Geodesy, Vol. 6, pp15-23, 2012.</td></tr>
3397
3398<tr><td>Louis H. Estey and Charles M. Meertens</td><td>TEQC: The Multi-Purpose Toolkit for GPS/GLONASS Data, GPS Solutions, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 42-49, 1999.</td></tr>
3399
3400</table>
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