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2<h3>BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) Version 2.6 Manual</h3>
3
4<p>
5The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) is a program for simultaneously retrieving, decoding and converting real-time GNSS data streams from NTRIP broadcasters like <u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u> or <u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u> or <u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u>.
6</p>
7
8<p>
9BNC has been developed for the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) within the framework of EUREF's Real-time GNSS Project (EUREF-IP, IP for Internet Protocol) and the Real-Time IGS Pilot Project (RTIGS).
10</p>
11
12<p>
13BNC has been written under GNU General Public License (GPL). Binaries for BNC are available for Windows, 32-bit Linux, 64-bit Linux (compiled under -m32 32-bit compatibility mode), Solaris, and Mac systems. We used the MinGW Version 5.1.3 compiler to create the Windows binary. It is likely that BNC can be compiled on other systems where a GNU compiler and Qt Version 4.5.2 are installed.
14</p>
15
16<p>
17Please ensure that you have installed the latest version of BNC available from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</u>. We are continuously working on the program and would appreciate if you could send any comments, suggestions, or bug reports to [euref-ip@bkg.bund.de] or [igs-ip@bkg.bund.de].
18</p>
19
20<h3>Contents</h3>
21<p>
22<h4>
23<a href=#purpose>1. Purpose</a><br>
24<a href=#resources>2. Modes &amp; Resources</a><br>
25<a href=#options>3. Settings &amp; Handling</a><br>
26<a href=#limits>4. Limitations &amp; Known Bugs</a><br>
27<a href=#authors>5. Authors</a><br>
28<a href=#annex>6. Annex</a><br>
29</h4>
30</p>
31
32<p><a name="purpose"><h3>1. Purpose</h3></p>
33
34<p> The purpose of BNC is to
35<ul>
36<li>retrieve real-time GNSS data streams available through NTRIP transport protocol,</li>
37<li>retrieve real-time GNSS data streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the NTRIP transport protocol, and/or</li>
38<li>retrieve real-time GNSS data streams from a local UDP or serial port without using the NTRIP transport protocol, and/or</li>
39<li>generate high-rate RINEX Observation and Navigation files to support near real-time GNSS post-processing applications, and/or</li>
40<li>generate ephemeris and synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch through an IP port to support real-time GNSS network engines, and/or</li>
41<li>generate clock and orbit corrections to broadcast ephemeris through an IP port to support real-time Precise Point Positioning on GNSS rovers, and/or</li>
42<li>generate synchronized or unsynchronized clock and orbit corrections to broadcast ephemeris epoch by epoch through an IP port to support the (outside) combination of such streams as coming simultaneously from various correction providers, and/or</li>
43<li>monitor the performance of a network of real-time GNSS data streams to generate advisory notes in case of outages or corrupted streams, and/or</li>
44<li>scan RTCM streams for incoming antenna information as well as message types and their repetition rates, and/or</li>
45<li>feed a stream into a GNSS receiver via serial communication link, and/or</li>
46<li>carry out a real-time Precise Point Positioning to determine a GNSS rover position, and/or</li>
47<li>simultaneously process several incoming orbit and clock corrections streams to produce, encode and upload a combination solution, and/or</li>
48<li>read GNSS clocks and orbits in a SP3-like format from an IP port - they can be produced by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNet and should be referenced to the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system - and</li>
49<ul>
50<li>convert the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed clocks and and orbits into corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris with radial, along-track and cross-track components.</li>
51<li>upload the clock and orbit corrections as an RTCM Version 3.x stream to an NTRIP Broadcaster.</li>
52<li>refer the clock and orbit corretions to a specific reference system.</li>
53<li>log the Broadcast Ephemeris clock corrections as files in Clock RINEX files for further processing using other tools than BNC.</li>
54<li>log the Broadcast Ephemeris orbit corrections as files in SP3 files for further processing using other tools than BNC.</li>
55</ul>
56</ul>
57</p>
58
59<p>
60BNC mainly supports decoding the following GNSS stream formats and message types:
61</p>
62<p>
63<ul>
64<li>RTCM Version 2.x containing message types 18 and 19 or 20 and 21 together with 3 and 22 (GPS and GLONASS), </li>
65<li>RTCM Version 3.x containing message types</li>
66<ul>
67<li>1002, 1004 (GPS, SBAS, observations)</li>
68<li>1010, 1012 (GLONASS, observations)</li>
69<li>1019, 1020, 1045 (GPS, GLONASS, and proposed Galileo ephemeris)</li>
70<li>1057-1068 (proposed State Space Representation messages for GPS and GLONASS ephemeris correctors)</li>
71<li> 1071-1077, 1081-1087, 1091-1097 (proposed 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo observations).</li>
72</ul>
73<li>RTIGS containing GPS record types 200 (observations) and 300 (ephemeris).</li>
74</ul>
75BNC allows to by-pass its decoding and conversion algorithms, leave whatever is received untouched and save it in files.
76</p>
77
78<p>
79The first of the following figures shows a flow chart of BNC connected to a GNSS receiver via serial or TCP communication link for the pupose of Precise Point Positioning. The second figure shows the conversion of RTCM streams to RINEX batches. The third figure shows a flow chart of BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine. The engine then estimates satellite orbit and clock correctors. The 'BKG Ntrip Server' (BNS) is used in this scenario to encode correctors to RTCMv3.
80</p>
81<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot10.png"/></p>
82<p><u>Figure:</u> Flowchart, BNC connected to a GNSS receiver for Precise Point Positioning.</p>
83
84<p>
85</p>
86<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot01.png"/></p>
87<p><u>Figure:</u> Flowchart, BNC converting RTCM streams to RINEX batches.</p>
88
89<p>
90</p>
91<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot02.png"/></p>
92<p><u>Figure:</u> Flowchart, BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine.</p>
93
94<p>
95</p>
96<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot19.png"/></p>
97<p><u>Figure:</u> Flowchart, BNC combining orbit/clock correctors streams.</p>
98
99
100<p><a name="resources"><h3>2. Modes &amp; Resources</h3></p>
101<p>
102Although BNC is a real-time tool to be operated in online mode, it can be run offline for post-processing of data made availabe from a single file. Furthermore, apart from its regular window mode, BNC can be run as a batch/background job in a 'no window' mode using processing options from a previously saved configuration.
103</p>
104<p>
105Unless in offline mode, BNC
106</p>
107<ul>
108<li>requires access to the Internet with a minimum of about 2 to 6 kbits/sec per stream depending on the stream format and the number of visible satellites. You need to make sure that the connection can sustain the required bandwidth.</li>
109<li>requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized.</li>
110<li>has the capacity to retrieve hundreds of GNSS data streams simultaneously. Please be aware that such usage may incur a heavy load on the NTRIP broadcaster side depending on the number of streams requested. We recommend limiting the number of streams where possible to avoid unnecessary workload.</li>
111</ul>
112</p>
113
114<p>
115The main window of BNC shows a top menu bar section, a sections for tabs to set processing options, a 'Streams' section and a section for 'Log' tabs, and a bottom menu bar section, see figure below.
116</p>
117<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot09.png"/></p>
118<p><u>Figure:</u> Sections on BNC's main window.</p>
119
120
121<p><a name="options"><h3>3. Settings &amp; Handling</h3></p>
122<p>
123This chapter describes BNC's settings and how to handle the program. It explains the top menu bar, the processing options, the 'Streams' and 'Log' sections, and the bottom menu bar.
124</p>
125
126<p>
127The usual handling of BNC is that you first select a number of streams ('Add Stream'). Any stream configured to BNC shows up on the 'Streams' canvas in the middle of BNC's main window. You then go through BNC's various configuration tabs to select a combination of input, processing and output options before you start the program ('Start'). Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. The bandwidth consumption per stream, the latency of incoming observations and PPP time series for coordinate components are shown in the 'Throughput', 'Latency' and 'PPP Plot' tabs of the main window.
128</p>
129<p>
130As a default, configuration files for running BNC on Unix/Linux/Mac systems are saved in directory '${HOME}/.config/BKG'. On Windows systems, they are typically saved in directory 'C:/Documents and Settings/Username/.config/BKG'. The default configuration file name is 'BNC.ini'.</p>
131<p>
132The default file name 'BNC.ini' can be changed and the file contents can easily be edited. On graphical user interfaces it is possible to Drag &amp; Drop a configuration file icon to start BNC (not on Mac systems). Some configuration options can be changed on-the-fly. See annexed 'Configuration Example' for a complete set of configuration options.
133</p>
134<p>
1353.1. <a href=#topmenu>Top Menu Bar</a><br>
1363.1.1 <a href=#file>File</a><br>
1373.1.2 <a href=#help>Help</a><br><br>
1383.2. <a href=#proxy>Proxy</a><br>
1393.3. <a href=#general>General</a><br>
140&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.1. <a href=#genlog>Logfile</a><br>
141&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.2. <a href=#genapp>Append Files</a><br>
142&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.3. <a href=#genconf>Reread Configuration</a><br>
143&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.4. <a href=#genstart>Auto Start</a><br>
144&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.3.5. <a href=#rawout>Raw Output File</a><br>
1453.4. <a href=#rinex>RINEX Observations</a><br>
146&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.1. <a href=#rnxname>File Names</a><br>
147&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.2. <a href=#rnxdir>Directory</a><br>
148&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.3. <a href=#rnxinterval>File Interval</a><br>
149&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.4. <a href=#rnxsample>Sampling</a><br>
150&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.5. <a href=#rnxskl>Skeleton Extension</a><br>
151&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.6. <a href=#rnxscript>Script</a><br>
152&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4.7. <a href=#rnxvers>Version</a><br>
1533.5. <a href=#ephemeris>RINEX Ephemeris</a><br>
154&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.1. <a href=#ephdir>Directory</a><br>
155&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.2. <a href=#ephint>Interval</a><br>
156&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.3. <a href=#ephport>Port</a><br>
157&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.5.4. <a href=#ephvers>Version</a><br>
1583.6. <a href=#correct>Broadcast Corrections</a><br>
159&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.1. <a href=#corrdir>Directory, ASCII</a><br>
160&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.2. <a href=#corrint>Interval</a><br>
161&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.3. <a href=#corrport>Port</a><br>
162&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.6.4. <a href=#corrwait>Wait for Full Epoch</a><br>
1633.7. <a href=#syncout>Feed Engine</a><br>
164&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.1. <a href=#syncport>Port</a><br>
165&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.2. <a href=#syncwait>Wait for Full Epoch</a><br>
166&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.3. <a href=#syncsample>Sampling</a><br>
167&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.4. <a href=#syncfile>File</a><br>
168&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.7.5. <a href=#syncuport>Port (unsynchronized)</a><br>
1693.8. <a href=#serial>Serial Output</a><br>
170&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.1. <a href=#sermount>Mountpoint</a><br>
171&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.2. <a href=#serport>Port Name</a><br>
172&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.3. <a href=#serbaud>Baud Rate</a><br>
173&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.4. <a href=#serflow>Flow Control</a><br>
174&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.5. <a href=#serparity>Parity</a><br>
175&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.6. <a href=#serdata>Data Bits</a><br>
176&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.7. <a href=#serstop>Stop Bits</a><br>
177&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.8. <a href=#serauto>NMEA</a><br>
178&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.9. <a href=#serfile>File</a><br>
179&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.8.10. <a href=#serheight>Height</a><br>
1803.9. <a href=#advnote>Outages</a><br>
181&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.1. <a href=#obsrate>Observation Rate</a><br>
182&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.2. <a href=#advfail>Failure Threshold</a><br>
183&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.3. <a href=#advreco>Recovery Threshold</a><br>
184&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.9.4. <a href=#advscript>Script</a><br>
1853.10. <a href=#misc>Miscellaneous</a><br>
186&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.1. <a href=#miscmount>Mountpoint</a><br>
187&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.2. <a href=#miscperf>Log Latency</a><br>
188&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.10.3. <a href=#miscscan>Scan RTCM</a><br>
1893.11. <a href=#pppclient>PPP Client</a><br>
190&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.1 <a href=#pppmount>Obs Mountpoint</a><br>
191&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.1.1 <a href=#pppxyz>XYZ</a><br>
192&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.2 <a href=#pppcorrmount>Corr Mountpoint</a><br>
193&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3 <a href=#pppopt>Options</a><br>
194&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3.1 <a href=#pppphase>Use Phase Obs</a><br>
195&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3.2 <a href=#ppptropo>Estimate Tropo</a><br>
196&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3.3 <a href=#pppglo>Use GLONASS</a><br>
197&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.3.4 <a href=#pppgal>Use Galileo</a><br>
198&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.4 <a href=#pppoptcont1>Options cont'd</a><br>
199&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.4.1 <a href=#pppsigxyzi>XYZ Init</a><br>
200&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.4.2 <a href=#pppsigxyzn>XYZ White Noise</a><br>
201&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.4.3 <a href=#pppquick>Quick-Start</a><br>
202&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.4.4 <a href=#pppgap>Max Solution Gap</a><br>
203&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.5 <a href=#pppoutput>Output</a><br>
204&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.5.1 <a href=#pppnmeafile>NMEA File</a><br>
205&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.5.2 <a href=#pppnmeaport>NMEA Port</a><br>
206&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.5.3 <a href=#pppplot>PPP Plot</a><br>
207&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.6 <a href=#ppprecant>Antennas</a><br>
208&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.6.1 <a href=#pppantex>ANTEX File</a><br>
209&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.6.2 <a href=#ppprecantenna>Receiver Antenna Name</a><br>
210&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.7 <a href=#pppsatant>Satellite Antenna</a><br>
211&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.7.1 <a href=#pppsatantignore>Ignore Offsets</a><br>
212&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.8 <a href=#pppsigmas>Sigmas</a><br>
213&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.8.1 <a href=#pppsigc>Code</a><br>
214&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.8.2 <a href=#pppsigp>Phase</a><br>
215&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.8.3 <a href=#pppsigtrpi>Tropo Init</a><br>
216&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.8.4 <a href=#pppsigtrpn>Tropo White Noise</a><br>
217&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.9 <a href=#pppoptcont2>Options cont'd</a><br>
218&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.9.1 <a href=#pppsync>Sync Corr</a><br>
219&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.11.9.2 <a href=#pppaverage>Averaging</a><br>
2203.12. <a href=#combi>Combination</a><br>
221&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.1 <a href=#combimounttab>Combination Table</a><br>
222&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.12.1.1 <a href=#combiadd>Add Row, Delete</a><br>
2233.13. <a href=#upclk>Upload (clk)</a><br>
224&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.1 <a href=#upmntp>Mountpoint</a><br>
225&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.2 <a href=#uphost>Host, Port, Password</a><br>
226&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.3 <a href=#upascii>Directory, ASCII</a><br>
227&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.13.4 <a href=#upsp3>Directory, SP3</a><br>
2283.14. <a href=#upeph>Upload (eph)</a><br><br>
2293.15. <a href=#streams>Streams</a><br>
230&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.15.1 <a href=#streamedit>Edit Streams</a><br>
231&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.15.2 <a href=#streamdelete>Delete Stream</a><br>
232&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.15.3 <a href=#streamconf>Reconfigure Streams On-the-fly</a><br><br>
2333.16. <a href=#logs>Logging</a><br>
234&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.1 <a href=#logfile>Log</a><br>
235&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.2 <a href=#throughput>Throughput</a><br>
236&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.3 <a href=#latency>Latency</a><br>
237&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.16.4 <a href=#ppptab>PPP Plot</a><br><br>
2383.17. <a href=#bottom>Bottom Menu Bar</a><br>
239&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1. <a href=#streamadd>Add Stream - Coming from Caster</a><br>
240&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1.1 <a href=#streamhost>Caster Host and Port</a><br>
241&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1.2 <a href=#streamtable>Casters Table</a><br>
242&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1.3 <a href=#streamuser>User and Password</a><br>
243&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1.4 <a href=#gettable>Get Table</a><br>
244&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1.5 <a href=#ntripv>NTRIP Version</a><br>
245&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.1.6 <a href=#map>Map</a><br>
246&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.2 <a href=#streamip>Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</a><br>
247&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.3 <a href=#streamudp>Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</a><br>
248&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.4 <a href=#streamser>Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</a><br>
249&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.5 <a href=#start>Start</a><br>
250&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.17.6 <a href=#stop>Stop</a><br><br>
2513.18. <a href=#cmd>Command Line Options</a><br>
252&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.1. <a href=#nw>No Window Mode</a><br>
253&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.2. <a href=#post>Offline Mode</a><br>
254&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.18.3. <a href=#conffile>Configuration File</a><br>
255</p>
256
257<p><a name="topmenu"><h4>3.1. Top Menu Bar</h4></p>
258<p>
259The top menu bar allows to select a font for the BNC windows, save configured options or quit the program execution. It also provides access to a program documentation.
260</p>
261
262<p><a name="file"><h4>3.1.1 File</h4></p>
263
264<p>
265The 'File' button lets you
266<ul>
267<li> select an appropriate font.<br>
268Use smaller font size if the BNC main window exceeds the size of your screen.
269</li>
270<li> save selected options in configuration file.<br>
271When using 'Save &amp; Reread Configuration' while BNC is already processing data, some configuration options become immediately effective on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads. See annexed section 'Configuration Example' for a list of on-the-fly changeable configuration options.
272</li>
273<li> quit the BNC program.
274</li>
275</ul>
276</p>
277
278<p><a name="help"><h4>3.1.2 Help</h4></p>
279
280<p>
281The 'Help' button provides access to
282<ul>
283<li>
284help contents.<br>
285You may keep the 'Help Contents' window open while configuring BNC.
286</li>
287<li>
288a 'Flow Chart' showing BNC linked to a real-time GNSS network engine such as RTNet.
289</li>
290<li>
291general information about BNC.<br>
292Close the 'About BNC' window to continue working with BNC.
293</li>
294</ul>
295</p>
296<p>
297BNC comes with a help system providing online information about its functionality and usage. Short descriptions are available for any widget. Focus to the relevant widget and press Shift+F1 to request help information. A help text appears immediately; it disappears as soon as the user does something else. The dialogs on some operating systems may provide a &quot;?&quot; button that users can click; they then click the relevant widget to pop up the help text.
298</p>
299
300<p><a name="proxy"><h4>3.2. Proxy - for usage in a protected LAN</h4></p>
301
302<p>
303If you are running BNC within a protected Local Area Network (LAN), you might need to use a proxy server to access the Internet. Enter your proxy server IP and port number in case one is operated in front of BNC. If you don't know the IP and port of your proxy server, check the proxy server settings in your Internet browser or ask your network administrator.</p>
304<p>
305Note that IP streaming is often not allowed in a LAN. In this case you need to ask your network administrator for an appropriate modification of the local security policy or for the installation of a TCP relay to the NTRIP broadcasters. If these are not possible, you might need to run BNC outside your LAN on a host that has unobstructed connection to the Internet.
306</p>
307<p><a name="general"><h4>3.3. General</h4></p>
308<p>
309The following defines general settings for BNC's logfile, file handling, reconfiguration on-the-fly, and auto-start.
310</p>
311
312<p><a name="genlog"><h4>3.3.1 Logfile - optional</h4></p>
313<p>
314Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '_YYMMDD' carrying the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously for extended. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the NTRIP broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not saved into a file.
315</p>
316
317<p><a name="genapp"><h4>3.3.2 Append Files - optional</h4></p>
318<p>
319When BNC is started, new files are created by default and any existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or when BNC crashed. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
320</p>
321
322<p><a name="genconf"><h4>3.3.3 Reread Configuration - optional</h4></p>
323<p>
324When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), some configuration options can nevertheless be changed on-the-fly without interrupting the running process. For that you force the program to reread parts of its configuration in pre-defined intervals from the disk. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' to let BNC reread on-the-fly changeable configuration options every full minute, hour, or day. This lets in between edited options become effective without interrupting uninvolved threads. See annexed section 'Configuration Example' for a configuration file example and a list of on-the-fly changeable options.
325</p>
326
327<p><a name="genstart"><h4>3.3.4 Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
328<p>
329You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required i.e. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory /etc/init.d (Unix/Linux/Mac systems).
330</p>
331<p>
332 See BNC's command line option -nw for an auto-start of BNC in 'no window' mode.
333</p>
334
335<p><a name="rawout"><h4>3.3.5 Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
336<p>
337BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in the received order and format together in one single daily file. This is of importance i.e. when using the PPP option in offline mode where the contents of different streams carrying observations, orbit/clock correctors, and broadcast ephemeris are to be read from one file. Data will be saved in blocks in the received format seperated by ASCII records like (example):
338<pre>
3392010-08-03T18:05:28 RTCM3EPH RTCM_3 67
340</pre>
341This example block header tells you that 67 bytes are saved in the data block following this record. The information in this block is encoded in RTCM Version 3.x format, comes from Mountpoint RTCM3EPH and was received at 18:05:29 UTC on 2010-08-03. BNC adds its own time stamps because a complete time reference may not be provided for all incoming observations and epochs.
342</p>
343<p>
344Note that streams in a 'Raw output file' which shall later be used in an offline PPP calculation must all be encoded in the same format.
345</p>
346<p>
347The default value for 'Raw output file (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save raw data into a daily file.
348</p>
349
350<p><a name="rinex"><h4>3.4. RINEX Observations</h4></p>
351<p>
352Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2.x, RTCM Version 3.x, or RTIGS format. BNC's RINEX Version 2 observation files generally contain C1, P1, L1, S1, C2, P2, L2 and S2 observations. RINEX Version 3 observation files generally contain the following observation types:
353<ul>
354<li>For GPS satellites, 'G': C1C L1C D1C S1C C1W L1W D1W S1W C2P L2P D2P S2P C2X L2X D2X S2X C5 L5 D5 S5</li>
355<li>For GLONASS satellites, 'R': C1C L1C D1C S1C C1P L1P D1P S1P C2P L2P D2P S2P C2C L2C D2C S2C</li>
356<li>For Geostationary signal payloads, 'S': C1C L1C D1C S1C C1W L1W D1W S1W</li>
357<li>For Galileo satellites, 'E': C1 L1 D1 S1 C5 L5 D5 S5</li>
358</ul>
359In case an observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000'. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' even if the file only contains data from one system.
360</p>
361
362<p>
363The screenshot below shows an example setup of BNC when converting streams to RINEX. Streams are coming in from various NTRIP broadcasters as well as via a plain UDP and a serial communication link. Decoder 'ZERO' has been selected for one stream to not convert its contents but save it in original format.
364</p>
365<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot16.png"/></p>
366<p><u>Figure:</u> BNC translating incoming streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 files.</p>
367
368<p><a name="rnxname"><h4>3.4.1 RINEX File Names</h4></p>
369<p>
370RINEX file names are derived by BNC from the first 4 characters of the corresponding stream's mountpoint (4Char Station ID). For example, data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and WETTZELL will have hourly RINEX Observation files named</p>
371<p>
372FRAN{ddd}{h}.{yy}O<br>
373WETT{ddd}{h}.{yy}O
374</p>
375<p>
376where 'ddd' is the day of year, 'h' is a letter which corresponds to an hour long UTC time block and 'yy' is the year.
377</p>
378<p>
379If there are more than one stream with identical 4Char Station ID (same first 4 characters for their mountpoints), the mountpoint strings are split into two sub-strings and both become part of the RINEX file name. For example, when simultaneously retrieving data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and FRANCE, their hourly RINEX Observation files are named as</p>
380<p>
381FRAN{ddd}{h}_KFURT.{yy}O<br>
382FRAN{ddd}{h}_CE.{yy}O.
383</p>
384<p>
385If several streams show exactly the same mountpoint name (example: BRUS0 from <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> and BRUS0 from <u>www.igs-ip.net</u>), BNC adds an integer number to the file name leading i.e. to hourly RINEX Observation files like</p>
386<p>
387BRUS{ddd}{h}_0.{yy}O<br>
388BRUS{ddd}{h}_1.{yy}O.
389</p>
390<p>
391Note that RINEX file names for all intervals less than 1 hour follow the file name convention for 15 minutes RINEX Observation files i.e.</p>
392<p>
393FRAN{ddd}{h}{mm}.{yy}O
394</p>
395<p>
396where 'mm' is the starting minute within the hour.
397</p>
398
399<p><a name="rnxdir"><h4>3.4.2 Directory - optional</h4></p>
400<p>
401Here you can specify the path to where the RINEX Observation files will be stored. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Observation files. Default value for 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Observation files will be written.
402</p>
403
404<p><a name="rnxinterval"><h4>3.4.3 File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
405<p>
406Select the length of the RINEX Observation file generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
407</p>
408
409<p><a name="rnxsample"><h4>3.4.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Directory' is set </h4></p>
410<p>
411Select the RINEX Observation sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all received epochs into RINEX. This is the default value.
412</p>
413
414<p><a name="rnxskl"><h4>3.4.5 Skeleton Extension - optional</h4></p>
415<p>
416Whenever BNC starts generating RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived from sitelogs. A HTTP link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table. See <u>http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl</u> for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for the Brussels EPN station.
417</p>
418<p>
419However, sometimes public RINEX header skeleton files are not available, its contents is not up to date, or you need to put additional/optional records in the RINEX header. For that BNC allows using personal skeleton files that contain the header records you would like to include. You can derive a personal RINEX header skeleton file from the information given in an up to date sitelog. A file in the RINEX Observations 'Directory' with a 'Skeleton extension' suffix is interpreted by BNC as a personal RINEX header skeleton file for the corresponding stream.
420</p>
421<p>
422Examples for personal skeleton file name convention: RINEX Observation files for mountpoints WETTZELL, FRANKFURT and FRANCE (same 4Char Station ID), BRUS0 from <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> and BRUS0 from <u>www.igs-ip.net</u> (same 4Char Station ID, identical mountpoint stings) would accept personal skeleton files named</p>
423<p>
424WETT.skl<br>
425FRAN_KFURT.skl<br>
426FRAN_CE.skl<br>
427BRUS_0.skl<br>
428BRUS_1.skl</p>
429<p>
430if 'Skeleton extension' is set to 'skl'.
431</p>
432<p>
433Note the following regulations regarding personal RINEX header skeleton files:
434<ul>
435<li>If such a file exists in the 'RINEX directory', the corresponding public RINEX header skeleton file is ignored. The RINEX header is generated solely from the contents of the personal skeleton.</li>
436<li>Personal skeletons should contain a complete first header record of type</li>
437<br>- &nbsp; RINEX VERSION / TYPE
438<li>They should then contain an empty header record of type</li>
439<br>- &nbsp; PGM / RUN BY / DATE
440<br>BNC will complete this line and include it in the actual RINEX file header.
441<li>They should further contain complete header records of type</li>
442<br>- &nbsp; MARKER NAME
443<br>- &nbsp; OBSERVER / AGENCY
444<br>- &nbsp; REC # / TYPE / VERS
445<br>- &nbsp; ANT # / TYPE
446<br>- &nbsp; APPROX POSITION XYZ
447<br>- &nbsp; ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N
448<br>- &nbsp; WAVELENGTH FACT L1/2
449<li>They may contain any other optional complete header record as defined in the RINEX documentation.</li>
450<li>They should then contain empty header records of type</li>
451<br>- &nbsp; # / TYPES OF OBSERV
452<br>- &nbsp; TIME OF FIRST OBS
453<br>BNC will include these lines in the final RINEX file header together with an additional
454<br>- &nbsp; COMMENT
455<br>line describing the source of the stream.
456<li>They should finally contain an empty header record of type</li>
457<br>- &nbsp; END OF HEADER (last record)
458</ul>
459<p>
460If neither a public nor a personal RINEX header skeleton file is available for BNC, a default header will be used.
461</p>
462
463<p><a name="rnxscript"><h4>3.4.6 Script - optional</h4></p>
464<p>
465Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that specify the full path of the script/batch file here. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (%1 on Windows systems, $1 on Unix/Linux/Mac systems).
466</p>
467<p>
468The triggering event for calling the script or batch file is the end of a RINEX Observation file 'Interval'. If that is overridden by a stream outage, the triggering event is the stream reconnection.
469</p>
470<p>
471As an alternative to initiating file uploads through BNC, you may like to call an upload script or batch file through your crontable or Task Scheduler (independent from BNC) once every 2 or 3 minutes after the end of each RINEX file 'Interval'.
472</p>
473
474<p><a name="rnxvers"><h4>3.4.7 Version - optional</h4></p>
475<p>
476The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you would like to save observations in RINEX Version 3 format.
477</p>
478
479<p><a name="ephemeris"><h4>3.5. RINEX Ephemeris</h4></p>
480<p>
481Broadcast ephemeris can be saved as RINEX Navigation files when received via RTCM Version 3.x as message types 1019 (GPS) or 1020 (GLONASS) or 1045 (proposed, Galileo) or via RTIGS records type 300. The file name convention follows the details given in section 'RINEX File Names' except that the first four characters are 'BRDC' and the last character is
482</p>
483<ul>
484<li>'N' or 'G' for GPS or GLONASS ephemeris in two separate RINEX Version 2.11 Navigation files, or</li>
485<li>'P' for GPS plus GLONASS plus Galileo ephemeris saved together in one RINEX Version 3 Navigation file.
486</ul>
487
488<p>
489Note that streams dedicated to carry Broadacst Ephemeris messages in RTCM v3 format in high repetition rates are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>.
490</p>
491
492<p><a name="ephdir"><h4>3.5.1 Directory - optional</h4></p>
493<p>
494Specify the path for saving broadcast ephemeris data as RINEX Navigation files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Navigation files. Default value for Ephemeris 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Navigation files will be created.
495</p>
496
497<p><a name="ephint"><h4>3.5.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
498<p>
499Select the length of the RINEX Navigation file generated. The default value is 1 day.
500</p>
501
502<p><a name="ephport"><h4>3.5.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
503<p>
504BNC can output broadcast ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. This function is introduced in order to support i.e. the 'BKG Ntrip Sate Space Server' (BNS) which transforms IGS clocks and orbits into corrections to broadcast ephemeris. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII ephemeris output via IP port is generated.
505</p>
506<p>
507The source code for BNC comes with an example perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's ASCII ephemeris output from the IP port.
508</p>
509
510<p><a name="ephvers"><h4>3.5.4 Version - optional</h4></p>
511<p>
512Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing broadcast ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format.
513</p>
514<p>
515Note that this does not concern the broadcast ephemeris output through IP port which is always in RINEX Version 3 format.
516</p>
517
518<p><a name="correct"><h4>3.6. Broadcast Corrections</h4></p>
519<p>
520Differential GNSS and RTK operation using RTCM streams is currently based on corrections and/or raw measurements from single or multiple reference stations. This approach to differential positioning is using 'observation space' information. The representation with the RTCM standard can be called 'ObservationSpace Representation' (OSR).
521</p>
522<p>
523An alternative to the observation space approach is the so called 'sate space' approach. The principle here is to provide information on individual error sources and can be called 'State Space Representation' (SSR). For a rover position, state space information concerning precise satellite clocks, orbits, ionosphere, troposphere et cetera can be converted into observation space and used to correct the rover observables for more accurate positioning. Alternatively the state information can directly be used in the rover's processing or adjustment model.
524</p>
525<p>
526RTCM is in the process of developing new Version 3 messages to transport satellite clock and orbit corrections in real-time. Based on the latest available proposal, the following premature 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages currently under discussion have been implemented in BNC. The information below should not be misunderstood as a programmers guide. Programming efforts would definitely require access to the RTCM documentation of SSR messages.
527<ul>
528<li>Message type 1057: GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
529<li>Message type 1058: GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
530<li>Message type 1059: GPS code biases</li>
531<li>Message type 1060: Combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
532<li>Message type 1061: GPS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
533<li>Message type 1062: High-rate GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
534<li>Message type 1063: GLONASS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
535<li>Message type 1064: GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
536<li>Message type 1065: GLONASS code biases</li>
537<li>Message type 1066: Combined orbit and clock corrections to GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
538<li>Message type 1067: GLONASS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
539<li>Message type 1068: High-rate GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
540</ul>
541<p>
542RTCM Version 3 streams carrying these messages may be used i.e. to support real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) applications.
543</p>
544<p>
545When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as dt = -2 (R * V) / c^2 where R * V is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and c is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006.
546</p>
547
548<p>
549Orbit corrections are provided in along-track, cross-track and radial components. These components are defined in the Earth-centered, Earth-fixed reference frame of the broadcast ephemerides. For an observer in this frame, the along-track component is aligned in both direction and sign with the velocity vector, the cross-track component is perpendicular to the plane defined by the satellite position and velocity vectors, and the radial direction is perpendicular to the along track and cross-track ones. The three components form a right-handed orthogonal system.
550</p>
551
552<p>
553After applying corrections, the satellite position and clock is referred to the 'ionospheric free' phase center of the antenna which is compatible with the broadcast orbit reference.
554</p>
555
556<p>
557The orbit and clock corrections do not include local effects (like Ocean Loading or Solid Earth Tides) or atmospheric effects (Ionosphere and/or troposphere). Depending on the accuracy of your application you should correct for such effects by other means. There is currently no RTCM SSR message for ionospheric state parameters. Such messages are needed for accurate single frequency applications. The development of Iono messages will be the next step in the schedule of the RTCM State Space Representation Working Group.
558</p>
559
560<p>
561Broadcast Corrections can be saved by BNC in files. The file name convention for Broadcast Correction files follows the convention for RINEX files except for the last character of the file name suffix which is set to &quot;C&quot;.
562</p>
563
564<p>
565Saved files contain blocks of records in plain ASCII format where - separate for GPS, GLONASS, message types, streams, and epochs - the begin of a block is indicated by a line like (examples):
566</p>
567<p>
568! Orbits/Clocks: 30 GPS 0 Glonass CLK11<br>
569or<br>
570! Orbits/Clocks: 0 GPS 19 Glonass CLK11
571<p>
572Such line informs you about the number of records (here 30 and 19) carrying GPS or GLONASS related parameters you should receive next as part of a certain stream.
573</p>
574<p>
575The first five parameters in each broadcast corrections record are:
576</p>
577<p>
578<ul>
579<li>RTCMv3 message type number</li>
580<li>SSR message update interval indicator</li>
581<ul>
582<li>0 = 1 sec</li>
583<li>1 = 2 sec</li>
584<li>2 = 5 sec</li>
585<li>3 = 10 sec</li>
586<li>4 = 15 sec</li>
587<li>5 = 30 sec</li>
588<li>6 = 60 sec</li>
589<li>7 = 120 sec</li>
590<li>8 = 240 sec</li>
591<li>9 = 300 sec</li>
592<li>10 = 600 sec</li>
593<li>11 = 900 sec</li>
594<li>12 = 1800 sec</li>
595<li>13 = 3600 sec</li>
596<li>14 = 7200 sec</li>
597<li>15 = 10800 sec</li>
598</ul>
599<li>GPS Week</li>
600<li>Second in GPS Week</li>
601<li>GNSS Indicator and Satellite Vehicle Pseudo Random Number</li>
602</ul>
603</p>
604<p>
605In case of RTCM message types 1057 or 1063 these parameters are followed by
606</p>
607<p>
608<ul>
609<li>IOD referring to Broadcast Ephemeris set</li>
610<li>Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
611<li>Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
612<li>Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
613<li>Velocity of Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
614<li>Velocity of Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
615<li>Velocity of Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
616<p>
617</ul>
618</p>
619<p>
620Undefined parameters are set to zero &quot;0.000&quot;.<br>Example:
621<pre>
622...
6231057 0 1538 211151.0 G18 1 0.034 0.011 -0.064 0.000 0.000 0.000
6241057 0 1538 211151.0 G16 33 -0.005 0.194 -0.091 0.000 0.000 0.000
6251057 0 1538 211151.0 G22 50 0.008 -0.082 -0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000
626...
6271063 0 1538 211151.0 R09 111 -0.011 -0.014 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000
6281063 0 1538 211151.0 R10 43 0.000 -0.009 -0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000
6291063 0 1538 211151.0 R21 75 -0.029 0.108 0.107 0.000 0.000 0.000
630...
631</pre>
632<p>
633In case of RTCM message types 1058 or 1064 the first five parameters are followed by
634</p>
635<ul>
636<li>IOD set to zero &quot;0&quot;</li>
637<li>C0 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
638<li>C1 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
639<li>C2 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s**2]</li>
640</ul>
641Example:
642</p>
643<pre>
644...
6451058 0 1538 211151.0 G18 0 1.846 0.000 0.000
6461058 0 1538 211151.0 G16 0 0.376 0.000 0.000
6471058 0 1538 211151.0 G22 0 2.727 0.000 0.000
648...
6491064 0 1538 211151.0 R08 0 8.956 0.000 0.000
6501064 0 1538 211151.0 R07 0 14.457 0.000 0.000
6511064 0 1538 211151.0 R23 0 6.436 0.000 0.000
652...
653</pre>
654</p>
655<p>
656In case of RTCM message types 1060 or 1066 the first five parameters are followed by
657<p>
658<ul>
659<li>IOD referring to Broadcast Ephemeris set</li>
660<li>C0 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
661<li>Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
662<li>Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
663<li>Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
664<li>C1 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
665<li>Velocity of Radial Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
666<li>Velocity of Along-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
667<li>Velocity of Cross-track Component of Orbit Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m/s]</li>
668<li>C2 polynomial coefficient for Clock Correction to Broadcast Ephemeris [m]</li>
669</ul>
670Example:
671</p>
672<pre>
673...
6741060 0 1538 211610.0 G30 82 2.533 0.635 -0.359 -0.598 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6751060 0 1538 211610.0 G31 5 -4.218 -0.208 0.022 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6761060 0 1538 211610.0 G32 28 -2.326 0.977 -0.576 0.142 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
677...
6781066 0 1538 211610.0 R22 27 1.585 2.024 2.615 -2.080 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6791066 0 1538 211610.0 R23 27 6.277 2.853 4.181 1.304 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6801066 0 1538 211610.0 R24 27 0.846 1.805 13.095 6.102 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
681...
682</pre>
683</p>
684<p>
685In case of RTCM message types 1059 or 1065 the first five parameters are followed by
686<ul>
687<li>Number of Code Biases</li>
688<li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
689<li>Code Bias</li>
690<li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
691<li>Code Bias</li>
692<li>etc.</li>
693</ul>
694Example:
695</p>
696<pre>
697...
6981059 0 1538 211151.0 G18 2 0 -0.010 11 -0.750
6991059 0 1538 211151.0 G16 2 0 -0.040 11 -0.430
7001059 0 1538 211151.0 G22 2 0 -0.630 11 -2.400
701...
702</pre>
703
704<p><a name="corrdir"><h4>3.6.1 Directory, ASCII - optional</h4></p>
705<p>
706Specify a directory for saving Broadcast Corrections in files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Broadcast Correction files. Default value for Broadcast Corrections 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction files will be created.
707</p>
708
709<p><a name="corrint"><h4>3.6.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
710<p>
711Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is 1 day.
712</p>
713
714<p><a name="corrport"><h4>3.6.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
715<p>
716BNC can output epoch by epoch synchronized Broadcast Corrections in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction output via IP port is generated.
717</p>
718<p>
719The output format equals the format used for saving Broadcast Corrections in a file with the exception that the Mountpoint is added at each line's end.
720</p>
721<p>
722The following is an example output for streams from Mountpoints RTCMSSR, CLK10 and CLK11:
723<pre>
724...
7251057 0 1538 211151.0 G18 1 0.034 0.011 -0.064 0.000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
7261057 0 1538 211151.0 G16 33 -0.005 0.194 -0.091 0.000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
7271057 0 1538 211151.0 G22 50 0.008 -0.082 -0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
728...
7291058 0 1538 211151.0 G18 0 1.846 0.000 RTCMSSR
7301058 0 1538 211151.0 G16 0 0.376 0.000 RTCMSSR
7311058 0 1538 211151.0 G22 0 2.727 0.000 RTCMSSR
732...
7331059 0 1538 211151.0 G18 2 0 -0.010 11 -0.750 RTCMSSR
7341059 0 1538 211151.0 G16 2 0 -0.040 11 -0.430 RTCMSSR
7351059 0 1538 211151.0 G22 2 0 -0.630 11 -2.400 RTCMSSR
736...
7371063 0 1538 211151.0 R09 111 -0.011 -0.014 0.005 0.0000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
7381063 0 1538 211151.0 R10 43 0.000 -0.009 -0.002 0.0000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
7391063 0 1538 211151.0 R21 75 -0.029 0.108 0.107 0.0000 0.000 0.000 RTCMSSR
740...
7411064 0 1538 211151.0 R08 0 8.956 0.000 RTCMSSR
7421064 0 1538 211151.0 R07 0 14.457 0.000 RTCMSSR
7431064 0 1538 211151.0 R23 0 6.436 0.000 RTCMSSR
744...
7451066 0 1538 211610.0 R24 27 0.846 1.805 13.095 6.102 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK11
7461066 0 1538 211610.0 R23 27 6.277 2.853 4.181 1.304 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK11
7471066 0 1538 211610.0 R22 27 1.585 2.024 2.615 -2.080 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK11
748...
7491060 0 1538 211610.0 G32 28 -2.326 0.977 -0.576 0.142 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK10
7501060 0 1538 211610.0 G31 5 -4.218 -0.208 0.022 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK10
7511060 0 1538 211610.0 G30 82 2.533 0.635 -0.359 -0.598 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CLK10
752...
753</pre>
754</p>
755<p>
756The source code for BNC comes with an example perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's Broadcast Corrections from the IP port.
757</p>
758
759<p><a name="corrwait"><h4>3.6.4 Wait for Full Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
760<p>
761When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting epoch by epoch for synchronized Broadcast Corrections, BNC drops (only concerning IP port output) whatever is received later than 'Wait for full epoch' seconds. A value of 2 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming Broadcast Corrections stream and the delay acceptable by your application. A message such as &quot;COCK1: Correction overaged by 5 sec&quot; shows up in BNC's logfile if 'Wait for full epoch' is exceeded.
762</p>
763<p>
764Specifying a value of '0' means that BNC immediately outputs all incoming Broadcast Epemeris Corrections and does not drop any of them for latency reasons.
765</p>
766
767<p><a name="syncout"><h4>3.7. Feed Engine</h4></p>
768<p>
769BNC can generate synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a local file. The output is always in plain ASCII format and comprises the following parameters:
770<ul>
771<li>For GPS satellites:<br>StationID GPSWeek GPSWeekSec 'G'PRN C1C L1C SlipCountL1 D1C S1C C1W L1W SlipCountL1 D1W S1W C2P L2P SlipCountL2 D2P S2P C2X L2X SlipCountL2 D2X S2X C5 L5 SlipCountL5 D5 S5</li>
772<li>For GLONASS satellites:<br>StationID GPSWeek GPSWeekSec 'R'PRN SlotNumber C1C L1C SlipCountL1 D1C S1C C1P L1P SlipCountL1 D1P S1P C2P L2P SlipCountL2 D2P S2P C2C L2C SlipCountL2 D2C S2C</li>
773<li>For Geostationary signal payloads:<br>StationID GPSWeek GPSWeekSec 'S'PRN C1C L1C SlipCountL1 D1C S1C C1W L1W SlipCountL1 D1W S1W</li>
774<li>For Galileo satellites:<br>StationID GPSWeek GPSWeekSec 'E'PRN C1 L1 SlipCountL1 D1 S1 C5 L5 SlipCountL5 D5 S5</li>
775</ul>
776In case an observation is not available, its value is set to zero '0.000'.
777</p>
778<p>Note on 'SlipCount':<br>
779It is the current understanding of BNC's authors that different slip counts could be referred to different phase measurements (i.e. L1C and L1P). The 'loss-of-lock' flags in RINEX are an example for making such kind of information available per phase measurement. However, it looks like we do have only one slip count in RTCM Version 3 for all phase measurements. As it could be that a receiver generates different slip counts for different phase measurements, we output one slip count per phase measurement to a listening real-time GNSS network engine.
780</p>
781
782<p>
783The following is an output example for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo observations and observations obtained from a geostationary payload signal:
784<pre>
785...
786WTZX3 1616 149732.0000000 E52 27089285.092 142354765.663 -1 2212.322 45.500 27089287.942 106304461.365 -1 2212.404 42.300
787...
788WTZX3 1616 149732.0000000 G10 22608910.719 118810687.059 -1 2965.339 49.300 22608909.593 118810311.312 -1 2965.339 36.000 22608915.003 92579465.057 -1 2966.012 36.000 0.000 0.000 -1 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1 0.000 0.000
789...
790WTZX3 1616 149732.0000000 G07 23633028.684 124192961.644 -1 3686.418 48.800 23633026.847 124192961.885 -1 3686.418 35.000 23633032.480 96773737.419 -1 3685.139 35.000 23633033.547 96773738.190 -1 3685.172 43.500 0.000 0.000 -1 0.000 0.000
791...
792WTZX3 1616 149732.0000000 R20 2 24149338.926 129137949.211 48 2950.111 42.800 24149340.305 129137949.481 48 2950.111 41.800 24149356.146 100440627.082 48 2949.895 39.500 24149356.702 100440626.859 48 2949.896 40.000
793...
794</pre>
795<p>
796The source code for BNC comes with a perl script called 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's (synchronized or unsynchronized) ASCII observation output from the IP port and print it on standard output.
797</p>
798<p>
799Note that any socket connection of an application to BNC's synchronized or unsynchronized observations ports is recorded in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window together with a connection counter, resulting in log records like 'New client connection on sync/usync port: # 1'.
800</p>
801
802<p>
803The following figure shows the screenshot of a BNC configuration where a number of streams is pulled from different NTRIP broadcasters to feed a GNSS engine via IP port output.
804</p>
805<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot12.png"/></p>
806<p><u>Figure:</u> Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine.</p>
807
808<p><a name="syncport"><h4>3.7.1 Port - optional</h4></p>
809<p>
810BNC can produce synchronized observations in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Synchronized means that BNC collects all data for any specific epoch which become available within a certain number of latency seconds (see 'Wait for Full Epoch' option). It then - epoch by epoch - outputs whatever has been received. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no binary synchronized output is generated.</p>
811</p>
812
813<p><a name="syncwait"><h4>3.7.2 Wait for Full Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
814<p>
815When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting for synchronized input epoch by epoch, BNC drops whatever is received later than 'Wait for full epoch' seconds. A value of 3 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming streams and the delay acceptable for your real-time GNSS product. Default value for 'Wait for full epoch' is 5 seconds.
816</p>
817<p>
818Note that 'Wait for full epoch' does not effect the RINEX Observation file content. Observations received later than 'Wait for full epoch' seconds will still be included in the RINEX Observation files.
819</p>
820
821<p><a name="syncsample"><h4>3.7.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set</h4></p>
822<p>
823Select the synchronized observation output sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to send/store all received epochs. This is the default value.
824</p>
825
826<p><a name="syncfile"><h4>3.7.4 File - optional</h4></p>
827<p>
828Specifies the full path to a 'File' where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format. The default value is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII output file is created.
829</p>
830<p>
831Beware that the size of this file can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming streams. This option is primarily meant for testing and evaluation.
832</p>
833
834<p><a name="syncuport"><h4>3.7.5 Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
835<p>
836BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no binary unsynchronized output is generated.</p>
837<p>
838
839<p><a name="serial"><h4>3.8. Serial Output</h4></p>
840<p>
841You may use BNC to feed a serial connected device like an GNSS receiver. For that one of the incoming streams can be forwarded to a serial port. The following figure shows the screenshot of an example situation where BNC pulls a VRS stream from an NTRIP broadcaster to feed a serial connected rover.
842</p>
843<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot11.png"/></p>
844<p><u>Figure:</u> BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serial connected rover.</p>
845
846<p><a name="sermount"><h4>3.8.1 Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
847<p>
848Enter a 'Mountpoint' to forward its corresponding stream to a serial connected GNSS receiver.
849</p>
850<p>
851When selecting the serial communication options listed below, make sure that you pick those configured to the serial connected receiver.
852</p>
853
854<p><a name="serport"><h4>3.8.2 Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
855<p>
856Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the serial connected receiver. Valid port names are
857</p>
858<pre>
859Windows: COM1, COM2
860Linux: /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyS1
861FreeBSD: /dev/ttyd0, /dev/ttyd1
862Digital Unix: /dev/tty01, /dev/tty02
863HP-UX: /dev/tty1p0, /dev/tty2p0
864SGI/IRIX: /dev/ttyf1, /dev/ttyf2
865SunOS/Solaris: /dev/ttya, /dev/ttyb
866</pre>
867<p>
868Note that you must plug a serial cable in the port defined here before you start BNC.
869</p>
870
871<p><a name="serbaud"><h4>3.8.3 Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
872<p>
873Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial output link. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.
874</p>
875
876<p><a name="serflow"><h4>3.8.4 Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
877<p>
878Select a 'Flow control' for the serial output link. Note that your selection must equal the flow control configured to the serial connected device. Select 'OFF' if you don't know better.
879</p>
880
881<p><a name="serparity"><h4>3.8.5 Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
882<p>
883Select the 'Parity' for the serial output link. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.
884</p>
885
886<p><a name="serdata"><h4>3.8.6 Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
887<p>
888Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '8' data bits are used.
889</p>
890
891<p><a name="serstop"><h4>3.8.7 Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
892<p>
893Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.
894</p>
895
896<p><a name="serauto"><h4>3.8.8 NMEA - mandatory for VRS streams</h4></p>
897<p>
898Select 'Auto' to automatically forward all NMEA-GGA messages coming from your serial connected GNSS receiver to the NTRIP broadcaster and/or save them in a file.
899</p>
900<p>
901Forwarding valid NMEA-GGA messages to the NTRIP broadcaster is required for receiving 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) streams. Thus, in case your serial connected receiver is not capable to provide them, the alternative for VRS streams is a 'Manual' simulation of an initial NMEA-GGA message. Its contents is based on the approximate (editable) latitude/longitude from the broadcaster's source-table and an approximate VRS height to be specified.
902</p>
903<p>
904In summary: select 'Manual' only when handling a VRS stream and your serial connected GNSS receiver doesn't generate NMEA-GGA messages. Select 'Auto' otherwise.
905</p>
906
907<p><a name="serfile"><h4>3.8.9 File - optional if 'Auto' NMEA is set</h4></p>
908<p>Specify the full path to a file where NMEA messages coming from your serial connected receiver are saved.
909</p>
910<p><a name="serheight"><h4>3.8.10 Height - mandatory if 'Manual' NMEA is set</h4></p>
911<p>
912Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meter for your VRS to simulate an initial NMEA-GGA message. Latitude and longitude for that (editable) are taken from the broadcaster's source-table.
913</p>
914<p>
915This option concerns only 'Virtual Reference Stations' (VRS). Its setting is ignored in case of streams coming from physical reference stations.
916</p>
917
918<p><a name="advnote"><h4>3.9. Outages</h4></p>
919
920<p>
921At various times, the incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that necessary measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode corrupted stream(s) can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
922</p>
923<p>
924<u>Stream outages:</u> BNC considers a connection to be broken when there are no incoming data detected for more than 20 seconds. When this occurs, BNC will attempt to reconnect at a decreasing rate. It will first try to reconnect with 1 second delay, and again in 2 seconds if the previous attempt failed. If the attempt is still unsuccessful, it will try to reconnect within 4 seconds after the previous attempt and so on. The wait time doubles each time with a maximum wait time of 256 seconds.
925</p>
926<p>
927<u>Stream corruption:</u> Not all bits chunk transfers to BNC's internal decoders return valid observations. Sometimes several chunks might be needed before the next observation can be properly decoded. BNC buffers all the outputs (both valid and invalid) from the decoder for a short time span (size derived from the expected 'Observation rate') and then determines whether a stream is valid or corrupted.
928</p>
929<p>
930Outage and corruption events are reported in the 'Log' tab. They can also be passed on as parameters to a shell script or batch file to generate an advisory note to BNC operator or affected stream providers. This functionality lets users utilize BNC as a real-time performance monitor and alarm system for a network of GNSS reference stations.
931</p>
932
933<p><a name="obsrate"><h4>3.9.1 Observation Rate - mandatory if 'Failure threshold', 'Recovery threshold', and 'Script' is set</h4></p>
934<p>
935BNC can collect all returns (success or failure) coming from a decoder within a certain short time span to then decide whether a stream has an outage or its content is corrupted. This procedure needs a rough a priory estimate of the expected observation rate of the incoming streams.</p><p>An empty option field (default) means that you don't want an explicit information from BNC about stream outages and incoming streams that cannot be decoded.
936</p>
937
938<p><a name="advfail"><h4>3.9.2 Failure Threshold - optional</h4></p>
939<p>
940Event 'Begin_Failure' will be reported if no data is received continuously for longer than the 'Failure threshold' time. Similarly, event 'Begin_Corrupted' will be reported when corrupted data is detected by the decoder continuously for longer than this 'Failure threshold' time. The default value is set to 15 minutes and is recommended so not to innundate user with too many event reports.
941</p>
942<p>
943Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Failure threshold' will force BNC to report any stream failure immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'.
944</p>
945
946<p><a name="advreco"><h4>3.9.3 Recovery Threshold - optional</h4></p>
947<p>
948Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check for when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are again detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended so not to innundate users with too many event reports.
949</p>
950<p>
951Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Recovery threshold' will force BNC to report any stream recovery immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'.
952</p>
953
954<p><a name="advscript"><h4>3.9.4 Script - optional </h4></p>
955<p>
956As mentioned previously, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the events described are reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac systems) together with date and time information.
957</p>
958<p>
959Leave the 'Script' field empty if you do not wish to use this option. An invalid path will also disable this option.
960</p>
961<p>
962Examples for command line parameter strings passed on to the advisory 'Script' are:
963<pre>
964FFMJ0 Begin_Outage 08-02-21 09:25:59
965FFMJ0 End_Outage 08-02-21 11:36:02 Begin was 08-02-21 09:25:59
966</pre>
967Sample script for Unix/Linux/Mac systems:
968<pre>
969#!/bin/bash
970sleep $((60*RANDOM/32767))
971cat | mail -s &quot;NABU: $1&quot; email@address &lt;&lt;!
972Advisory Note to BNC User,
973Please note the following advisory received from BNC.
974Stream: $*
975Regards, BNC
976!
977</pre>
978</p>
979<p>
980Note the sleep command in this script which causes the system to wait for a random period of up to 60 seconds before sending the email. This should avoids overloading your mail server in case of a simultaneous failure of many streams.
981</p>
982
983<p><a name="misc"><h4>3.10. Miscellaneous</h4></p>
984<p>
985This section describes a number of miscellaneous options which can be applied for a single stream (mountpoint) or for all configured streams.
986</p>
987
988<p>
989The following figure shows RTCM message numbers contained in stream 'CONZ0' and the message latencies recorded every 10 seconds.
990</p>
991<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot14.png"/></p>
992<p><u>Figure:</u> RTCM message numbers and latencies.</p>
993
994
995<p><a name="miscmount"><h4>3.10.1 Mountpoint - optional </h4></p>
996<p>
997Specify a mountpoint to apply one or several of the 'Miscellaneous' options to the corresponding stream. Enter 'ALL' if you want to apply these options to all configured streams. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to apply any of these options.
998</p>
999
1000<p><a name="miscperf"><h4>3.10.2 Log Latency - optional </h4></p>
1001<p>
1002 BNC can average latencies per stream over a certain period of GPS time, the 'Log latency' interval. Mean latencies are calculated from the individual latencies of at most one (first incoming) observation or correction to Broadcast Ephemeris per second. The mean latencies are then saved in BNC's logfile. Note that computing correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. Note further that the latencies available from the 'Latency' tab on the bottom of the main window represent individual latencies and not the mean latencies for the logfile.
1003</p>
1004<p>
1005<u>Latency:</u> Latency is defined in BNC by the following equation:
1006</p>
1007<pre>
1008 UTC time provided by BNC's host
1009 - GPS time of currently processed epoch
1010 + Leap seconds between UTC and GPS time
1011 --------------
1012 = Latency
1013</pre>
1014<p>
1015<u>Statistics:</u> BNC counts the number of GPS seconds covered by at least one observation. It also estimates an observation rate (independent from the a priory specified 'Observation rate') from all observations received throughout the first full 'Log latency' interval. Based on this rate, BNC estimates the number of data gaps when appearing in subsequent intervals.
1016</p>
1017<p>
1018Latencies of observations or corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and statistical information can be recorded in the 'Log' tab at the end of each 'Log latency' interval. A typical output from a 1 hour 'Log latency' interval would be:
1019</p>
1020<pre>
102108-03-17 15:59:47 BRUS0: Mean latency 1.47 sec, min 0.66, max 3.02, rms 0.35, 3585 epochs, 15 gaps
1022</pre>
1023<p>
1024Select a 'Log latency' interval to activate this function or select the empty option field if you do not want BNC to log latencies and statistical information.
1025</p>
1026
1027
1028<p><a name="miscscan"><h4>3.10.3 Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
1029<p>
1030When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types. As reliable information concerning stream contents should be available i.e. for NTRIP broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. The idea for this option arose from 'InspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. Stoecker.
1031</p>
1032<p>
1033Tick 'Scan RTCM' to scan RTCM Version 2.x or 3.x streams and log all contained
1034</p>
1035<ul>
1036<li>numbers of incoming message types</li>
1037<li>Antenna Reference Point (ARP) coordinates</li>
1038<li>Antenna Phase Center (APC) coordinates</li>
1039<li>antenna height above marker</li>
1040<li>antenna descriptor.</li>
1041</ul>
1042</p>
1043
1044<p>
1045Note that in RTCM Version 2.x the message types 18 and 19 carry only the observables of one frequency. Hence it needs two type 18 and 19 messages per epoch to transport the observations from dual frequency receivers.
1046</p>
1047<p>
1048
1049<p>Logged time stamps refer to message reception time and allow to understand repetition rates. Enter 'ALL' if you want to log this information from all configured streams. Beware that the size of the logfile can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming RTCM streams.
1050</p>
1051<p>This option is primarily meant for testing and evaluation. Use it to figure out what exactly is produced by a specific GNSS receiver's configuration. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to print the message type numbers and antenna information carried in RTCM streams.
1052</p>
1053
1054<p><a name="pppclient"><h4>3.11. PPP Client</h4></p>
1055<p>
1056BNC can derive coordinates for a rover position following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses either code or code plus phase data in ionosphere free linear combinations P3 or L3. Besides pulling a stream of observations from a dual frequency receiver, this also
1057<ul>
1058<li>requires pulling in addition a stream carrying satellite orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages as proposed by RTCM (i.e. premature message type 1060). Note that for BNC these correctors need to be referred to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u>. Stream products.igs-ip.net:2101/CLK11 is an example.</li>
1059<li>may require pulling a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris available as RTCM Version 3 message types 1019, 1020, and (proposed) 1045. This is a must only when the stream coming from the receiver does not contain Broadcast Ephemeris or provides them only at very low repetition rate. Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>. Stream RTCM3EPH on caster products.igs-ip.net:2101 is an example.</li>
1060</ul>
1061</p>
1062<p>
1063The following figure provides the screenshot of an example PPP session with BNC.
1064</p>
1065
1066<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot03.png"/></p>
1067<p><u>Figure:</u> Precise Point Positioning (PPP, tab 1) with BNC.</p>
1068
1069<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot18.png"/></p>
1070<p><u>Figure:</u> Precise Point Positioning (PPP, tab 2) with BNC.</p>
1071
1072<p>
1073PPP results are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of BNC's main window. Depending on the processing options, the following values are shown about once per second (example):
1074<pre>
107510-09-08 09:14:06 FFMJ1 PPP 09:14:04.0 12 4053457.429 +- 2.323 617730.551 +- 1.630 4869395.266 +- 2.951
1076</pre>
1077</p>
1078<p>
1079The 'PPP' string in that is followed by the selected mounpoint, a PPP time stamp in GPS Time, the number of processed satellites, and XYZ coordinates with their formal errors as derived from the implemented filter in [m]. The implemented algorithm includes an outlier and cycle slip detection. The maximum for accepted residuals is hard coded to 10 meters for code observations and 10 centimeters for phase observations.
1080</p>
1081
1082<p>
1083More detailed PPP results are saved in BNC's logfile. Depending on the selected processing options you find
1084<ul>
1085<li>code and phase residuals for GPS and GLONASS and Galileo in [m], </li>
1086<li>receiver clock errors in [m], </li>
1087<li>a-priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
1088<li>time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m],
1089<li>L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities', given per satellite.
1090</ul>
1091These parameters are saved together with their standard deviation. The following is an example extract from a log file when BNC was in 'Single Point Positioning' (SPP) mode:
1092<pre>
109310-12-06 18:10:50 Single Point Positioning of Epoch 18:10:48.0
1094--------------------------------------------------------------
109518:10:48.0 RES G04 L3 0.0165 P3 -0.1250
109618:10:48.0 RES G11 L3 0.0150 P3 0.7904
109718:10:48.0 RES G13 L3 0.0533 P3 0.4854
109818:10:48.0 RES G17 L3 -0.0277 P3 1.2920
109918:10:48.0 RES G20 L3 -0.0860 P3 -0.1186
110018:10:48.0 RES G23 L3 0.0491 P3 -0.1052
110118:10:48.0 RES G31 L3 0.0095 P3 -3.2929
110218:10:48.0 RES G32 L3 0.0183 P3 -3.8800
110318:10:48.0 RES R05 L3 -0.0077
110418:10:48.0 RES R06 L3 0.0223
110518:10:48.0 RES R15 L3 -0.0020
110618:10:48.0 RES R16 L3 0.0156
110718:10:48.0 RES R20 L3 -0.0247
110818:10:48.0 RES R21 L3 0.0014
110918:10:48.0 RES R22 L3 -0.0072
111018:10:48.0 RES E52 L3 -0.0475 P3 -0.1628
111118:10:48.0 RES G04 L3 0.0166 P3 -0.1250
111218:10:48.0 RES G11 L3 0.0154 P3 0.7910
111318:10:48.0 RES G13 L3 0.0535 P3 0.4855
111418:10:48.0 RES G17 L3 -0.0272 P3 1.2925
111518:10:48.0 RES G20 L3 -0.0861 P3 -0.1188
111618:10:48.0 RES G23 L3 0.0489 P3 -0.1055
111718:10:48.0 RES G31 L3 0.0094 P3 -3.2930
111818:10:48.0 RES G32 L3 0.0183 P3 -3.8800
111918:10:48.0 RES R05 L3 -0.0079
112018:10:48.0 RES R06 L3 0.0223
112118:10:48.0 RES R15 L3 -0.0020
112218:10:48.0 RES R16 L3 0.0160
112318:10:48.0 RES R20 L3 -0.0242
112418:10:48.0 RES R21 L3 0.0016
112518:10:48.0 RES R22 L3 -0.0072
112618:10:48.0 RES E52 L3 -0.0474 P3 0.1385
1127
1128 clk = 64394.754 +- 0.045
1129 trp = 2.185 +0.391 +- 0.001
1130 offset = -415.400 +- 0.137
1131 amb G17 = 11.942 +- 0.045
1132 amb G23 = 248.892 +- 0.044
1133 amb G31 = 254.200 +- 0.045
1134 amb G11 = -12.098 +- 0.044
1135 amb G20 = -367.765 +- 0.044
1136 amb G04 = 259.588 +- 0.044
1137 amb E52 = 6.124 +- 0.130
1138 amb G32 = 201.496 +- 0.045
1139 amb G13 = -265.658 +- 0.044
1140 amb R22 = -106.246 +- 0.044
1141 amb R21 = -119.605 +- 0.045
1142 amb R06 = 41.328 +- 0.044
1143 amb R15 = 163.453 +- 0.044
1144 amb R20 = -532.746 +- 0.045
1145 amb R05 = -106.603 +- 0.044
1146 amb R16 = -107.830 +- 0.044
1147</pre>
1148</p>
1149
1150<p>
1151Note that BNC's 'PPP Client' option can also be used in 'Offline Mode'. Apply the 'Offline Mode' command line options for that to read a file containing synchronized observations, orbit and clock corretors, and broadcast ephemeris. Such a file can be generated using BNC's 'Raw output file' option. The first five characters of the file name read in 'Offline Mode' must then be the same as the specified PPP 'Mounpoint': If you produce a 'Raw output file' named 'FFMJ1' then the PPP 'Mountpoint' needs to be also specified as 'FFMJ1' and the command line to execute BNC on a Windows system in 'Offline Mode' could look like:
1152</p>
1153
1154<p>
1155bnc.exe --conf c:\temp\BNC.ppp --file c:\temp\FFMJ1 --format RTCM_3
1156</p>
1157
1158<p>
1159Streams in a 'Raw output file' which shall later be used in an offline PPP calculation must all be encoded in the same format.
1160</p>
1161
1162<p>When using the PPP option, it is important to understand which effects are corrected by BNC.
1163</p>
1164<ul>
1165<li>BNC does correct for Solid Earth Tides and Phase Windup.</li>
1166<li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center Offsets are not corrected because applied orbit/clock correctors are referred to the satellite's antenna phase center.</li>
1167<li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center Variations are neglected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
1168<li>Observations can be corrected for a Receiver Antenna Offset. Depending on whether or not this correction is applied, the estimated position is either that of the receiver's antenna phase center or that of the receiver's Antenna Reference Point.</li>
1169<li>Receiver Antenna Phase Center Variations are not included in the model. The bias caused by this neglect depends on the receiver antenna type. For most antennas it is smaller than a few centimeters.</li>
1170<li>Ocean and atmospheric loading is neglected. Atmospheric loading is pretty small. Ocean loading is usually also a small effect but may reach up to about 10 centimeters for coastal stations.</li>
1171<li>Rotational deformation due to polar motion (Polar Tides) is not corrected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
1172</ul>
1173</p>
1174
1175<p><a name="pppmount"><h4>3.11.1 Obs Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
1176<p>
1177Specify an 'Observations Mountpoint' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to derive coordinates for the affected rover position through a Point Positioning solution.
1178</p>
1179<p>
1180Furthermore, specify the Point Positioning method you want to apply. Options are
1181<ul>
1182<li> Precise Point Positioning (PPP, default), and </li>
1183<li> Single Point Positioning (SPP).</li>
1184</ul>
1185</p>
1186
1187<p><a name="pppxyz"><h4>3.11.1.1 XYZ - optional</h4></p>
1188<p>
1189Enter the reference coordinate components X,Y,Z of the receiver's position in meters if known. Default are empty option fields, meaning that the antenna's XYZ position is unknown.
1190</p>
1191<p>
1192Once XYZ coordinate components are defined, the 'PPP' line in BNC's logfile is extended by Nort, East and Up displacements to (example):
1193</p>
1194<pre>
119510-08-09 06:01:56 FFMJ1 PPP 06:02:09.0 11 4053457.628 +- 2.639 617729.438 +- 1.180 4869396.447 +- 1.921 NEU -0.908 -0.571 1.629
1196</pre>
1197<p>
1198The parameters following the 'NEU' string provide Nort, East and Up components of the current coordinate displacement in meters.
1199</p>
1200
1201<p><a name="pppcorrmount"><h4>3.11.2 Corr Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
1202Specify an orbit/clock 'Corrections Mountpoint' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to correct your positioning solution accordingly.
1203</p>
1204
1205<p><a name="pppopt"><h4>3.11.3 Options</h4></p>
1206BNC allows to use different Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind.
1207</p>
1208
1209<p><a name="pppphase"><h4>3.11.3.1 Use Phase Obs - optional</h4></p>
1210<p>
1211By default BNC applies a Point Positioning solution using an ionosphere free P3 linear combination of code observations. Tick 'Use phase obs' for an ionosphere free L3 linear combination of phase observations.
1212</p>
1213
1214<p><a name="ppptropo"><h4>3.11.3.2 Estimate Tropo - optional</h4></p>
1215<p>
1216BNC estimates the tropospheric delay according to equation
1217<pre>
1218T(z) = T_apr(z) + dT / cos(z)
1219</pre>
1220where T_apr is the a-priori tropospheric delay derived from Saastamoinen model.
1221</p>
1222<p>
1223By default BNC does not estimate troposphere parameters. Tick 'Estimate tropo' to estimate troposphere parameters together with the coordinates and save T_apr and dT in BNC's log file.
1224</p>
1225
1226<p><a name="pppglo"><h4>3.11.3.3 Use GLONASS - optional</h4></p>
1227<p>
1228By default BNC does not process GLONASS but only GPS observations when in Point Positioning mode. Tick 'Use GLONASS' to use GLONASS observations in addition to GPS (and Galileo if specified) for estimating coordinates in Point Positioning mode.
1229</p>
1230
1231<p><a name="pppgal"><h4>3.11.3.4 Use Galileo - optional</h4></p>
1232<p>
1233By default BNC does not process Galileo but only GPS observations when in Point Positioning mode. Tick 'Use Galileo' to use Galileo observations in addition to GPS (and GLONASS if specified) for estimating coordinates in Point Positioning mode.
1234</p>
1235
1236<p><a name="pppoptcont1"><h4>3.11.4 Options cont'd</h4></p>
1237<p>
1238You may want to introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations. You may also like to carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or output a time series of displacement compoments.
1239</p>
1240
1241<p><a name="pppsigxyzi"><h4>3.11.4.1 XYZ Init - mandatory</h4></p>
1242<p>
1243Enter a sigma in meters for the initial XYZ coordinate componentes. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (i.e. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with known XZY position in Quick-Start mode.
1244</p>
1245
1246<p><a name="pppsigxyzn"><h4>3.11.4.2 XYZ White Noise - mandatory</h4></p>
1247<p>
1248Enter a sigma in meters for the 'White Noise' of estimated XYZ coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be appropriate considering the potential movement of a rover.
1249</p>
1250
1251<p><a name="pppquick"><h4>3.11.4.3 Quick-Start - optional if XYZ is set</h4></p>
1252<p>
1253Enter the lenght of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to a known XYZ coordinate. Constraining coordinate components is done in BNC through setting the 'XYZ White Noise' temporarily to zero.
1254</p>
1255<p>
1256This so-called Quick-Start option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the know position throughout the defined period. A value of 120 (default) is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Quick-Start'
1257<p>
1258You may need to create your own reference coordinate through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the Quick-Start option. Don't forget to introduce a realistic sigma 'XYZ Ini' according to the coordinate's precision.
1259</p>
1260
1261<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot17.png"/></p>
1262<p><u>Figure:</u> BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode</p>
1263
1264<p><a name="pppgap"><h4>3.11.4.4 Max Solution Gap - optional if Quick-Start is set</h4></p>
1265<p>
1266Specify a 'Maximum Solution Gap' in seconds. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed this limit, the algorithm returns into the Quick-Start mode and fixes the introduced reference coordinate for the specified Quick-Start period. A value of '120' seconds could be an appropriate choice.
1267</p>
1268<p>
1269This option makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver where solution convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the rover position is known. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want BNC to return into the Quick-Start mode after failures caused i.e. by longer lasting outages.
1270</p>
1271
1272<p><a name="pppoutput"><h4>3.11.5 Output</h4></p>
1273<p>
1274BNC allows to output results from Precise Point Positioning in NMEA format. It can also plot a time series of North, East and UP displacements of coordinate components.
1275</p>
1276
1277<p><a name="pppnmeafile"><h4>3.11.5.1 NMEA File - optional</h4></p>
1278<p>
1279The NMEA sentences generated about once per second are pairs of
1280<ul>
1281<li> GPGGA sentences which mainly carry the estimated latitude, longitude, and height values, plus</li>
1282<li> GPRMC sentences which mainly carry date and time information.</li>
1283</ul>
1284</p>
1285<p>
1286Specify the full path to a file where Point Positioning results are saved as NMEA messages. The default value for 'NMEA file' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not saved NMEA messages into a file.
1287</p>
1288<p>
1289Note that Tomoji Takasu has written a Windows program called RTKPlot for visualizing NMEA strings. It is available from <u>http://gpspp.sakura.ne.jp/rtklib/rtklib.htm</u> and compatible with the NMEA output of BNC's 'PPP Client' option.
1290</p>
1291
1292<p><a name="pppnmeaport"><h4>3.11.5.2 NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
1293<p>
1294Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA messages. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA messages vi IP port. Note that the NMEA file output and the NMEA IP port output are the same.
1295</p>
1296<p>
1297NASA's 'World Wind' software (see <u>http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download</u>) can be used for real-time visualization of positions provided through BNC's NMEA IP output port. You need the 'GPS Tracker' plug-in available from <u>http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker</u> for that. The 'Word Wind' is not meant for showing centimeter level details.
1298</p>
1299
1300<p><a name="pppplot"><h4>3.11.5.3 PPP Plot - optional</h4></p>
1301<p>
1302PPP time series of North (red), East(green) and Up (blue) coordinate components will be plotted in the 'PPP Plot' tab when this option is ticked. Values will be either referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified) or referred to the first estimated XYZ coordinate. The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes.
1303</p>
1304<p>
1305Note that a PPP time series makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver.
1306</p>
1307
1308<p><a name="ppprecant"><h4>3.11.6 Antennas - optional</h4></p>
1309<p>
1310BNC allows to correct observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations.
1311</p>
1312
1313<p><a name="pppantex"><h4>3.11.6.1 ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
1314<p>
1315IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations. It allows you to specify the name of your receiver's antenna (as contained in the ANTEX file) to apply such corrections.
1316</p>
1317<p>
1318Default is an empty option field meaning that you don't want to correct observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations.
1319</p>
1320
1321<p><a name="ppprecantenna"><h4>3.11.6.2 Receiver Antenna Name - optional if 'ANTEX File' is set</h4></p>
1322<p>
1323Specify the receiver's antenna name as defined in your ANTEX file. Observations will be corrected for the antenna phase center's offset which may result in a reduction of a few centimeters at max. Corrections for phase center variations are not yet applied by BNC. The specified name must consist of 20 characters. Add trailing blanks if the antenna name has less then 20 characters. Examples:
1324<pre>
1325'JPSREGANT_SD_E ' (no radome)
1326'LEIAT504 NONE' (no radome)
1327'LEIAR25.R3 LEIT' (radome)
1328</pre>
1329</p>
1330<p>
1331Default is an empty option field meaning that you don't want to correct observations for antenna phase center offsets.
1332</p>
1333
1334<p><a name="pppsatant"><h4>3.11.7 Satellite Antenna - optional</h4></p>
1335<p>
1336BNC allows to correct observations for satellite antenna phase center offsets. (This option is not yet implemented.)
1337</p>
1338
1339<p><a name="pppsatantapply"><h4>3.11.7.1 Apply Offsets - optional if 'ANTEX File' is set</h4></p>
1340<p>
1341Satellite orbit and clock corrections refer to the satellite's antenna phase centers and hence observations are <u>not</u> to be corrected for satellite antenna phase center offsets. Tick 'Ignore Offsets' to force BNC to not correct observations for satellite antenna phase center offsets. So far satellite antenna phase center variations remain unconsidered in BNC.
1342</p>
1343<p>
1344Default is to <u>not</u> correct observations for satellite antenna phase center offsets.
1345</p>
1346
1347<p><a name="pppsigmas"><h4>3.11.8 Parameter Sigmas</h4></p>
1348<p>
1349You may like to introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations and for the estimation of troposphere parameters.
1350</p>
1351
1352<p><a name="pppsigc"><h4>3.11.8.1 Code - mandatory if 'Use Phase Obs' is set</h4></p>
1353<p>
1354When 'Use phase obs' is set in BNC, the PPP solution will be carried out using both, code and phase observations. A sigma of 5.0 m for code observations and a sigma of 0.02 m for phase observations (defauls) is used to combine both types of observations. As the convergence characteristic of a PPP solution can be influenced by the ratio of the sigmas for code and phase, you may like to introduce you own sigmas for code and phase observations which differ from the default values.
1355<ul>
1356<li>Introducing a smaller sigma (higher accuracy) for code observations or a larger sigma for phase observations leads to better results shortly after program start. However, it may take more time till you finally get the best possible solutions.</li>
1357<li>Introducing a larger sigma (lower accuracy) for code observations or a smaller sigma for phase observations may lead to less accurate results shortly after program start and thus a prolonged period of convergence but could provide better positions in the long run.</li>
1358</ul>
1359</p>
1360<p>
1361Specify a sigma for code observations. Default is 5.0 m.
1362</p>
1363
1364<p><a name="pppsigp"><h4>3.11.8.2 Phase - mandatory if 'Use Phase Obs' is set</h4></p>
1365<p>
1366Specify a sigma for phase observations. Default is 0.02 m.
1367</p>
1368
1369<p><a name="pppsigtrpi"><h4>3.11.8.3 Tropo Init - mandatory if 'Estimate tropo' is set</h4></p>
1370<p>
1371Enter a sigma in meters for the a-priory model based tropospheric delay estimation. A value of 0.1 (default) may be an appropriate choice.
1372</p>
1373
1374<p><a name="pppsigtrpn"><h4>3.11.8.4 Tropo White Noise - mandatory if 'Estimate tropo' is set</h4></p>
1375<p>
1376Enter a sigma in meters per second to describe the expected variation of the tropospheric effect. Supposing 1Hz observation data, a value of 1e-6 (default) would mean that the tropospheric effect may vary for 3600 * 1e-6 = 0.0036 meters per hour.
1377</p>
1378
1379<p><a name="pppoptcont2"><h4>3.11.9 Options cont'd - optional</h4></p>
1380<p>
1381You may like to introduce sigmas for code and phase observations and the estimation of troposphere parameters.
1382</p>
1383
1384<p><a name="pppsync"><h4>3.11.9.1 Sync Corr - optional</h4></p>
1385<p>
1386Zero value (or empty field) means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after its arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. Non-zero value 'Sync Corr' means that the epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed till the satellite clock corrections not older than 'Sync Corr' are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections as 'Sync Corr' (i.e. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of the update rate.
1387</p>
1388<p>
1389Using observations in sync with the corrections can avoid a possible high frequency noise of PPP solutions. Such noise could result from processing observations regardless of how late after a clock correction they were received. Note that applying the 'Sync Corr' option significantly reduces the PPP computation effort for BNC.
1390</p>
1391<p>
1392Default is an empty option field, meaning that you want BNC to process observations immediately after their arrival through applying the latest received clock correction.
1393</p>
1394
1395<p><a name="pppaverage"><h4>3.11.9.2 Averaging - optional if XYZ is set</h4></p>
1396<p>
1397Enter the length of a sliding time window in minutes. BNC will continuously output moving average values ns and their RMS as computed from those individual values obtained most recently throughout this period. RMS values presented for XYZ coordinates and tropospheric zenit path delays are bias reduced while RMS values for Nort/East/Up (NEU) displacements are not. Averaged values for XYZ coordinates and their RMS are marked with string &quot;AVE-XYZ&quot; in BNC's log file and 'Log' section while averaged values for NEU displacements and their RMS are marked with string &quot;AVE-NEU&quot; and averaged values for the tropospheric delays and their RMS are marked with string &quot;AVE-TRP&quot;. Example:
1398</p>
1399<pre>
140010-09-08 09:13:05 FFMJ1 AVE-XYZ 09:13:04.0 4053455.948 +- 0.284 617730.422 +- 0.504 4869397.692 +- 0.089
140110-09-08 09:13:05 FFMJ1 AVE-NEU 09:13:04.0 1.043 +- 0.179 0.640 +- 0.456 1.624 +- 0.331
140210-09-08 09:13:05 FFMJ1 AVE-TRP 09:13:04.0 2.336 +- 0.002
1403</pre>
1404<p>
1405Entering any positive value up to 1440 (24h mean value) is allowed. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to output moving average positions into the log file and the 'Log' section. Note that averaging positions makes only sense for a stationary receiver.
1406</p>
1407
1408<p><a name="combi"><h4>3.12. Combination</h4></p>
1409<p>
1410BNC allows to process several orbit and clock corrections streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of correctors from various providers. It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined while orbit correctors in the combination product as well as the product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming corrections streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference has the possibility to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach.
1411</p>
1412<p>
1413The clock combination is based on a Kalman Filter. Satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters with appropriate white noise.
1414 The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints.
1415</p>
1416<p>
1417Removing the AC-dependent biases as well as possible is a major issue with clock combinations. Since they vary in time, it can be tricky to do this. Otherwise, there will be artificial jumps in the combined clock stream if one or more AC contributions drop out for certain epochs. Here the Kalman Filter approach is expected to do better than other approaches.
1418</p>
1419<p>
1420In view of IGS real-time products, the 'Combination' functionality has been integrated in BNC because
1421<ul>
1422<li>the software with its Graphic User Interface and wide range of supported Operation Systems represents a perfect platform to process many broadcast corrections streams in parallel;</li>
1423<li>outages of single AC product streams can be mitigated through merging several incoming streams into a combined product;</li>
1424<li>generating a combination product from several AC products allows detecting and rejecting outliers;</li>
1425<li>a Combination Center (CC) can operate BNC to globally disseminate a combination product via NTRIP broadcast;</li>
1426<li>an individual AC could prefer to disseminate a stream combined from primary and backup IT resources to reduce outages;</li>
1427<li>it enables a BNC PPP user to follow his own preference in combining streams from individual ACs for Precise Point Positioning;</li>
1428<li>it allows an instantaneous quality control of the combination process not only in the time domain but also in the space domain; this can be done through direct application of the combination stream in a PPP solution even without prior stream upload to an NTRIP Broadcaster;</li>
1429<li>it provides the means to output SP3 files containing precise orbit and clock information for further processing using other tools than BNC.</li>
1430</ul>
1431</p>
1432<p>
1433Note that the combination process requires real-time access to Broadcast Ephemeris. So, in addition to the orbit and clock corrections streams BNC must pull a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 messages. Stream RTCM3EPH on caster <u>products.igs-ip.net</u> is an example for that.
1434</p>
1435<p>
1436With respect to IGS, it is important to understand that a major effect in the combination of GNSS orbit and clock corrections streams is the selection of ACs to include. It is likely that a combination product could be improved in accuracy by using only the best two or three ACs. However, with only a few ACs to depend on, the reliability of the combination product could suffer and the risk of total failures increases. So there is an important tradeoff here that must be considered when selecting streams for a combination. The major strength of a combination product is its reliability and stable median performance which can be much better than that of any single AC product.
1437</p>
1438<p>
1439This comment applies in situations where we have a limited number of solutions to combine and their quality varies significantly. The situation may be different when the total number of ACs is larger and the range of AC variation is smaller. In that case, a standard full combination is probably the best.
1440</p>
1441<p>
1442The part of BNC which enables the combination of orbit and clock corrections streams is not intended for publication under GNU General Public License (GPL). However, copies of pre-compiled BNC binaries which support the 'Combination' option may be made available for personal usage. This would be done on request and only in exceptional cases.
1443</p>
1444
1445<p><a name="combimounttab"><h4>3.12.1 Combination Table - optional</h4></p>
1446<p>
1447Hit the 'Add Row' button, double click on the 'Mountpoint' field, enter a Broadcast Ephemeris corrections mountpoint from the 'Streams' section and hit Enter. Then double click on the 'AC Name' field to enter your choice of an abbreviation for the Analysis Center (AC) providing the stream. Finally, double click on the 'Weight' field to enter a weight to be applied to this stream in the combination. The stream processing can already be startet whith only one corrections stream configured for combination.
1448</p>
1449<p>
1450Note that an appropriate 'Wait for full epoch' value needs to be specified for the combination under the 'Broadcast Corrections' tab. To give an example: a value of '15' sec would make sense if the update rate of incoming clock corrections is 10 sec.
1451</p>
1452<p>
1453Note further that the sequence of entries in the 'Combination Table' is of importance. BNC considers the first AC in the 'Combination Table' as the 'Master AC'. The orbit information in the final combination stream is then just copied from the 'Master AC' orbits. Moreover, the update rate of the combination product is defined by the update rate of the 'Master AC' stream. If incoming streams have different rates, only epochs that correspond to the 'Master AC' update rate are used. The skipped epochs will be stored in the binary (raw) BNC file. The plain ASCII formated files described below will contain only the combination. This means that the 'Master AC' is responsible for two things: the satellite positions and the combination rate.
1454</p>
1455<p>
1456Default is an empty 'Combination Table' meaning that you don't want BNC to combine orbit and clock corrections streams.
1457</p>
1458
1459<p><a name="combiadd"><h4>3.12.1.1 Add Row, Delete - optional</h4></p>
1460<p>
1461Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the 'Combination Table' or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
1462</p>
1463
1464<br>
1465<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot21.png"/></p>
1466<p><u>Figure:</u> BNC combining orbit/clock correctors streams, part 1.</p>
1467<p></p>
1468<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot20.png"/></p>
1469<p><u>Figure:</u> BNC combining orbit/clock correctors streams, part 2.</p>
1470
1471
1472<p><a name="upclk"><h4>3.13. Upload (clk)</h4></p>
1473<p>
1474BNC can upload streams carrying orbit and clock corrections to Broadcaste Ephemeris in radial, along-track and cross-track components if they are either<ol type=a>
1475<li>
1476generated by BNC as a combination of several individual correctors streams coming in from an number of real-time Analysis Centers (ACs), see section 'Combination', or </li>
1477<li>
1478generated by BNC because the program receives an ASCII stream of satellite orbits and clocks via IP port (no NTRIP transport protocol) from a connected real-time GNSS engine in an SP3-like format named 'RTNET'. </li>
1479</ol>
1480The procedures taken by BNC to generate the clock and orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and upload them to an NTRIP Broadcaster are as follow:
1481<ul>
1482<li>Continuously receive up-to-date Broadcast Ephemeris carrying approximate orbits and clocks for all satellites. Read new Broadcast Ephemeris immediately whenever they become available. This information may come via RTCM messages from Tools like the 'BKG Ntrip Client' (BNC) provide this information.</li>
1483</ul>
1484Then, epoch by epoch:
1485<ul>
1486<li>Continuously receive the best available clock and orbit estimates for all satellites in X,Y,Z Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed IGS05 reference system. Receive them every epoch in a SP3-like format as provided by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNet. </li>
1487<li>Calculate X,Y,Z coordinates from Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. </li>
1488<li>Calculate differences dX,dY,dZ between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS05 orbits. </li>
1489<li>Tranform these differences into radial, along-track and cross-track corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. </li>
1490<li>Calculate corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris clocks as differences between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS05 clocks. </li>
1491<li>Encode Broadcast Ephemeris clock and orbit corrections in RTCM Version 3.x format. </li>
1492<li>Upload corrections stream to NTRIP Broadcaster. </li>
1493</ul>
1494Although it is not compulsory, because BNS puts a significant load on the communication link, it is recommended that BNS, the Broadcast Ephemeris server (i.e. BNC), and the server providing orbits and clocks (i.e. RTNet) are run on the same host.
1495</p>
1496
1497<p><a name="upmntp"><h4>3.13.1 Mountpoint - optional if 'Combination Table' entries are specified</h4></p>
1498
1499<p>Enter a mountpoint string for the combination stream. If 'Host', 'Port' and 'Password' are set, the combination stream will be encoded in RTCM's premature so-called 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages and uploaded to the specified broadcaster following the NTRIP Version 1.0 transport protocol.
1500</p>
1501<p>
1502Note that the mountpoint defined here can be introduced as 'Obs Mountpoint' under the 'PPP (1)' tab to carry out a Precise Point Positioning through directly applying the combination stream without pulling it from the NTRIP Broadcaster.
1503</p>
1504<p>
1505Default is an empty option field meaning that you don't want BNC to upload combined orbit and clock corrections streams to an NTRIP Broadcaster and you also don't want to save correctors in plain ASCII formatted files.
1506</p>
1507
1508<p><a name="uphost"><h4>3.13.2 Host, Port, Password - optional if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1509
1510<p>
1511Specify the domain name or IP number of an NTRIP Broadcaster for uploading the combination stream. Furthermore, specify the caster's listening IP port and an upload password.
1512</p>
1513
1514
1515<p><a name="upascii"><h4>3.13.3 Directory, ASCII - optional if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1516<p>
1517Specify a directory for saving the combined Broadcast Ephemeris corrections in a plain ASCII format on disc, see also 'Directory, ASCII' option under 'Broadcast Corrections' tab.
1518</p>
1519<p>
1520The interval for saving the ASCII files (or: length of the files) is defined by option 'Interval' under the 'Broadcast Corrections' tab. File names are generated from the 'Mountpoint' string specified for the combination. They follow the RINEX observation file name convention.
1521</p>
1522<p>
1523Default is an empty option field meaning that you don't want BNC to save the combination product in a plain ASCII formatted files.
1524</p>
1525
1526<p><a name="upsp3"><h4>3.13.4 Directory, SP3 - optional if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
1527<p>
1528Specify a directory for saving the combination of Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Ephemeris corrections in SP3 format on disc. Default is an empty option field meaning that you don't want BNC to save the combination product in daily SP3 files. Note that the SP3 file output already works with only one corrections stream specified for combination.
1529</p>
1530<p>
1531As an SP3 file contents should be referred to the satellites Center of Mass (CoM) while correctors are referred to the satellites Antenna Phase Center (APC), an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see section 'ANTEX File'). You should therefore specify the 'ANTEX File' path under tab 'PPP (2)' if you want to save a combination product in SP3 format. If you don't specify an 'ANTEX File' path there, the SP3 file contents will be referred to the satellites APCs.
1532</p>
1533<p>
1534The file names for the daily SP3 files follow the convention for SP3 file names. The first three characters of each file name are set to 'BNC'.
1535</p>
1536<p>
1537The following screenshots describe an example setup of BNC when combining orbit and clock correctors streams. Note that it requires to specify options under the tabs 'Combination', 'Broadcast Corrections' and 'PPP (2)'. The example also uses the combination product to simultaneously carry out a PPP solution with options shown in tab 'PPP (1)' - which enables to monitor the quality of the combination product in the space domain.
1538</p>
1539
1540<p><a name="upeph"><h4>3.14. Upload (eph) </h4></p>
1541
1542<p><a name="streams"><h4>3.15. Streams</h4></p>
1543<p>
1544Each stream on an NTRIP broadcaster (and consequently on BNC) is defined using a unique source ID called mountpoint. An NTRIP client like BNC access the desired data stream by referring to its mountpoint. Information about streams and their mountpoints is available through the source-table maintained by the NTRIP broadcaster. Note that mountpoints could show up in BNC more than once when retrieving streams from several NTRIP broadcasters.
1545</p>
1546
1547<p>
1548Streams selected for retrieval are listed under the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. The list provides the following information either extracted from source-table(s) produced by the NTRIP broadcasters or introduced by BNC's user:
1549</p>
1550<p>
1551<table>
1552<tr><td>'resource loader'&nbsp; </td><td>NTRIP broadcaster URL and port, or<br>TCP/IP host and port, or<br>UDP port, or<br>Serial input port specification.</td></tr>
1553<tr><td>'mountpoint' &nbsp;</td><td>Mountpoint introduced by NTRIP broadcaster, or<br>Mountpoint introduced by BNC's user.</td></tr>
1554<tr><td>'decoder' &nbsp;</td><td>Type of decoder used to handle the incoming stream content according to its format; editable.</td></tr>
1555<tr><td>'lat' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate latitude of reference station, in degrees, north; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
1556<tr><td>'long' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate longitude of reference station, in degrees, east; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
1557<tr><td>'nmea' &nbsp;</td><td>Indicates whether or not streaming needs to be initiated by BNC through sending NMEA-GGA message carrying position coordinates in 'lat' and 'long'.</td></tr>
1558<tr><td>'ntrip' &nbsp;</td><td>Selected NTRIP transport protocol version (1, 2, R, or U), or<br>'N' for TCP/IP streams without NTRIP, or<br>'UN' for UDP streams without NTRIP, or<br>'S' for serial input streams without NTRIP.</td></tr>
1559<tr><td>'bytes' &nbsp;</td><td>Number of bytes received.
1560</table>
1561</p>
1562
1563<p><a name="streamedit"><h4>3.15.1 Edit Streams</h4></p>
1564<ul>
1565<li>
1566BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. The accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x', and 'RTIGS'.
1567</li>
1568<li>
1569In case you need to log the raw data as is, BNC allows users to by-pass its decoders and directly save the input in daily log files. To do this specify the decoder string as 'ZERO'. The generated file names are created from the characters of the streams mountpoints plus two-digit numbers each for year, month, and day. Example: Setting the 'decoder' string for mountpoint WTZZ0 to 'ZERO' and running BNC on March 29, 2007 would save the raw data in a file named WTZZ0_070329.
1570</li>
1571<li>
1572BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the NTRIP broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by a Network-RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the NTRIP broadcaster via NMEA-GGA messages.
1573<br>If NMEA-GGA messages are not coming from a serial connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in most cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position must preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.
1574<br>Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner.
1575</li>
1576</ul>
1577
1578<p><a name="streamdelete"><h4>3.15.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
1579<p>
1580To remove a stream from the 'Streams' canvas in the main window, highlight it by clicking on it and hit the 'Delete Stream' button. You can also remove multiple streams simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift and +Ctrl.</p>
1581
1582<p><a name="streamconf"><h4>3.15.3 Reconfigure Streams On-the-fly</h4></p>
1583<p>
1584The streams selection can be changed on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads in the running BNC process.
1585</p>
1586<p>
1587<u>Window mode:</u> Hit 'Save &amp; Reread Configuration' while BNC is in window mode and already processing data to let changes of your streams selection immediately become effective.
1588<p>
1589<u>No window mode:</u> When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), you force BNC to reread its 'mountPoints' configuration option from disk at pre-defined intervals. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' as 'Reread configuration' option to reread the 'mountPoints' option every full minute, hour, or day. This lets a 'mountPoints' option edited in between in the configuration file become effective without terminating uninvolved threads. See annexed section 'Configuration Example' for a configuration file example and a list of other on-the-fly changeable options.
1590</p>
1591
1592<p><a name="logs"><h4>3.16. Logging</h4></p>
1593<p>
1594A tabs section on the bottom of the main window provides online control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available to show the records saved in a logfile, for a plot to control the bandwidth consumtion, for a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
1595</p>
1596<p><a name="logfile"><h4>3.16.1 Log</h4></p>
1597<p>
1598Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. They can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field.
1599</p>
1600
1601<p><a name="throughput"><h4>3.16.2 Throughput</h4></p>
1602<p>
1603The bandwidth consumption per stream is shown in the 'Throughput' tab in bits per second (bps) or kilo bits per second (kbps). The following figure shows the bandwidth comsumption of incoming streams.
1604</p>
1605
1606<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot08.png"/></p>
1607<p><u>Figure:</u> Bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.</p>
1608
1609<p><a name="latency"><h4>3.16.3 Latency</h4></p>
1610<p>
1611The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (i.e. those providing only broadcast ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. The next figure shows the latency of incoming streams.
1612</p>
1613
1614<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot07.png"/></p>
1615<p><u>Figure:</u> Latency of incoming streams.</p>
1616
1617<p><a name="ppptab"><h4>3.16.4 PPP Plot</h4></p>
1618<p>
1619Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Origin' option is defined. Values are either referred to reference coordinates (if specified) or referred to the first estimated set of coordinate components. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more till the first PPP solutions becomes available. The following figure shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordiate components.
1620</p>
1621
1622<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot13.png"/></p>
1623<p><u>Figure:</u> Time series plot of PPP session.</p>
1624
1625<p><a name="bottom"><h4>3.17. Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
1626<p>
1627The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows user to select one of several input communication links, see figure below.
1628</p>
1629
1630<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot06.png"/></p>
1631<p><u>Figure:</u> Steam input communication links.</p>
1632
1633<p><a name="streamadd"><h4>3.17.1 Add Stream - Coming from Caster</h4></p>
1634
1635<p>
1636Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Caster' then opens a window that allows user to select data streams from an NTRIP broadcaster according to their mountpoints and show a distribution map of offered streams.
1637</p>
1638
1639<p><a name="streamhost"><h4>3.17.1.1 Caster Host and Port - mandatory</h4></p>
1640<p>
1641Enter the NTRIP broadcaster host IP and port number. Note that EUREF and IGS operate NTRIP broadcasters at <u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u> and <u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u> and <u>http://www.products.igs-ip.net/home</u>.
1642</p>
1643
1644<p><a name="streamtable"><h4>3.17.1.2 Casters Table - optional</h4></p>
1645<p>
1646It may be that your are not sure about your NTRIP broadcasters host and port number or you are interested in other broadcaster installations operated elsewhere. Hit 'Show' for a table of known broadcasters maintained at <u>www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u>. A window opens which allows to select a broadcaster for stream retrieval, see figure below.
1647</p>
1648</p>
1649<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot04.png"/></p>
1650
1651<p><u>Figure:</u> Casters table.</p>
1652
1653<p><a name="streamuser"><h4>3.17.1.3 User and Password - mandatory for protected streams</h4></p>
1654<p>
1655Some streams on NTRIP broadcasters may be restricted. Enter a valid 'User' ID and 'Password' for access to protected streams. Accounts are usually provided per NTRIP broadcaster through a registration procedure. Register through <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/registeruser</u> for access to protected streams on <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> or <u>www.igs-ip.net</u> or <u>products.igs-ip.net</u>.
1656</p>
1657
1658<p><a name="gettable"><h4>3.17.1.4 Get Table</h4></p>
1659<p>
1660Use the 'Get Table' button to download the source-table from the NTRIP broadcaster. Pay attention to data fields 'format' and 'format-details'. Keep in mind that BNC can only decode and convert streams that come in RTCM Version 2.x, RTCM Version 3.x, or RTIGS format. For access to observations, ephemeris or ephemris correctiors, an RTCM Version 2.x streams must contain message types 18 and 19 or 20 and 21 while an RTCM Version 3.x streams must contain
1661<ul>
1662<li>GPS or SBAS message types 1002 or 1004, or</li>
1663<li>GLONASS message types 1010 or 1012, or</li>
1664<li>proposed State Space Representation messages for GPS and GLONASS, types 1057-1068, or</li>
1665<li>proposed 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) for GPS, GLONASS, or Galileo, types 1071-1077, 1081-1087, or 1091-1097.</li>
1666</ul>
1667see data field 'format-details' for available message types and their repetition rates in brackets. Note that in order to produce RINEX Navigation files RTCM Version 3.x streams containing message types 1019 (GPS) and 1020 (GLONASS) and 1045 (Galileo) are required. Select your streams line by line, use +Shift and +Ctrl when necessary. The figure below provides an example source-table.
1668</p>
1669<p>
1670The contents of data field 'nmea' tells you whether a stream retrieval needs to be initiated by BNC through sending an NMEA-GGA message carrying approximate position coordinates (virtual reference station).
1671</p>
1672<p>
1673Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process again to retrieve streams from different casters.
1674</p>
1675<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot05.png"/></p>
1676<p><u>Figure:</u> Broadcaster source-table.</p>
1677
1678<p><a name="ntripv"><h4>3.17.1.5 NTRIP Version - mandatory</h4></p>
1679<p>
1680Some limitations and deficiencies of the NTRIP version 1 stream transport protocol are solved in NTRIP version 2. Improvements mainly concern a full HTTP compatibility in view of requirements coming from proxy servers. Version 2 is backwards compatible to Version 1. Options implemented in BNC are:
1681</p>
1682<p>
1683&nbsp; 1:&nbsp; NTRIP version 1, TCP/IP.<br>
1684&nbsp; 2:&nbsp; NTRIP version 2 in TCP/IP mode.<br>
1685&nbsp; R:&nbsp; NTRIP version 2 in RTSP/RTP mode.<br>
1686&nbsp; U:&nbsp; NTRIP version 2 in UDP mode.
1687</p>
1688<p>
1689If NTRIP version 2 is supported by the broadcaster:
1690</p>
1691<ul>
1692<li>Try using option '2' if your streams are otherwise blocked by a proxy server operated in front of BNC.</li>
1693<li>Option 'R' or 'U' may be selected if latency is more important than completeness for your application. Note that the latency reduction is likely to be in the order of 0.5 sec or less. Note further that options 'R' (RTSP/RTP mode) and 'U' (UDP mode) are not accepted by proxy servers and a mobile Internet Service Provider may not support it.</li>
1694</ul>
1695<p>
1696Select option '1' if you are not sure whether the broadcaster supports NTRIP version 2.</li>
1697</p>
1698
1699<p><a name="map"><h4>3.17.1.6 Map - optional</h4></p>
1700<p>
1701Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the casters's streams. You may like to zoom in or out using option 'Zoom +' or 'Zoom -'. You may also like to 'Clean' or 'Reset' a map or let it 'Fit' exactly to the current size of the window. Option 'Close' shuts the window.
1702</p>
1703
1704<p><a name="streamip"><h4>3.17.2 Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</h4></p>
1705<p>
1706Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from TCP/IP Port' allows to retrieve streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the NTRIP transport protocol. For that you:
1707<ul>
1708<li>Enter the IP address of the stream providing host.</li>
1709<li>Enter the IP port number of the stream providing host.</li>
1710<li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
1711<li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTIGS', and 'ZERO'.</li>
1712<li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
1713<li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
1714</ul>
1715</p>
1716<p>
1717Streams directly received from a TCP/IP port show up with an 'N' for 'No NTRIP' in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window . Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
1718<p>
1719</p>
1720Note that this option works only if no proxy server is involved in the communication link.
1721</p>
1722
1723<p><a name="streamudp"><h4>3.17.3 Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</h4></p>
1724<p>
1725Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from UDP Port' allows to pick up streams arriving directly at one of the local host's UDP ports without using the NTRIP transport protocol. For that you:
1726<ul>
1727<li>Enter the local port number where the UDP stream arrives.</li>
1728<li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
1729<li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTIGS', and 'ZERO'.</li>
1730<li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
1731<li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
1732</ul>
1733</p>
1734<p>
1735Streams directly received at a UDP port show up with a 'UN' for 'UDP, No NTRIP' in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window . Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
1736<p>
1737
1738<p><a name="streamser"><h4>3.17.4 Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</h4></p>
1739<p>
1740Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Serial Port' allows to retrieve streams from a GNSS receiver via serial port without using the NTRIP transport protocol. For that you:
1741<ul>
1742<li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
1743<li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTIGS', and 'ZERO'.</li>
1744<li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
1745<li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
1746<li>Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the receiver. Valid port names are
1747<pre>
1748Windows: COM1, COM2
1749Linux: /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyS1
1750FreeBSD: /dev/ttyd0, /dev/ttyd1
1751Digital Unix: /dev/tty01, /dev/tty02
1752HP-UX: /dev/tty1p0, /dev/tty2p0
1753SGI/IRIX: /dev/ttyf1, /dev/ttyf2
1754SunOS/Solaris: /dev/ttya, /dev/ttyb
1755</pre>
1756</li>
1757<li>Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial input. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.</li>
1758<li>Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial input. Note that often '8' data bits are used.</li>
1759<li>Select the 'Parity' for the serial input. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.</li>
1760<li>Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial input. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.</li>
1761<li>Select a 'Flow control' for the serial link. Select 'OFF' if you don't know better.</li>
1762</ul>
1763</p>
1764<p>
1765When selecting the serial communication options listed above, make sure that you pick those configured to the serial connected GNSS receiver.
1766</p>
1767
1768<p>
1769Streams received from a serial connected GNSS receiver show up with an 'S' (for <u>S</u>erial Port, no NTRIP) in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window . Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
1770<p>
1771
1772<p>
1773The following figure shows a BNC example setup for pulling a stream via serial port on a Linux operating system.
1774</p>
1775<p><img src=":bnchelp/screenshot15.png"/></p>
1776<p><u>Figure:</u> BNC setup for pulling a stream via serial port.</p>
1777
1778<p><a name="start"><h4>3.17.5 Start</h4></p>
1779<p>
1780Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding, and converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless the option 'Append files' is ticked.
1781</p>
1782
1783<p><a name="stop"><h4>3.17.6 Stop</h4></p>
1784<p>
1785Hit the 'Stop' button in order to stop BNC.
1786</p>
1787
1788<p><a name="cmd"><h4>3.18. Command Line Options</h4></p>
1789<p>
1790Command line options are available to run BNC in 'no window' mode or let it read data from a file in offline mode. BNC will then use processing options from the configuration file. Note that the self-explaining contents of the configuration file can easily be edited. It is possible to introduce a specific configuration file name instead of using the default name 'BNC.ini'.
1791</p>
1792
1793<p><a name="nw"><h4>3.18.1 No Window Mode - optional</h4></p>
1794<p>
1795Apart from its regular windows mode, BNC can be started on all systems as a background/batch job with command line option '-nw'. BNC will then run in 'no window' mode, using processing options from its configuration file on disk. Terminate BNC using Windows Task Manager when running it in 'no window' mode on Windows systems.
1796</p>
1797<p>
1798Example:<br><br>
1799bnc.exe -nw
1800</p>
1801
1802<p><a name="post"><h4>3.18.2 Offline Mode - optional</h4></p>
1803<p>
1804Although BNC is primarily a real-time online tool, it can be run in offline mode to read data from a previously saved file (see chapter on saving 'Raw Output File') for post-processing purposes. Enter the following command line options for that:
1805</p>
1806<p>
1807<ul>
1808<li>'--file &lt;<u>inputFileName</u>&gt;' to enter the full path to an input file containing data previously saved by BNC.</li>
1809<li>'--format &lt;<u>format</u>&gt;' to enter one of the file format describing strings 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3' or 'RTIGS'.</li>
1810<li>'--staID &lt;<u>stationID</u>&gt;' to enter the mountpoint of one of the streams contained in the input file. This allows you to</li>
1811<ul>
1812<li>carry out an offline PPP solution using one particular (of probably several) orbit/clock corrections stream contained in the input file.</li>
1813<li>offline convert one specific stream (of probably several streams) contained in the input file into a RINEX file.</li>
1814</ul>
1815
1816</ul>
1817<p>
1818Example:<br><br>
1819./bnc --file raw.output_110301 --format RTCM_3 --staID FFMJ1
1820</p>
1821<p>
1822Note that when running BNC in offline mode, it will use options for file saving, interval, sampling, PPP etc. from its configuration file. Note further that only those data in the file will be processd offline which are encoded as specified with the --format option.
1823</p>
1824
1825<p><a name="conffile"><h4>3.18.3 Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
1826The default configuration file name is 'BNC.ini'. You may change this name at startup time using the command line option '--conf &lt;<u>confFileName</u>&gt;'. This allows to run several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. <u>confFileName</u> stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a file name. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started.
1827</p>
1828<p>
1829Example:<br><br>
1830./bnc --conf MyConfig.ini
1831</p>
1832<p>
1833This leads to a BNC job using configuration file 'MyConfig.ini'. The configuration file will be saved in the current working directory.
1834</p>
1835<p>
1836On a Mac-OS X v10.6 (or higher) system the command line would be
1837<br><br>
1838open -a /Applications/bnc.app --args -conf /Users/tsyan/MyConfig.ini
1839<br><br>
1840if the program is in /Applications and the configuration file 'MyConfig.ini' in /Users/tsyan.
1841</p>
1842
1843<p><a name="limits"><h3>4. Limitations &amp; Known Bugs</h3></p>
1844<ul>
1845<li>
1846In Qt-based desktop environments (like KDE) on Unix/Linux platforms it may happen that you experience a crash of BNC at startup even when running the program in the background using the '-nw' option. This is a known bug most likely resulting from an incompatibility of Qt libraries in the environment and in BNC. Entering the command 'unset SESSION_MANAGER' before running BNC may help as a work-around.
1847</li>
1848<li>
1849Currently BNC only handles GPS, SBAS, GLONASS and Galileo data.
1850</li>
1851<li>BNC currently will only handle the following observation types:<br>
1852For GPS satellites, 'G': C1C L1C D1C S1C C1W L1W D1W S1W C2P L2P D2P S2P C2X L2X D2X S2X C5 L5 D5 S5<br>
1853For GLONASS satellites, 'R': C1C L1C D1C S1C C1P L1P D1P S1P C2P L2P D2P S2P C2C L2C D2C S2C<br>
1854For Geostationary signal payloads, 'S': C1C L1C D1C S1C C1W L1W D1W S1W<br>
1855For Galileo satellites, 'E': C1 L1 D1 S1 C5 L5 D5 S5<br>
1856Which observables and indicators are available on a particular stream will depend on the setup of source receiver and the data format used. RTCM Version 2.x streams do not carry signal-to-noise ratio 'S' values.
1857</li>
1858<li>
1859Using RTCM Version 3.x to produce RINEX files, BNC will properly handle message types 1002, 1004, 1010, 1012, 1071-1077, 1081-1087, or 1091-1097. However, when handling message types 1001, 1003, 1009 and 1011 where the ambiguity field is not set, the output will be no valid RINEX. All values will be stored modulo 299792.458 (speed of light).
1860</li>
1861<li>Concerning the RTCM Version 3.x premature message types 1057-1068 (see RTCM document 091-2009-SC104-542 'Version 3 Proposed Messages - Set 10'), a final decision is not yet made. Note the what's implemented in BNC is just a temporary solution.</li>
1862<li>Concerning the RTCM Version 3.x premature message types 1071-1077, 1081-1087, 1091-1097 (see RTCM document 086-2010-SC104-587 'New RTCM-3 Multiple Signal Message Proposal for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo'), a final decision is not yet made. Note that what is implemented in BNC is just a temporary solution.</li>
1863<li>
1864Using RTCM Version 2.x, BNC will only handle message types 18 and 19 or 20 and 21 together with position and the antenna offset information carried in types 3 and 22. Note that processing carrier phase corrections and pseudo-range corrections contained in message types 20 and 21 needs access to broadcast ephemeris. Hence, whenever dealing with message types 20 and 21, make sure that broadcast ephemeris become available for BNC through also retrieving at least one RTCM Version 3.x stream carrying message types 1019 (GPS ephemeris) and 1020 (GLONASS ephemeris).
1865</li>
1866<li>
1867Streams coming in RTIGS format carry only GPS data.
1868</li>
1869<li>
1870BNC's 'Get Table' function only shows the STR records of a source-table. You can use an Internet browser to download the full source-table contents of any NTRIP broadcaster by simply entering its URL in the form of <u>http://host:port</u>. Data field number 8 in the NET records may provide information about where to register for an NTRIP broadcaster account.
1871</li>
1872<li>
1873EUREF as well as IGS adhere to an open data policy. Streams are made available through NTRIP broadcasters at <u>www.euref-ip.net</u>, <u>www.igs-ip.net</u> and <u>products.igs-ip.net</u> free of charge to anyone for any purpose. There is no indication up until now how many users will need to be supported simultaneously. The given situation may develop in such a way that it might become difficult to serve all registered users at the same times. In cases where limited resources on the NTRIP broadcaster side (software restrictions, bandwidth limitation etc.) dictates, first priority in stream provision will be given to stream providers followed by re-broadcasting activities and real-time analysis centers while access to others might be temporarily denied.
1874</li>
1875<li>
1876We experienced a limitation of the Standard Version of Microsoft Windows related to socket communication where sockets are not always handled properly. Since BNC makes intensive use of communication through sockets, we recommend to use the Server Version of Microsoft Windows when running BNC continuously for extended on a Windows platform.
1877</li>
1878<li>
1879The source code provided by NRCan for decoding RTIGS streams is 32-bit dependent. Hence the BNC executable generated for 64-bit Linux systems would only run when compiled using the -m32 compiler option.
1880</li>
1881<li>
1882Once BNC has been started, many of its configuration options cannot be changed as long as it is stopped. See chapter 'Reread Configuration' for on-the-fly configuration exceptions.
1883</li>
1884
1885</ul>
1886<p><a name="authors"><h3>5. Authors</h3></p>
1887<p>
1888The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) Qt Graphic User Interface (GUI) has been developed for the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) by Leos Mervart, Czech Technical University Prague, Department of Geodesy. BNC includes the following GNU GPL software components:
1889<ul>
1890<li> RTCM 2.x decoder, written by Oliver Montenbruck, German Space Operations Center, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen</li>
1891<li> RTCM 3.x decoder, written for BKG by Dirk Stoecker, Alberding GmbH, Schoenefeld</li>
1892<li> RTIGS decoder, written by Ken MacLeod, Natural Resources, Canada.</li>
1893</ul>
1894</p>
1895<p>
1896Georg Weber<br>
1897Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG)<br>
1898Frankfurt, Germany<br>
1899[euref-ip@bkg.bund.de] or [igs-ip@bkg.bund.de]
1900</p>
1901<p>
1902<b>Acknowledgements</b><br>
1903BNC's Help Contents has been proofread by Thomas Yan, University of New South Wales, Australia.<br>
1904Scott Glazier, OmniSTAR Australia, included the decoding of broadcast ephemeris from RTIGS streams and has been helpful in finding BNC's bugs.<br>
1905James Perlt, BKG, helped fixing bugs and redesigned BNC's main window.<br>
1906Andre Hauschild, German Space Operations Center, DLR, revised the RTCMv2 decoder.<br>
1907Zdenek Lukes, Czech Technical University Prague, Department of Geodesy, extended the RTCMv2 decoder to handle message types 3, 20, 21, and 22 and added loss of lock indicator.<br>
1908Jan Dousa, Geodetic Observatory Pecny, Czech Republic, provided a tool for drawing stream distribution maps and also helped with fixing bugs.<br>
1909Denis Laurichesse, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), suggested to synchronize observations and clock corrections to reduce high frequency noise in PPP solutions.
1910</p>
1911
1912<p><a name="annex"><h3>6. Annex</h3></p>
1913<p>
19146.1. <a href=#history>Revision History</a><br>
19156.2. <a href=#rtcm>RTCM</a><br>
1916&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 6.2.1 NTRIP <a href=#ntrip1>Version 1</a><br>
1917&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 6.2.2 NTRIP <a href=#ntrip2>Version 2</a><br>
1918&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 6.2.3 RTCM <a href=#rtcm2>Version 2.x</a><br>
1919&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 6.2.4 RTCM <a href=#rtcm3>Version 3.x</a><br>
19206.3. <a href=#rtigs>RTIGS</a><br>
1921&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 6.3.1 <a href=#soc>SOC</a><br>
19226.4. <a href=#config>Configuration Example</a><br>
19236.5. <a href=#links>Links</a><br>
1924</p>
1925
1926<p><a name=history><h3>6.1 Revision History</h3></p>
1927<table>
1928<tr></tr>
1929
1930<tr>
1931<td>Dec 2006 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.0b &nbsp;</td>
1932<td>[Add] First Beta Binaries published based on Qt 4.2.3.</td>
1933</tr>
1934
1935<tr>
1936<td>Jan 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.1b &nbsp;</td>
1937<td>[Add] Observables C2, S1, and S2<br>[Add] Virtual reference station access<br>[Bug] RTCM2 decoder time tag fixed<br>[Mod] Small letters for public RINEX skeleton files<br>[Add] Online help through Shift+F1</td>
1938</tr>
1939
1940<tr>
1941<td>Apr 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.2b &nbsp;</td>
1942<td>[Bug] Output only through IP port<br>[Bug] Method 'reconnecting' now thread-save<br> [Add] ZERO decoder added<br> [Mod] Download public RINEX skeletons once per day<br> [Mod] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.2.3<br> [Mod] Replace 'system' call for RINEX script by 'QProcess'<br> [Add] HTTP Host directive for skeleton file download<br> [Add] Percent encoding for user IDs and passwords<br> [Bug] Exit execution of calling thread for RTCM3 streams<br> [Bug] Signal-slot mechanism for threads</td>
1943</tr>
1944
1945<tr>
1946<td>May 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.3 &nbsp;</td>
1947<td>[Add] Source code published.</td>
1948</tr>
1949
1950<tr>
1951<td>Jul 2007 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.4 &nbsp;</td>
1952<td>[Bug] Skip messages from proxy server<br> [Bug] Call RINEX script through 'nohup'</td>
1953</tr>
1954
1955<tr>
1956<td>Apr 2008 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.5 &nbsp;</td>
1957<td>[Add] Handle ephemeris from RTCM Version 3.x streams<br> [Add] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.3.2<br> [Add] Optional RINEX v3 output<br> [Add] SBAS support<br> [Bug] RINEX skeleton download following stream outage<br> [Add] Handle ephemeris from RTIGS streams<br> [Add] Monitor stream failure/recovery and latency<br> [Mod] Redesign of main window<br> [Bug] Freezing of About window on Mac systems<br> [Bug] Fixed problem with PRN 32 in RTCMv2 decoder<br> [Bug] Fix for Trimble 4000SSI receivers in RTCMv2 decoder<br> [Mod] Major revision of input buffer in RTCMv2 decoder</td>
1958</tr>
1959
1960<tr>
1961<td>Dec 2008 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.6 &nbsp;</td>
1962<td>[Mod] Fill blanc columns in RINEXv3 with 0.000<br> [Add] RTCMv3 decoder for clock and orbit corrections<br>[Add] Check RTCMv3 streams for incoming message types<br> [Add] Decode RTCMv2 message types 3, 20, 21, and 22<br> [Add] Loss of lock and lock time indicator<br> [Bug] Rounding error in RTCMv3 decoder concerning GLONASS height<br> [Mod] Accept GLONASS in RTCMv3 when transmitted first<br> [Add] Leap second 1 January 2009<br> [Add] Offline mode, read data from file<br> [Add] Output antenna descriptor, coordinates and excentricities from RTCMv3<br> [Add] Reconfiguration on-the-fly<br> [Mod] Binary output of synchronized observations<br> [Add] Binary output of unsynchronized observations<br> [Bug] Fixed problem with joined RTCMv3 blocks</td>
1963</tr>
1964
1965<tr>
1966<td>Dec 2008 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.6.1 &nbsp;</td>
1967<td>[Mod] HTTP GET when no proxy in front</td>
1968</tr>
1969
1970<tr>
1971<td>Nov 2009 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.7 &nbsp;</td>
1972<td>[Bug] RINEX navigation file format<br> [Add] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.5.2<br> [Add] Support of NTRIP v2<br> [Add] Rover support via serial port<br> [Add] Show broadcaster table from www.rtcm-ntrip.org<br> [Add] Enable/disable tab widgets<br> [Add] User defined configuration file name<br> [Mod] Switch to configuration files in ini-Format<br> [Add] Daily logfile rotation<br> [Add] Read from TCP/IP port, by-pass NTRIP transport protocol<br> [Add] Save NMEA messages coming from rover<br> [Add] Auto start<br> [Add] Drag and drop ini files<br> [Add] Read from serial port, by-pass NTRIP transport protocol<br> [Mod] Update of SSR messages following RTCM 091-2009-SC104-542<br> [Add] Read from UPD port, by-pass NTRIP transport protocol<br> [Mod] Output format of Broadcast Corrections<br> [Add] Throughput plot<br> [Add] Latency plot</td>
1973</tr>
1974
1975<tr>
1976<td>Nov 2009 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.8 &nbsp;</td>
1977<td>[Mod] On-the-fly reconfiguration of latency and throughput plots</td>
1978</tr>
1979
1980<tr>
1981<td>Feb 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.0 &nbsp;</td>
1982<td>[Mod] Change sign of Broadcast Ephemeris correctors<br> [Add] Real-time PPP option</td>
1983</tr>
1984
1985<tr>
1986<td>Jun 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.1 &nbsp;</td>
1987<td>[Bug] SSR GLONASS message generation<br> [Add] PPP in post-processing mode<br> [Mod] Update of SSR messages following draft dated 2010-04-12<br> [Mod] Generating error message when observation epoch is wrong</td>
1988</tr>
1989
1990<tr>
1991<td>Jul 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.2 &nbsp;</td>
1992<td>[Bug] GLONASS ephemeris time</td>
1993</tr>
1994
1995<tr>
1996<td>Aug 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.3 &nbsp;</td>
1997<td>[Mod] Internal format for saving raw streams<br> [Bug] Outlier detection in GLONASS ambiguity resolution<br> [Mod] Format of PPP logs in logfile<br> [Bug] Complete acceleration terms for GLONASS ephemeris<br> [Bug] Handling ephemeris IOD's in PPP mode</td>
1998</tr>
1999
2000<tr>
2001<td>Dec 2010 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.4 &nbsp;</td>
2002<td>[Add] Output of averaged positions when in PPP mode<br> [Mod] Use always the latest received set of broadcast ephemeris<br> [Add] QuickStart PPP option<br> [Mod] Improvement of data sharing efficiency among different threads<br> [Mod] Design of PPP tab section<br> [Add] Sigmas for observations and parameters<br> [Add] Stream distribution map<br> [Bug] GPS Ephemeris in RINEX v3 format</td>
2003</tr>
2004
2005<tr>
2006<td>Feb 2011 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.5 &nbsp;</td>
2007<td>[Add] PPP option for sync of clock observations and corrections<br> [Add] Drafted RTCMv3 Galileo ephemeris messages 1045<br> [Add] Drafted RTCMv3 Multipe Signal Messages<br> [Add] Optional specification of sigmas for coordinates and troposphere in PPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo in SPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via IP port<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via RINEXv3 files<br> [Mod] Interface format for feeding a real-time engine with observations<br> [Add] Correct observations for antenna phase center offsets<br> [Add] Combine orbit/clock correctors streams<br> [Add] Specify corrections mountpoint in PPP tab</td>
2008</tr>
2009
2010<tr>
2011<td>Apr 2011 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.6 &nbsp;</td>
2012<td>[Add] SP3 output<br> [Mod] RTCMv3 Galileo Broadcast Ephemeris message 1045</td>
2013</tr>
2014
2015</table>
2016</p>
2017
2018<p><a name="rtcm"><h4>6.2. RTCM</h4></p>
2019
2020<p>
2021The Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) is an international non-profit scientific, professional and educational organization. Special Committees provide a forum in which governmental and non-governmental members work together to develop technical standards and consensus recommendations in regard to issues of particular concern. RTCM is engaged in the development of international standards for maritime radionavigation and radiocommunication systems. The output documents and reports prepared by RTCM Committees are published as RTCM Recommended Standards. Topics concerning Differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (DGNSS) are handled by the Special Committee SC 104.
2022<p>
2023Personal copies of RTCM Recommended Standards can be ordered through <u>http://www.rtcm.org/orderinfo.php</u>.
2024</p>
2025
2026<p><a name="ntrip1"><h4>6.2.1 NTRIP Version 1</h4></p>
2027
2028<p>
2029'Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol' Version 1.0 (NTRIP) stands for an application-level protocol streaming Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data over the Internet. NTRIP is a generic, stateless protocol based on the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP/1.1. The HTTP objects are enhanced to GNSS data streams.
2030</p>
2031
2032<p>
2033NTRIP Version 1.0 is an RTCM standard designed for disseminating differential correction data (e.g. in the RTCM-104 format) or other kinds of GNSS streaming data to stationary or mobile users over the Internet, allowing simultaneous PC, Laptop, PDA, or receiver connections to a broadcasting host. NTRIP supports wireless Internet access through Mobile IP Networks like GSM, GPRS, EDGE, or UMTS.
2034</p>
2035
2036<p>
2037NTRIP is implemented in three system software components: NTRIP clients, NTRIP servers and NTRIP broadcasters. The NTRIP broadcaster is the actual HTTP server program whereas NTRIP client and NTRIP server are acting as HTTP clients.
2038</p>
2039
2040<p>
2041NTRIP is an open none-proprietary protocol. Major characteristics of NTRIP's dissemination technique are:
2042<ul>
2043<li>Based on the popular HTTP streaming standard; comparatively easy to implement when having limited client and server platform resources available.</li>
2044<li>Application not limited to one particular plain or coded stream content; ability to distribute any kind of GNSS data.</li>
2045<li>Potential to support mass usage; disseminating hundreds of streams simultaneously for thousands of users possible when applying modified Internet Radio broadcasting software.</li>
2046<li>Considering security needs; stream providers and users don't necessarily get into contact, streams often not blocked by firewalls or proxy servers protecting Local Area Networks.</li>
2047<li>Enables streaming over mobile IP networks because of using TCP/IP.</li>
2048</ul>
2049</p>
2050
2051<p>
2052The NTRIP broadcaster maintains a source-table containing information on available NTRIP streams, networks of NTRIP streams and NTRIP broadcasters. The source-table is sent to an NTRIP client on request. Source-table records are dedicated to one of the following: Data Streams (record type STR), Casters (record type CAS), or Networks of streams (record type NET).
2053</p>
2054
2055<p>
2056Source-table records of type STR contain the following data fields: 'mountpoint', 'identifier', 'format', 'format-details', 'carrier', 'nav-system', 'network', 'country', 'latitude', 'longitude', 'nmea', 'solution', 'generator', 'compr-encryp', 'authentication', 'fee', 'bitrate', 'misc'.
2057</p>
2058<p>
2059Source-table records of type NET contain the following data fields: 'identifiey', 'operator', 'authentication', 'fee', 'web-net', 'web-str', 'web-reg', 'misc'.
2060</p>
2061<p>
2062Source-table records of type CAS contain the following data fields: 'host', 'port', 'identifier', 'operator', 'nmea', 'country', 'latitude', 'longitude', 'misc'.
2063</p>
2064
2065<p><a name="ntrip2"><h4>6.2.1 NTRIP Version 2</h4></p>
2066
2067<p>
2068The major changes of NTRIP version 2.0 compared to version 1.0 are:
2069</p>
2070
2071<ul>
2072<li>cleared and fixed design problems and HTTP protocol violations;</li>
2073<li>replaced non standard directives;</li>
2074<li>chunked transfer encoding;</li>
2075<li>improvements in header records;</li>
2076<li>source-table filtering; and</li>
2077<li>RTSP communication.</li>
2078</ul>
2079
2080<p>NTRIP version 2 allows to either communicate in TCP/IP mode or in RTSP/RTP mode or in UDP mode whereas version 1 is limited to TCP/IP only.
2081</p>
2082
2083<p><a name="rtcm2"><h4>6.2.3 RTCM Version 2.x</h4></p>
2084<p>
2085Transmitting GNSS carrier phase data can be done through RTCM Version 2.x messages. Please note that only RTCM Version 2.2 and 2.3 streams may include GLONASS data. Messages that may be of some interest here are:
2086</p>
2087
2088<ul>
2089<li>
2090Type 1 message is the range correction message and is the primary message in code-phase differential positioning (DGPS). It is computed in the base receiver by computing the error in the range measurement for each tracked SV.
2091</li>
2092<li>
2093Type 2 message is automatically generated when a new set of satellite ephemeris is downloaded to the base receiver. It is the computed difference between the old ephemeris and the new ephemeris. Type 2 messages are used when the base station is transmitting Type 1 messages.
2094</li>
2095<li>
2096Type 3 and 22 messages are the base station position and the antenna offset. Type 3 and 22 are used in RTK processing to perform antenna reduction.
2097</li>
2098<li>
2099Type 6 message is a null frame filler message that is provided for data links that require continuous transmission of data, even if there are no corrections to send. As many Type 6 messages are sent as required to fill in the gap between two correction messages (type 1). Message 6 is not sent in burst mode.
2100</li>
2101<li>
2102Type 9 message serves the same purpose as Type 1, but does not require a complete satellite set. As a result, Type 9 messages require a more stable clock than a station transmitting Type 1 's, because the satellite corrections have different time references.
2103</li>
2104<li>
2105Type 16 message is simply a text message entered by the user that is transmitted from the base station to the rover. It is used with code-phase differential.
2106</li>
2107<li>
2108Type 18 and 20 messages are RTK uncorrected carrier phase data and carrier phase corrections.
2109</li>
2110<li>
2111Type 19 and 21 messages are the uncorrected pseudo-range measurements and pseudo-range corrections used in RTK.
2112</li>
2113<li>
2114Type 23 message provides the information on the antenna type used on the reference station.
2115</li>
2116<li>
2117Type 24 message carries the coordinates of the installed antenna's ARP in the GNSS coordinate system coordinates.
2118</li>
2119</ul>
2120
2121<p><a name="rtcm3"><h4>6.2.4 RTCM Version 3.x</h4></p>
2122<p>
2123RTCM Version 3.x has been developed as a more efficient alternative to RTCM Version 2.x. Service providers and vendors have asked for a standard that would be more efficient, easy to use, and more easily adaptable to new situations. The main complaint was that the Version 2 parity scheme was wasteful of bandwidth. Another complaint was that the parity is not independent from word to word. Still another was that even with so many bits devoted to parity, the actual integrity of the message was not as high as it should be. Plus, 30-bit words are awkward to handle. The Version 3.x standard is intended to correct these weaknesses.
2124</p>
2125<p>
2126RTCM Version 3.x defines a number of message types. Messages that may be of interest here are:
2127<ul>
2128<li>Type 1001, GPS L1 code and phase.</li>
2129<li>Type 1002, GPS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier to noise ratio.</li>
2130<li>Type 1003, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
2131<li>Type 1004, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier to noise ratio.</li>
2132<li>Type 1005, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point.</li>
2133<li>Type 1006, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point and antenna height.</li>
2134<li>Type 1007, Antenna descriptor and ID.</li>
2135<li>Type 1008, Antenna serial number.</li>
2136<li>Type 1009, GLONASS L1 code and phase.</li>
2137<li>Type 1010, GLONASS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier to noise ratio.</li>
2138<li>Type 1011, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
2139<li>Type 1012, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier to noise ratio.</li>
2140<li>Type 1013, Modified julian date, leap second, configured message types and interval.</li>
2141<li>Type 1014 and 1017, Network RTK (MAK) messages (under development).</li>
2142<li>Type 1019, GPS ephemeris.</li>
2143<li>Type 1020, GLONASS ephemeris.</li>
2144<li>Type 4088 and 4095, Proprietary messages (under development).
2145</li>
2146</ul>
2147</p>
2148
2149<p>
2150The following are proposed 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) under discussion for standardization:
2151<ul>
2152<li>Type 1045, Galileo ephemeris.</li>
2153<li>Type 1071, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges</li>
2154<li>Type 1072, Compact GPS carrier phases</li>
2155<li>Type 1073, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
2156<li>Type 1074, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
2157<li>Type 1075, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
2158<li>Type 1076, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
2159<li>Type 1077, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br></li>
2160<li>Type 1081, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges</li>
2161<li>Type 1082, Compact GLONASS carrier phases</li>
2162<li>Type 1083, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
2163<li>Type 1084, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
2164<li>Type 1085, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
2165<li>Type 1086, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
2166<li>Type 1087, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br></li>
2167<li>Type 1091, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges</li>
2168<li>Type 1092, Compact Galileo carrier phases</li>
2169<li>Type 1093, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
2170<li>Type 1094, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
2171<li>Type 1095, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
2172<li>Type 1096, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
2173<li>Type 1097, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br></li>
2174</ul>
2175</p>
2176
2177<p>
2178The following are proposed 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages under discussion for standardization:
2179<ul>
2180<li>Type 1057, GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2181<li>Type 1058, GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2182<li>Type 1059, GPS code biases</li>
2183<li>Type 1060, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2184<li>Type 1061, GPS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
2185<li>Type 1062, High-rate GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2186<li>Type 1063, GLONASS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2187<li>Type 1064, GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2188<li>Type 1065, GLONASS code biases</li>
2189<li>Type 1066, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2190<li>Type 1067, GLONASS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
2191<li>Type 1068, High-rate GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
2192</ul>
2193</p>
2194
2195<p><a name="rtigs"><h4>6.3. RTIGS</h4></p>
2196<p>
2197RTIGS stands for a data format and transport protocol for GPS observations. It was defined by the Real-Time IGS Working Group (RTIGS WG). Its definition is based on the SOC format. Every RTIGS record has one of the following numbers:
2198</p>
2199<p>
2200Station record number 100<br>
2201Observation record (O_T) number 200<br>
2202Ephemeris record (E_T) number 300<br>
2203Meteorological record (M_T) number 400
2204</p>
2205<p>
2206Every station has one of the following unique numbers:
2207</p>
2208<p>
22091-99 reserved for JPL<br>
2210100-199 reserved for NRCan<br>
2211200-299 reserved for NGS<br>
2212300-399 reserved for ESOC<br>
2213400-499 reserved for GFZ<br>
2214500-599 reserved for BKG<br>
2215600-699 reserved for GEOSCIENCE AUS<br>
2216700-799 others<br>
2217etc
2218</p>
2219<p>
2220The number of bytes in each real time message includes the header as well as the data content, but NOT the pointer.
2221</p>
2222<p>
2223For example:
2224</p>
2225<ul>
2226<li>A station message is output once per hour and is 20 bytes.</li>
2227<li>An observation message is output once per second. The header is 12 bytes long and the SOC data is 21 bytes per PRN. So a typical RTIGSO_T message will be 390 bytes if 8 sats are being tracked.</li>
2228<li>An ephemeris message is output when the ephemeris is decoded by the GPS receiver. The time in the ephemeris header is the collected time. Only one ephemeris can be bundled in a RTIGSE_T message.<br>
2229A RTIGSE_T message contains one eph. The message consists of 12 header bytes and 72 ephemeris bytes, for a total of 84 bytes.</li>
2230<li>The RTIGSM_T (met) message should be issued once every 15 minutes. A basic met message consists of a 12 byte header and 3 longs (temp, press and relative humidity) for a total of 24 bytes.</li>
2231</ul>
2232<p>
2233All records are related to a station configuration indicated by the Issue of Data Station (IODS). The IODS will enable the user to identify the equipment and software that was used to derive the observation data.
2234</p>
2235<p>
2236Each record header contains the GPS Time in seconds which flows continuously from 6 Jan-1980 onwards.
2237</p>
2238<p>
2239The data payload of each record consists of observations. The structures indicate a pointer to data but in fact the broadcast messages do not contain the pointer, only the data. Users will have to manage the data and the pointer is shown in order to illustrate where the data is located in the message and one possible data management option.
2240</p>
2241<p>
2242All record data are in network byte order (Big Endian), i.e. IA32 users have to swap bytes.
2243</p>
2244<p>
2245Visit <u>http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/mail/igs-rtwg/2004/msg00001.html</u> for further details.
2246</p>
2247
2248<p><a name="soc"><h4>6.3.1 SOC</h4></p>
2249<p>
2250The SOC format has been designed in July 1999 by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) to transport 1Hz GPS data with minimal bandwidth over the open Internet. SOC follows the 'little-endian' byte order meaning that the low-order byte of a number is stored in memory at the lowest address, and the high-order byte at the highest address. Because the transport layer is UDP, the format does not include sync bits, a checksum, or cyclic redundancy checksum (CRC). SOC allows to transport the GPS observable CA, P1, P2, L1, and L2, efficiently compressed down to 14 bytes with 1 mm range resolution and 0.02 mm phase resolution. SOC contains epochs for cycle slips, a stand-alone time-tag per epoch, a minimum representation of the receiver's clock solution, 3 SNR numbers, a unique site id, a modulo 12 hour sequence number and flags for receiver type and GPS health. SOC's simple structure comprises an 8 byte header, a 9 byte overhead for timetag, number of gps, etc., plus 21 data bytes per gps.
2251</p>
2252<p>
2253Visit <u>http://gipsy.jpl.nasa.gov/igdg/papers/SOC_FORMAT.ppt</u> for further details.
2254</p>
2255<p>
2256</p>
2257<p><a name="config"><h4>6.4. Configuration Example</h4></p>
2258<p>
2259The following table's left column is an example for the contents of a configuration file 'BNC.ini'. It enables the retrieval of stream ACOR0 form www.euref-ip.net for the generation of 15 min RINEX files. RINEX files are uploaded to an archive using script 'up2archive' :
2260</p>
2261<table>
2262<tr></tr>
2263<tr><td><b>Option</b></td><td><b>Affiliation</b></td></tr>
2264<tr><td>[General]</td><td>Settings: Group</td></tr>
2265<tr><td>adviseFail=15</td><td>Outages: Failure threshold</td></tr>
2266<tr><td>adviseReco=5</td><td>Outages: Recovery threshold</td></tr>
2267<tr><td>adviseScript=</td><td>Outages: Script (full path)</td></tr>
2268<tr><td>autoStart=0</td><td>General: Auto start</td></tr>
2269<tr><td>binSample=0</td><td>Feed Engine: Sampling</td></tr>
2270<tr><td>casterUrlList=http://user:pass@euref-ip:2101</td><td>Internal memory: Visited URLs</td></tr>
2271<tr><td>corrIntr=1 day</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Interval</td></tr>
2272<tr><td>corrPath=</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Directory, ASCII </td></tr>
2273<tr><td>corrPort=</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Port</td></tr>
2274<tr><td>corrTime=5</td><td>Broadcast Corrections: Wait for full epoch</td></tr>
2275<tr><td>ephIntr=15 min</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Interval</td></tr>
2276<tr><td>ephPath=</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Directory</td></tr>
2277<tr><td>ephV3=0</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Version 3</td></tr>
2278<tr><td>font=</td><td>Internal memory: Used font</td></tr>
2279<tr><td>logFile=/home/weber/bnc.log</td><td>General: Logfile (full path)</td></tr>
2280<tr><td>rawOutFile=</td><td>General: Raw output file (full path)</td></tr>
2281<tr><td>miscMount=</td><td>Miscellaneous: Mountpoint</td></tr>
2282<tr><td>mountPoints=//user:pass@www.euref-ip.net:2101<br>/ACOR0 RTCM_2.3 43.36 351.60 no 1</td><td>Streams: broadcaster:port/mountpoint</td></tr>
2283<tr><td>ntripVersion=1</td><td>Add Stream: NTRIP Version</td></tr>
2284<tr><td>obsRate=</td><td>Outages: Observation rate</td></tr>
2285<tr><td>onTheFlyInterval=1 day</td><td>General: Reread configuration</td></tr>
2286<tr><td>outEphPort=</td><td>RINEX Ephemeris: Port</td></tr>
2287<tr><td>outFile=</td><td>Feed Engine: File (full path)</td></tr>
2288<tr><td>outPort=</td><td>Feed Engine: Port</td></tr>
2289<tr><td>outUPort=</td><td>Feed Engine: Port (unsynchronized)</td></tr>
2290<tr><td>perfIntr=</td><td>Miscellaneous: Log latency</td></tr>
2291<tr><td>proxyHost=</td><td>Proxy: Proxy host</td></tr>
2292<tr><td>proxyPort=</td><td>Proxy: Proxy port</td></tr>
2293<tr><td>rnxAppend=2</td><td>General: Append files</td></tr>
2294<tr><td>rnxIntr=15 min</td><td>RINEX Observations: Interval</td></tr>
2295<tr><td>rnxPath=/home/user/rinex</td><td>RINEX Observations: Directory</td></tr>
2296<tr><td>rnxSample=0</td><td>RINEX Observations: Sampling</td></tr>
2297<tr><td>rnxScript=/home/user/rinex/up2archive</td><td>RINEX Observations: Script (full path)</td></tr>
2298<tr><td>rnxSkel=</td><td>RINEX Observations: Skeleton extension</td></tr>
2299<tr><td>rnxV3=0</td><td>RINEX Observation: Version 3</td></tr>
2300<tr><td>scanRTCM=0</td><td>Miscellaneous: Scan RTCM</td></tr>
2301<tr><td>serialAutoNMEA=Auto</td><td>Serial Output: NMEA</td></tr>
2302<tr><td>serialBaudRate=9600</td><td>Serial Output: Baud rate</td></tr>
2303<tr><td>serialDataBits=8</td><td>Serial Output: Data bits</td></tr>
2304<tr><td>serialFileNMEA=</td><td>Serial Output: NMEA file name</td></tr>
2305<tr><td>serialHeightNMEA=</td><td>Serial Output: Height</td></tr>
2306<tr><td>serialMountPoint=</td><td>Serial Output: Mountpoint</td></tr>
2307<tr><td>serialParity=NONE</td><td>Serial Output: Parity</td></tr>
2308<tr><td>serialPortName=</td><td>Serial Output: Port name</td></tr>
2309<tr><td>serialStopBits=1</td><td>Serial Output: Stop bits</td></tr>
2310<tr><td>serialFlowControl=</td><td>Serial Output: Flow control</td></tr>
2311<tr><td>startTab=0</td><td>Internal memory: Top tab index</td></tr>
2312<tr><td>statusTab=0</td><td>Internal memory: Bottom tab index</td></tr>
2313<tr><td>waitTime=5</td><td>Feed Engine: Wait for full epoch</td></tr>
2314<tr><td>pppMount=</td><td>PPP Client: Observations Mountpoint</td></tr>
2315<tr><td>pppCorrMount=</td><td>PPP Client: Corrections Mountpoint</td></tr>
2316<tr><td>pppSPP=PPP</td><td>PPP Client: PPP/SPP</td></tr>
2317<tr><td>pppSigmaCode=5.0</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for Code observations</td></tr>
2318<tr><td>pppSigmaPhase=0.02</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for Phase observations</td></tr>
2319<tr><td>pppQuickStart=200</td><td>PPP Client: Quick-Start period</td></tr>
2320<tr><td>pppSigmaCrd0=100.0</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for initial XYZ coordinate</td></tr>
2321<tr><td>pppSigmaCrdP=100.0</td><td>PPP Client: White noise for XYZ</td></tr>
2322<tr><td>pppSigmaTrp0=0.1</td><td>PPP Client: Sigma for initial tropospheric delay</td></tr>
2323<tr><td>pppSigmaTrpP=1e-6</td><td>PPP Client: White noise for tropospheric delay</td></tr>
2324<tr><td>pppAverage=</td><td>PPP Client: Lenght of time window for moving average</td></tr>
2325<tr><td>pppUsePhase=0</td><td>PPP Client: Use phase data </td></tr>
2326<tr><td>pppEstTropo=0</td><td>PPP Client: Estimate troposphere</td></tr>
2327<tr><td>pppGLONASS=0</td><td>PPP Client: Use GLONASS</td></tr>
2328<tr><td>pppGalileo=0</td><td>PPP Client: Use Galileo</td></tr>
2329<tr><td>pppPlotCoordinates=0</td><td>PPP Client: Plot NEU time series</td></tr>
2330<tr><td>pppRefCrdX=</td><td>PPP Client: X coordinate of plot origin</td></tr>
2331<tr><td>pppRefCrdY=</td><td>PPP Client: Y coordinate of plot origin</td></tr>
2332<tr><td>pppRefCrdZ=</td><td>PPP Client: Z coordinate of plot origin</td></tr>
2333<tr><td>pppAntenna=</td><td>PPP Client: Antenna name</td></tr>
2334<tr><td>pppAntex=</td><td>PPP Client: Path to ANTEX file</td></tr>
2335<tr><td>pppApplySatAnt=</td><td>PPP Client: Apply sat antenna phase center Offset</td></tr>
2336<tr><td>pppSync=</td><td>PPP Client: Sync observations and corrections</td></tr>
2337<tr><td>nmeaFile=</td><td>PPP Client: NMEA outputfile</td></tr>
2338<tr><td>nmeaPort=</td><td>PPP Client: NMEA IP output port</td></tr>
2339<tr><td>combineStreams=</td><td>Combination: List of correctors streams</td></tr>
2340<tr><td>cmbOutHost=</td><td>Combination: Ntrip caster for stream upload</td></tr>
2341<tr><td>cmbOutPort=</td><td>Combination: Port of Ntrip caster</td></tr>
2342<tr><td>cmbMountpoint=</td><td>Combination: Mountpoint on Ntrip caster</td></tr>
2343<tr><td>cmbPassword=</td><td>Combination: Stream upload password</td></tr>
2344<tr><td>cmbOutFile=</td><td>Combination: Directory, ASCII</td></tr>
2345<tr><td>cmbSP3File=</td><td>Combination: Directory, SP3</td></tr>
2346</table>
2347</p>
2348<p>
2349Note that the following configuration options saved on disk can be changed/edited on-the-fly while BNC is already processing data:
2350</p>
2351<p>
2352<ul>
2353<li>'mountPoints' to change the selection of streams to be processed, see section 'Streams',</li>
2354<li>'waitTime' to change the 'Wait for full epoch' option, see section 'Feed Engine', and</li>
2355<li>'binSampl' to change the 'Sampling' option, see section 'Feed Engine'.</li>
2356</ul>
2357</p>
2358
2359<p><a name="links"><h3>6.5 Links</h3></p>
2360<table>
2361<tr></tr>
2362<tr><td>NTRIP &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/about</u></td></tr>
2363<tr><td>EUREF-IP NTRIP broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
2364<tr><td>IGS-IP NTRIP broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
2365<tr><td>IGS products NTRIP broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
2366<tr><td>Distribution of IGS-IP streams &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs.oma.be/real_time/</u></td></tr>
2367<tr><td>Completeness and latency of IGS-IP data &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs.oma.be/highrate/</u></td></tr>
2368<tr><td>NTRIP broadcaster overview &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u></td></tr>
2369<tr><td>NTRIP Open Source software code &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org</u></td></tr>
2370<tr><td>EUREF-IP Project &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.epncb.oma.be/euref_IP</u></td></tr>
2371<tr><td>Real-time IGS Pilot Project &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtigs.net/pilot</u></td></tr>
2372<tr><td>Radio Technical Commission<br>for Maritime Services &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtcm.org</u>
2373</table>
2374
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