Changeset 8238 in ntrip


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Jan 5, 2018, 4:16:06 PM (10 months ago)
Author:
wiese
Message:

CHANGE: BNC help

html fixes

Location:
trunk/BNC/src
Files:
3 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • trunk/BNC/src/bncabout.html

    r7810 r8238  
    2727E-Mail: <a><u>igs-ip@bkg.bund.de</u></a>.<br>
    2828<br>
    29 Copyright &copy; 2005-2016 Bundesamt for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG), Frankfurt, Germany
     29Copyright &copy; 2005-2018 Bundesamt for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG), Frankfurt, Germany
  • trunk/BNC/src/bnchelp.html

    r8205 r8238  
    1 <META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
     1<!doctype html>
     2<html lang="en">
     3<head>
     4  <meta charset="utf-8"/>
     5  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
     6  <title>BKG Ntrip Client | Help</title>
     7</head>
     8
     9<body>
    210<p><img src="IMG/screenshot43.png"/></p>
    311
     
    513Version 2.13</h3>
    614
    7 <p>
    8 Georg Weber<sup>(1)</sup>, Leo&scaron; Mervart<sup>(2)</sup>, Andrea St&uuml;rze<sup>(1)</sup>, Axel R&uuml;lke<sup>(1)</sup>, Dirk St&ouml;cker<sup>(3)</sup>
     15<p>Georg Weber<sup>(1)</sup>, Leo&scaron; Mervart<sup>(2)</sup>, Andrea St&uuml;rze<sup>(1)</sup>, Axel R&uuml;lke<sup>(1)</sup>, Dirk St&ouml;cker<sup>(3)</sup></p>
     16
    917<p>
    1018<sup>(1) Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG), Frankfurt, Germany</sup><br>
    1119<sup>(2) Czech Technical University (CTU), Department of Geomatics, Prague, Czech Republic</sup><br>
    1220<sup>(3) Alberding GmbH, Wildau, Germany</sup>
    13 <br><br>
     21</p>
     22<br>
     23
    1424<b>Copyright</b><br>
    1525&copy;<sup>&nbsp;</sup> 2005-2016 Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG), Frankfurt, Germany
     
    2535<br><br>
    2636
    27 <b>Table of <a name="contents">Contents</b><br><br>
    28 <b>1.</b> <a href=#genInstruction><b>General Information</b></a><br><br>
    29 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.1 <a href=#introPurpose>Purpose</a><br>
    30 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.2 <a href=#introSystem>Supported GNSS</a><br>
    31 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.3 <a href=#introFlow>Data Flow</a><br>
    32 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.4 <a href=#introHandling>Handling</a><br>
    33 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.5 <a href=#introInst>Installation</a><br>
    34 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.5.1 <a href=#introCompile>Compilation</a><br>
    35 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.6 <a href=#introConf>Configuration</a><br>
    36 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.6.1 <a href=#introExamples>Examples</a><br>
    37 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.7 <a href=#introLimit>Limitations</a><br>
    38 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.8 <a href=#introLBack>Looking Back</a><br><br>
    39 <b>2.</b> <a href=#optsettings><b>Settings Details</b></a><br><br>
    40 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.1 <a href=#topmenu><b>Top Menu Bar</b></a><br>
    41 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.1.1 <a href=#file>File</a><br>
    42 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.1.2 <a href=#help>Help</a><br>
    43 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.2 <a href=#network><b>Network</b></a><br>
    44 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.2.1 <a href=#proxy>Proxy</a><br>
    45 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.2.2 <a href=#ssl>SSL</a><br>
    46 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3 <a href=#general><b>General</b></a><br>
    47 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.1 <a href=#genlog>Logfile</a><br>
    48 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.2 <a href=#genapp>Append Files</a><br>
    49 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.3 <a href=#genconf>Reread Configuration</a><br>
    50 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.4 <a href=#genstart>Auto Start</a><br>
    51 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.5 <a href=#rawout>Raw Output File</a><br>
    52 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4 <a href=#rinex><b>RINEX Observations</b></a><br>
    53 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.1 <a href=#rnxname>Filenames</a><br>
    54 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.2 <a href=#rnxdir>Directory</a><br>
    55 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.3 <a href=#rnxinterval>File Interval</a><br>
    56 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.4 <a href=#rnxsample>Sampling</a><br>
    57 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.5 <a href=#rnxskl>Skeleton Extension</a><br>
    58 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.6 <a href=#sklMandat>Skeleton Mandatory</a><br>
    59 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.7 <a href=#rnxscript>Script</a><br>
    60 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.8 <a href=#rnxvers2>Version 2</a><br>
    61 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.9 <a href=#rnxvers3>Version 3</a><br>
    62 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.10 <a href=#rnxvers3File>Version 3 Filenames</a><br>
    63 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5 <a href=#ephemeris><b>RINEX Ephemeris</b></a><br>
    64 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.1 <a href=#ephdir>Directory</a><br>
    65 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.2 <a href=#ephint>Interval</a><br>
    66 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.3 <a href=#ephport>Port</a><br>
    67 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.4 <a href=#ephvers>Version</a><br>
    68 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.5 <a href=#ephversFile>Version 3 Filenames</a><br>
    69 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6 <a href=#reqc><b>RINEX Editing & QC</b></a><br>
    70 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.1 <a href=#reqcact>Action</a><br>
    71 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.2 <a href=#reqcinp>Input Files</a><br>
    72 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.3 <a href=#reqcout>Output Files</a><br>
    73 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.4 <a href=#reqclog>Logfiles</a><br>
    74 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.5 <a href=#reqcplots>Plots for Signals</a><br>
    75 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.6 <a href=#reqcdir>Directory for Plots</a><br>
    76 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.7 <a href=#reqcedit>Set Edit Options</a><br>
    77 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.8 <a href=#reqccommand>Command Line, No Window</a><br>
    78 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7 <a href=#sp3comp><b>SP3 Comparison</b></a><br>
    79 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7.1 <a href=#sp3input>Input SP3 Files</a><br>
    80 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7.2 <a href=#sp3exclude>Exclude Satellites</a><br>
    81 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7.3 <a href=#sp3log>Logfile</a><br>
    82 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8 <a href=#correct><b>Broadcast Corrections</b></a><br>
    83 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.1 <a href=#corrdir>Directory, ASCII</a><br>
    84 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.2 <a href=#corrint>Interval</a><br>
    85 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.3 <a href=#corrport>Port</a><br>
    86 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.4 <a href=#corrwait>Wait for Full Corr Epoch</a><br>
    87 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9 <a href=#syncout><b>Feed Engine</b></a><br>
    88 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.1 <a href=#syncport>Port</a><br>
    89 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.2 <a href=#syncwait>Wait for Full Obs Epoch</a><br>
    90 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.3 <a href=#syncsample>Sampling</a><br>
    91 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.4 <a href=#syncfile>File</a><br>
    92 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.5 <a href=#syncuport>Port (unsynchronized)</a><br>
    93 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10 <a href=#serial><b>Serial Output</b></a><br>
    94 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.1 <a href=#sermount>Mountpoint</a><br>
    95 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.2 <a href=#serport>Port Name</a><br>
    96 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.3 <a href=#serbaud>Baud Rate</a><br>
    97 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.4 <a href=#serflow>Flow Control</a><br>
    98 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.5 <a href=#serparity>Parity</a><br>
    99 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.6 <a href=#serdata>Data Bits</a><br>
    100 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.7 <a href=#serstop>Stop Bits</a><br>
    101 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.8 <a href=#serauto>NMEA</a><br>
    102 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.9 <a href=#serfile>File</a><br>
    103 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.10 <a href=#serheight>Height</a><br>
    104 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.11 <a href=#sersampl>Sampling</a><br>
     37<p>
     38<b>Table of Contents</b><br><br>
     39<b>1.</b> <a href="#genInstruction"><b>General Information</b></a><br><br>
     40&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.1 <a href="#introPurpose">Purpose</a><br>
     41&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.2 <a href="#introSystem">Supported GNSS</a><br>
     42&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.3 <a href="#introFlow">Data Flow</a><br>
     43&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.4 <a href="#introHandling">Handling</a><br>
     44&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.5 <a href="#introInst">Installation</a><br>
     45&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.5.1 <a href="#introCompile">Compilation</a><br>
     46&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.6 <a href="#introConf">Configuration</a><br>
     47&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.6.1 <a href="#introExamples">Examples</a><br>
     48&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.7 <a href="#introLimit">Limitations</a><br>
     49&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.8 <a href="#introLBack">Looking Back</a><br><br>
     50<b>2.</b> <a href="#optsettings"><b>Settings Details</b></a><br><br>
     51&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.1 <a href="#topmenu"><b>Top Menu Bar</b></a><br>
     52&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.1.1 <a href="#file">File</a><br>
     53&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.1.2 <a href="#help">Help</a><br>
     54&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.2 <a href="#network"><b>Network</b></a><br>
     55&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.2.1 <a href="#proxy">Proxy</a><br>
     56&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.2.2 <a href="#ssl">SSL</a><br>
     57&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3 <a href="#general"><b>General</b></a><br>
     58&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.1 <a href="#genlog">Logfile</a><br>
     59&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.2 <a href="#genapp">Append Files</a><br>
     60&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.3 <a href="#genconf">Reread Configuration</a><br>
     61&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.4 <a href="#genstart">Auto Start</a><br>
     62&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.3.5 <a href="#rawout">Raw Output File</a><br>
     63&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4 <a href="#rinex"><b>RINEX Observations</b></a><br>
     64&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.1 <a href="#rnxname">Filenames</a><br>
     65&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.2 <a href="#rnxdir">Directory</a><br>
     66&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.3 <a href="#rnxinterval">File Interval</a><br>
     67&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.4 <a href="#rnxsample">Sampling</a><br>
     68&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.5 <a href="#rnxskl">Skeleton Extension</a><br>
     69&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.6 <a href="#sklMandat">Skeleton Mandatory</a><br>
     70&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.7 <a href="#rnxscript">Script</a><br>
     71&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.8 <a href="#rnxvers2">Version 2</a><br>
     72&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.9 <a href="#rnxvers3">Version 3</a><br>
     73&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.4.10 <a href="#rnxvers3File">Version 3 Filenames</a><br>
     74&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5 <a href="#ephemeris"><b>RINEX Ephemeris</b></a><br>
     75&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.1 <a href="#ephdir">Directory</a><br>
     76&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.2 <a href="#ephint">Interval</a><br>
     77&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.3 <a href="#ephport">Port</a><br>
     78&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.4 <a href="#ephvers">Version</a><br>
     79&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.5.5 <a href="#ephversFile">Version 3 Filenames</a><br>
     80&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6 <a href="#reqc"><b>RINEX Editing & QC</b></a><br>
     81&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.1 <a href="#reqcact">Action</a><br>
     82&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.2 <a href="#reqcinp">Input Files</a><br>
     83&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.3 <a href="#reqcout">Output Files</a><br>
     84&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.4 <a href="#reqclog">Logfiles</a><br>
     85&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.5 <a href="#reqcplots">Plots for Signals</a><br>
     86&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.6 <a href="#reqcdir">Directory for Plots</a><br>
     87&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.7 <a href="#reqcedit">Set Edit Options</a><br>
     88&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.6.8 <a href="#reqccommand">Command Line, No Window</a><br>
     89&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7 <a href="#sp3comp"><b>SP3 Comparison</b></a><br>
     90&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7.1 <a href="#sp3input">Input SP3 Files</a><br>
     91&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7.2 <a href="#sp3exclude">Exclude Satellites</a><br>
     92&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.7.3 <a href="#sp3log">Logfile</a><br>
     93&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8 <a href="#correct"><b>Broadcast Corrections</b></a><br>
     94&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.1 <a href="#corrdir">Directory, ASCII</a><br>
     95&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.2 <a href="#corrint">Interval</a><br>
     96&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.3 <a href="#corrport">Port</a><br>
     97&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.8.4 <a href="#corrwait">Wait for Full Corr Epoch</a><br>
     98&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9 <a href="#syncout"><b>Feed Engine</b></a><br>
     99&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.1 <a href="#syncport">Port</a><br>
     100&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.2 <a href="#syncwait">Wait for Full Obs Epoch</a><br>
     101&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.3 <a href="#syncsample">Sampling</a><br>
     102&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.4 <a href="#syncfile">File</a><br>
     103&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.9.5 <a href="#syncuport">Port (unsynchronized)</a><br>
     104&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10 <a href="#serial"><b>Serial Output</b></a><br>
     105&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.1 <a href="#sermount">Mountpoint</a><br>
     106&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.2 <a href="#serport">Port Name</a><br>
     107&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.3 <a href="#serbaud">Baud Rate</a><br>
     108&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.4 <a href="#serflow">Flow Control</a><br>
     109&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.5 <a href="#serparity">Parity</a><br>
     110&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.6 <a href="#serdata">Data Bits</a><br>
     111&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.7 <a href="#serstop">Stop Bits</a><br>
     112&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.8 <a href="#serauto">NMEA</a><br>
     113&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.9 <a href="#serfile">File</a><br>
     114&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.10 <a href="#serheight">Height</a><br>
     115&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.10.11 <a href="#sersampl">Sampling</a><br>
    105116&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.11 <a href=#advnote><b>Outages</b></a><br>
    106117&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.11.1. <a href=#obsrate>Observation Rate</a><br>
     
    226237&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.4 <a href=#abbrev>Abbreviations</a>
    227238</p>
    228 
    229 
    230 <p><b>List of Figures</b><br><br>
     239<br>
     240
     241<p>
     242<b>List of Figures</b><br>
    231243<table>
    232 <tr><td><b>Fig.&nbsp;&nbsp;</b></td><td><b>Title</b></td><td><b>Chapter</b></td></tr>
    233 <tr><td>1</td><td>Flowchart, BNC connected to a GNSS rover for Precise Point Positioning</b></td><td>1.3</td></tr>
    234 <tr><td>2</td><td>Flowchart, BNC converting RTCM streams to RINEX batches</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
    235 <tr><td>3</td><td>Flowchart, BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine and uploading encoded Broadcast Corrections</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
    236 <tr><td>4</td><td>Flowchart, BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
    237 <tr><td>5</td><td>Sections on BNC's main window</td><td>1.4</td></tr>
    238 <tr><td>6</td><td>Management of configuration options in BNC</td><td>1.6</td></tr>
    239 <tr><td>7</td><td>BNC's 'Network' panel configured to ignore eventually occurring SSL error messages</td><td>2.2.2</td></tr>
    240 <tr><td>8</td><td>BNC translating incoming streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 files</td><td>2.4</td></tr>
    241 <tr><td>9</td><td>BNC converting Broadcast Ephemeris stream to RINEX Version 3 Navigation files</td><td>2.5.5</td></tr>
    242 <tr><td>10</td><td>Example for BNC's 'RINEX Editing Options' window</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
    243 <tr><td>11</td><td>Example for RINEX file concatenation with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
    244 <tr><td>12</td><td>Example for creating RINEX quality check analysis graphics output with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
    245 <tr><td>13</td><td>Example for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP plots as a result of a RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
    246 <tr><td>14</td><td>Sky plot examples for multipath, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
    247 <tr><td>15</td><td>Sky plot examples for signal-to-noise ratio, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
    248 <tr><td>16</td><td>Example for comparing two SP3 files with satellite orbit and clock data using BNC</td><td>2.7.3</td></tr>
    249 <tr><td>17</td><td>Example for pulling, saving and output of Broadcast Corrections using BNC</td><td>2.8.3</td></tr>
    250 <tr><td>18</td><td>Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine</td><td>2.9</td></tr>
    251 <tr><td>19</td><td>Flowcharts, BNC forwarding a stream to a serially connected receiver; sending NMEA sentences is mandatory for VRS streams</td><td>2.10</td></tr>
    252 <tr><td>20</td><td>BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serially connected RTK rover</td><td>2.10</td></tr>
    253 <tr><td>21</td><td>RTCM message numbers, latencies and observation types logged by BNC</td><td>2.12</td></tr>
    254 <tr><td>22</td><td>Real-time Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1</td><td>2.13.1</td></tr>
    255 <tr><td>23</td><td>Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 2, using RTKPLOT for visualization</td><td>2.13.2</td></tr>
    256 <tr><td>24</td><td>Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 3</td><td>2.13.3</td></tr>
    257 <tr><td>25</td><td>Precise Point Positioning with BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode, PPP Panel 4</td><td>2.13.3.8</td></tr>
    258 <tr><td>26</td><td>Track of positions from BNC with Google Maps in background</td><td>2.13.4.3</td></tr>
    259 <tr><td>27</td><td>Example for background map from Google Maps and OpenStreetMap (OSM) resources</td><td>2.13.4.3.1</td></tr>
    260 <tr><td>28</td><td>BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</td><td>2.14</td></tr>
    261 <tr><td>29</td><td>INTERNAL' PPP with BNC using a combination of Broadcast Corrections</td><td>2.14</td></tr>
    262 <tr><td>30</td><td>Setting BNC's Custom Transformation Parameters window, example for 'ITRF2008->GDA94'</td><td>2.15.3</td></tr>
    263 <tr><td>31</td><td>BNC producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an Ntrip Broadcaster</td><td>2.15.11</td></tr>
    264 <tr><td>32</td><td>BNC uploading a combined Broadcast Correction stream</td><td>2.15.11</td></tr>
    265 <tr><td>33</td><td>BNC producing Broadcast Ephemeris stream from globally distributed RTCM streams; upload in RTCM format to an Ntrip Broadcaster</td><td>2.16.3</td></tr>
    266 <tr><td>34</td><td>Bandwidth consumption of RTCM streams received by BNC</td><td>2.18.2</td></tr>
    267 <tr><td>35</td><td>Latency of RTCM streams received by BNC</td><td>2.18.3</td></tr>
    268 <tr><td>36</td><td>Example for time series plot of displacements produced by BNC</td><td>2.18.4</td></tr>
    269 <tr><td>37</td><td>Steam input communication links accepted by BNC</td><td>2.19</td></tr>
    270 <tr><td>38</td><td>BNC's 'Select Broadcaster' table</td><td>2.19.1.1.2</td></tr>
    271 <tr><td>39</td><td>Broadcaster source-table shown by BNC</td><td>2.19.1.1.4</td></tr>
    272 <tr><td>40</td><td>Stream distribution map shown by BNC as derived from Ntrip Broadcaster source-table</td><td>2.19.1.1.6</td></tr>
    273 <tr><td>41</td><td>BNC configuration for pulling a stream via serial port</td><td>2.19.1.4</td></tr>
     244  <tr><td><b>Fig.&nbsp;&nbsp;</b></td><td><b>Title</b></td><td><b>Chapter</b></td></tr>
     245  <tr><td>1</td><td>Flowchart, BNC connected to a GNSS rover for Precise Point Positioning</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
     246  <tr><td>2</td><td>Flowchart, BNC converting RTCM streams to RINEX batches</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
     247  <tr><td>3</td><td>Flowchart, BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine and uploading encoded Broadcast Corrections</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
     248  <tr><td>4</td><td>Flowchart, BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</td><td>1.3</td></tr>
     249  <tr><td>5</td><td>Sections on BNC's main window</td><td>1.4</td></tr>
     250  <tr><td>6</td><td>Management of configuration options in BNC</td><td>1.6</td></tr>
     251  <tr><td>7</td><td>BNC's 'Network' panel configured to ignore eventually occurring SSL error messages</td><td>2.2.2</td></tr>
     252  <tr><td>8</td><td>BNC translating incoming streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 files</td><td>2.4</td></tr>
     253  <tr><td>9</td><td>BNC converting Broadcast Ephemeris stream to RINEX Version 3 Navigation files</td><td>2.5.5</td></tr>
     254  <tr><td>10</td><td>Example for BNC's 'RINEX Editing Options' window</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
     255  <tr><td>11</td><td>Example for RINEX file concatenation with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
     256  <tr><td>12</td><td>Example for creating RINEX quality check analysis graphics output with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
     257  <tr><td>13</td><td>Example for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP plots as a result of a RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
     258  <tr><td>14</td><td>Sky plot examples for multipath, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
     259  <tr><td>15</td><td>Sky plot examples for signal-to-noise ratio, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</td><td>2.6.7</td></tr>
     260  <tr><td>16</td><td>Example for comparing two SP3 files with satellite orbit and clock data using BNC</td><td>2.7.3</td></tr>
     261  <tr><td>17</td><td>Example for pulling, saving and output of Broadcast Corrections using BNC</td><td>2.8.3</td></tr>
     262  <tr><td>18</td><td>Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine</td><td>2.9</td></tr>
     263  <tr><td>19</td><td>Flowcharts, BNC forwarding a stream to a serially connected receiver; sending NMEA sentences is mandatory for VRS streams</td><td>2.10</td></tr>
     264  <tr><td>20</td><td>BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serially connected RTK rover</td><td>2.10</td></tr>
     265  <tr><td>21</td><td>RTCM message numbers, latencies and observation types logged by BNC</td><td>2.12</td></tr>
     266  <tr><td>22</td><td>Real-time Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1</td><td>2.13.1</td></tr>
     267  <tr><td>23</td><td>Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 2, using RTKPLOT for visualization</td><td>2.13.2</td></tr>
     268  <tr><td>24</td><td>Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 3</td><td>2.13.3</td></tr>
     269  <tr><td>25</td><td>Precise Point Positioning with BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode, PPP Panel 4</td><td>2.13.3.8</td></tr>
     270  <tr><td>26</td><td>Track of positions from BNC with Google Maps in background</td><td>2.13.4.3</td></tr>
     271  <tr><td>27</td><td>Example for background map from Google Maps and OpenStreetMap (OSM) resources</td><td>2.13.4.3.1</td></tr>
     272  <tr><td>28</td><td>BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</td><td>2.14</td></tr>
     273  <tr><td>29</td><td>INTERNAL' PPP with BNC using a combination of Broadcast Corrections</td><td>2.14</td></tr>
     274  <tr><td>30</td><td>Setting BNC's Custom Transformation Parameters window, example for 'ITRF2008->GDA94'</td><td>2.15.3</td></tr>
     275  <tr><td>31</td><td>BNC producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an Ntrip Broadcaster</td><td>2.15.11</td></tr>
     276  <tr><td>32</td><td>BNC uploading a combined Broadcast Correction stream</td><td>2.15.11</td></tr>
     277  <tr><td>33</td><td>BNC producing Broadcast Ephemeris stream from globally distributed RTCM streams; upload in RTCM format to an Ntrip Broadcaster</td><td>2.16.3</td></tr>
     278  <tr><td>34</td><td>Bandwidth consumption of RTCM streams received by BNC</td><td>2.18.2</td></tr>
     279  <tr><td>35</td><td>Latency of RTCM streams received by BNC</td><td>2.18.3</td></tr>
     280  <tr><td>36</td><td>Example for time series plot of displacements produced by BNC</td><td>2.18.4</td></tr>
     281  <tr><td>37</td><td>Steam input communication links accepted by BNC</td><td>2.19</td></tr>
     282  <tr><td>38</td><td>BNC's 'Select Broadcaster' table</td><td>2.19.1.1.2</td></tr>
     283  <tr><td>39</td><td>Broadcaster source-table shown by BNC</td><td>2.19.1.1.4</td></tr>
     284  <tr><td>40</td><td>Stream distribution map shown by BNC as derived from Ntrip Broadcaster source-table</td><td>2.19.1.1.6</td></tr>
     285  <tr><td>41</td><td>BNC configuration for pulling a stream via serial port</td><td>2.19.1.4</td></tr>
    274286</table>
    275287</p>
     288<br>
    276289
    277290<p><b>List of Tables</b><br><br>
    278291<table>
    279 <tr><td><b>Tab.&nbsp;&nbsp;</b></td><td><b>Title</b></td><td><b>Chapter</b></td></tr>
    280 <tr><td>1</td><td>Status of RTCM Version 3 message implementations in BNC supporting various GNSS systems</td><td>1.2</td></tr>
    281 <tr><td>2</td><td>Contents and format of synchronized output of observations feeding a GNSS engine</td><td>2.9</td></tr>
     292  <tr><td><b>Tab.&nbsp;&nbsp;</b></td><td><b>Title</b></td><td><b>Chapter</b></td></tr>
     293  <tr><td>1</td><td>Status of RTCM Version 3 message implementations in BNC supporting various GNSS systems</td><td>1.2</td></tr>
     294  <tr><td>2</td><td>Contents and format of synchronized output of observations feeding a GNSS engine</td><td>2.9</td></tr>
    282295</table>
    283296</p>
    284297
    285 <p><h3>1. <a name="genInstruction">General Information</h3></p>
    286 <p>
    287 The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) is a program for simultaneously retrieving, decoding, converting and processing or analyzing real-time GNSS data streams applying the 'Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol' (Ntrip) standard. It has been developed within the framework of the IAG sub-commission for Europe (EUREF) and the International GNSS Service (IGS). Although meant to be a real-time tool, it comes with some post processing functionality. It can be used for data coming from Ntrip Broadcasters like
    288 <ul>
    289 <li><u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u></li>
    290 <li><u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u></li>
    291 <li><u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u></li>
    292 <li><u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u> </li>
     298<p><h3 id="genInstruction">1. General Information</h3></p>
     299<p>
     300The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC) is a program for simultaneously retrieving, decoding, converting and processing or
     301analyzing real-time GNSS data streams applying the 'Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol' (Ntrip) standard.
     302 It has been developed within the framework of the IAG sub-commission for Europe (EUREF) and the International GNSS
     303 Service (IGS). Although meant to be a real-time tool, it comes with some post processing functionality. It can be used
     304  for data coming from Ntrip Broadcasters like
     305<ul>
     306  <li><a href="http://www.euref-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://www.euref-ip.net/home</a></li>
     307  <li><a href="http://www.igs-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://www.igs-ip.net/home</a></li>
     308  <li><a href="http://products.igs-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://products.igs-ip.net/home</a></li>
     309  <li><a href="http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</a></li>
    293310</ul>
    294311or similar caster installation.
     
    296313
    297314<p>
    298 BNC has been written under GNU General Public License (GPL). Source code is available from Subversion software archive <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</u>. Precompiled binaries of BNC are available for MS Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X systems. They can be downloaded from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</u>.
     315BNC has been written under GNU General Public License (GPL). Source code is available from Subversion software archive
     316 <a href="http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC" target="_blank">http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</a>.
     317 Precompiled binaries of BNC are available for MS Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X systems. They can be downloaded from
     318 <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</a>.
    299319</p>
    300320<p>
     
    307327<pre>
    308328   Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG)
    309    c/o Dr. Axel R&uuml;lke
     329   c/o Andrea Stuerze
    310330   Department of Geodesy, Section Satellite Navigation
    311331   Frankfurt, Germany
    312    [axel.ruelke@bkg.bund.de]
     332   [andrea.stuerze@bkg.bund.de]
    313333</pre>
    314334
     
    324344
    325345<p>
    326 Prof. Mervart started working on BNC in 2005. His sole responsibility for writing the program code ended February 2015. In March 2015, Dipl.-Ing. Andrea St&uuml;rze took over the responsibility for maintaining  and further developing BNC's source code.
     346Prof. Mervart started working on BNC in 2005. His sole responsibility for writing the program code ended February 2015.
     347In March 2015, Dipl.-Ing. Andrea St&uuml;rze took over the responsibility for maintaining and
     348further developing BNC's source code.
    327349</p>
    328350
    329351<p>
    330352<b>Documentation</b><br><br>
    331 BNC provides context-sensitive help (<i>What's This</i>) related to specific objects. It furthermore comes with the here presented documentation, available as part of the software and as a PDF file. Responsible for offline documentation as well as online documentation at <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/export/HEAD/ntrip/trunk/BNC/src/bnchelp.html</u> and the example configurations is Dr. Georg Weber.
    332 </p>
    333 
    334 <p>
    335 Note that some figures presented in this documentation may show screenshots from earlier versions of BNC. If so, there is either no relevant change compared to the current appearance of the program or no change at all.
     353BNC provides context-sensitive help (<i>What's This</i>) related to specific objects. It furthermore comes with the
     354here presented documentation, available as part of the software and as a PDF file. Responsible for offline
     355documentation as well as online documentation at
     356<a href="http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/export/HEAD/ntrip/trunk/BNC/src/bnchelp.html"
     357target="_blank">http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/export/HEAD/ntrip/trunk/BNC/src/bnchelp.html</a> and the example
     358configurations is Dr. Georg Weber.
     359</p>
     360
     361<p>
     362Note that some figures presented in this documentation may show screenshots from earlier versions of BNC.
     363If so, there is either no relevant change compared to the current appearance of the program or no change at all.
    336364</p>
    337365
     
    351379<b>Acknowledgements</b><br>
    352380<ul>
    353 <li>
    354 Oliver Montenbruck, German Space Operations Center, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany published a RTCM Version 2 decoder unter GNU GPL which has been integrated in BNC.
    355 </li>
    356 <li>
    357 Thomas Yan, Australian NSW Land and Property Information, proofread earlier versions of BNC's Help Contents. Up to Version 2.11 he also provides builds of BNC for Mac OS X systems.
    358 </li>
    359 Scott Glazier, OmniSTAR Australia, has been helpful in finding BNC bugs in version 1.5.
    360 </li>
    361 <li>
    362 James Perlt, BKG, helped fixing bugs and redesigned BNC's main window in version 1.5.
    363 </li>
    364 <li>
    365 Andre Hauschild, German Space Operations Center, DLR, revised the RTCM Version 2 decoder.
    366 </li>
    367 <li>
    368 Zdenek Lukes, Czech Technical University Prague, Department of Geodesy, extended the RTCM Version 2 decoder to handle message types 3, 20, 21, and 22 and added the loss of lock indicator.
    369 </li>
    370 <li>
    371 Jan Dousa, Geodetic Observatory Pecny, Czech Republic, helped with fixing bugs in version 2.5.
    372 </li>
    373 <li>
    374 Denis Laurichesse, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), suggested synchronizing observations and clock corrections to reduce high frequency noise in PPP solutions.
    375 </li>
    376 <li>
    377 Lennard Huisman, Kadaster Netherlands, and Rolf Dach, Astronomical Institute University of Bern, assisted in handling satellite clocks in transformations from ITRF to regional reference frames.
    378 </li>
    379 </ul>
    380 </p>
    381 
    382 <p><h4>1.1 <a name="introPurpose">Purpose</h4></p>
    383 
    384 <p>
    385 Promoting Open RTCM Standards for streaming GNSS data over the Internet has been a major aspect in developing BNC as Open Source real-time software. Basically, the tool enables the test, validation and further evolution of new RTCM messages for precise satellite navigation. With high-level source code at hand, it also allows university education to catch up with comprehensive state-of-the-art positioning and potentially contributes fresh ideas which are free from any licensing.
     381  <li>Oliver Montenbruck, German Space Operations Center, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany published a RTCM Version 2 decoder
     382    unter GNU GPL which has been integrated in BNC.</li>
     383  <li>Thomas Yan, Australian NSW Land and Property Information, proofread earlier versions of BNC's Help Contents.
     384     Up to Version 2.11 he also provides builds of BNC for Mac OS X systems.</li>
     385  <li>Scott Glazier, OmniSTAR Australia, has been helpful in finding BNC bugs in version 1.5.</li>
     386  <li>James Perlt, BKG, helped fixing bugs and redesigned BNC's main window in version 1.5.</li>
     387  <li>Andre Hauschild, German Space Operations Center, DLR, revised the RTCM Version 2 decoder.</li>
     388  <li>Zdenek Lukes, Czech Technical University Prague, Department of Geodesy, extended the RTCM Version 2 decoder to handle
     389      message types 3, 20, 21, and 22 and added the loss of lock indicator.</li>
     390  <li>Jan Dousa, Geodetic Observatory Pecny, Czech Republic, helped with fixing bugs in version 2.5.</li>
     391  <li>Denis Laurichesse, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), suggested synchronizing observations and clock
     392      corrections to reduce high frequency noise in PPP solutions.</li>
     393  <li>Lennard Huisman, Kadaster Netherlands, and Rolf Dach, Astronomical Institute University of Bern, assisted in handling
     394      satellite clocks in transformations from ITRF to regional reference frames.</li>
     395</ul>
     396</p>
     397
     398<p><h4 id="introPurpose">1.1 Purpose</h4></p>
     399
     400<p>
     401Promoting Open RTCM Standards for streaming GNSS data over the Internet has been a major aspect in developing BNC as
     402Open Source real-time software. Basically, the tool enables the test, validation and further evolution of new RTCM
     403messages for precise satellite navigation. With high-level source code at hand, it also allows university education
     404to catch up with comprehensive state-of-the-art positioning and potentially contributes fresh ideas which are free
     405from any licensing.
    386406</p>
    387407
    388408<p> BNC was designed to serve the following purposes:
    389409<ul>
    390 <li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams available through Ntrip transport protocol;</li>
    391 <li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the Ntrip transport protocol;</li>
    392 <li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams from a local UDP or serial port without using the Ntrip transport protocol;</li>
    393 <li>Plot stream distribution map from Ntrip Broadcaster source-tables;</li>
    394 <li>Generate RINEX Observation and Navigation files to support near real-time GNSS post processing applications;</li>
    395 <li>Edit or concatenate RINEX files or carry out RINEX Quality Checks (QC);</li>
    396 <li>Convert RINEX Version 2 to RINEX Version 3 and vice versa;</li>
    397 <li>Compare SP3 files containing satellite orbit and clock data;</li>
    398 <li>Generate orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris through an IP port to</li>
    399 <ul>
    400 <li>support real-time Precise Point Positioning on GNSS rovers;</li>
    401 <li>support the (outside) combination of such streams as coming simultaneously from various correction providers;</li>
    402 </ul>
    403 <li>Generate ephemeris and synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch through an IP port to support real-time GNSS network engines;</li>
    404 <li>Feed a stream into a GNSS receiver via serial communication link;</li>
    405 <li>Monitor the performance of a network of real-time GNSS data streams to generate advisory notes in case of outages or corrupted streams;</li>
    406 <li>Scan RTCM streams for incoming antenna information, observation types, message types and repetition rates and latencies and GLONASS slot numbers and frequency channels;</li>
    407 <li>Carry out real-time Precise Point Positioning to determine GNSS rover positions;</li>
    408 <li>Enable multi-station Precise Point Positioning for simultaneous processing of observations from a whole network of receivers;</li>
    409 <li>Plot positions derived via PPP from RTCM streams or RINEX files on maps from Google Map or OpenStreetMap;</li>
    410 <li>Simultaneously process several Broadcast Correction streams to produce, encode and upload combined Broadcast Corrections;</li>
    411 
    412 <li>Estimate real-time tropospheric zenith path delays and save them in SINEX troposphere file format;</li>
    413 
    414 <li>Read GNSS orbits and clocks in a plain ASCII format from an IP port. They can be produced by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNET and should be referenced to the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system. BNC will then</li>
    415 <ul>
    416 <li>Convert the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed orbits and clocks into Broadcast Corrections with radial, along-track and out-of-plane components;</li>
    417 <li>Upload Broadcast Corrections as an RTCM Version 3 stream to an Ntrip Broadcaster;</li>
    418 <li>Refer the orbit and clock corrections to a specific reference system;</li>
    419 <li>Log the Broadcast Corrections as Clock RINEX files for further processing using other tools than BNC;</li>
    420 <li>Log the Broadcast Corrections as SP3 files for further processing using other tools than BNC;</li>
    421 </ul>
    422 <li>Upload a Broadcast Ephemeris stream in RTCM Version 3 format;</li>
     410  <li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams available through Ntrip transport protocol</li>
     411  <li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the Ntrip transport protocol</li>
     412  <li>Retrieve real-time GNSS data streams from a local UDP or serial port without using the Ntrip transport protocol</li>
     413  <li>Plot stream distribution map from Ntrip Broadcaster source-tables</li>
     414  <li>Generate RINEX Observation and Navigation files to support near real-time GNSS post processing applications</li>
     415  <li>Edit or concatenate RINEX files or carry out RINEX Quality Checks (QC)</li>
     416  <li>Convert RINEX Version 2 to RINEX Version 3 and vice versa</li>
     417  <li>Compare SP3 files containing satellite orbit and clock data</li>
     418  <li>Generate orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris through an IP port to</li>
     419    <ul>
     420       <li>support real-time Precise Point Positioning on GNSS rovers</li>
     421       <li>support the (outside) combination of such streams as coming simultaneously from various correction providers</li>
     422    </ul>
     423  <li>Generate ephemeris and synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch through an IP port to support real-time GNSS network engines</li>
     424  <li>Feed a stream into a GNSS receiver via serial communication link</li>
     425  <li>Monitor the performance of a network of real-time GNSS data streams to generate advisory notes in case of outages or corrupted streams</li>
     426  <li>Scan RTCM streams for incoming antenna information, observation types, message types and repetition rates and latencies and GLONASS slot numbers and frequency channels</li>
     427  <li>Carry out real-time Precise Point Positioning to determine GNSS rover positions</li>
     428  <li>Enable multi-station Precise Point Positioning for simultaneous processing of observations from a whole network of receivers</li>
     429  <li>Plot positions derived via PPP from RTCM streams or RINEX files on maps from Google Map or OpenStreetMap</li>
     430  <li>Simultaneously process several Broadcast Correction streams to produce, encode and upload combined Broadcast Corrections</li>
     431  <li>Estimate real-time tropospheric zenith path delays and save them in SINEX troposphere file format</li>
     432  <li>Read GNSS orbits and clocks in a plain ASCII format from an IP port. They can be produced by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNET and should be referenced to the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system. BNC will then</li>
     433    <ul>
     434      <li>Convert the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed orbits and clocks into Broadcast Corrections with radial, along-track and out-of-plane components</li>
     435      <li>Upload Broadcast Corrections as an RTCM Version 3 stream to an Ntrip Broadcaster</li>
     436      <li>Refer the orbit and clock corrections to a specific reference system</li>
     437      <li>Log the Broadcast Corrections as Clock RINEX files for further processing using other tools than BNC</li>
     438      <li>Log the Broadcast Corrections as SP3 files for further processing using other tools than BNC</li>
     439    </ul>
     440  <li>Upload a Broadcast Ephemeris stream in RTCM Version 3 format;</li>
    423441</ul>
    424442</p>
     
    429447<p>
    430448<ul>
    431 <li>RTCM Version 2 message types; </li>
    432 <li>RTCM Version 3 'conventional' message types;</li>
    433 <li>RTCM Version 3 message types for Broadcast Ephemeris;</li>
    434 <li>RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages;</li>
    435 <li>RTCM Version 3 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) and 'High Precision Multiple Signal Messages' (HP MSM);</li>
    436 <li>RTNET, a plain ASCII format defined within BNC to receive orbits and clocks from a serving GNSS engine.
     449  <li>RTCM Version 2 message types</li>
     450  <li>RTCM Version 3 'conventional' message types</li>
     451  <li>RTCM Version 3 message types for Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     452  <li>RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages</li>
     453  <li>RTCM Version 3 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) and 'High Precision Multiple Signal Messages' (HP MSM)</li>
     454  <li>RTNET, a plain ASCII format defined within BNC to receive orbits and clocks from a serving GNSS engine
    437455</ul>
    438456</p>
     
    443461<p>
    444462<ul>
    445 <li>RINEX Version 2.11 & 3.03, Receiver Independent Exchange format for observations, navigation and meteorological data;</li>
    446 <li>SINEX Version 2.10, Solution Independent Exchange format for station position and velocity solutions;</li>
    447 <li>SINEX TRO Draft Version 2.00, Troposphere Solution Independent Exchange format for zenith path delay products;</li>
    448 <li>SP3 Version c format for orbit solutions;</li>
    449 <li>Clock RINEX Version 3.02 format for station and satellite clock solutions;</li>
    450 <li>ANTEX Version 1.4, Antenna Exchange format for Antenna Phase Center variations;</li>
    451 <li>NMEA Version 0813, National Marine Electronics Association format for satellite navigation data;</li>
    452 </ul>
    453 </p>
    454 
    455 <p>
    456 Note that BNC allows to by-pass decoding and conversion algorithms for incoming streams, leaves whatever is received untouched to save it in files or output it through local TCP/IP port.
    457 </p>
    458 
    459 <p><h4>1.2 <a name="introSystem">Supported GNSS</h4></p>
    460 <p>
    461 BNC is permanently completed to finally support all existing GNSS systems throughout all features of the program. The table below shows in detail which GNSS systems are supported so far by particular applications when using the latest BNC version. Application areas named here are:
    462 <ul>
    463 <li>Decoding of RTCM or RTNET streams</li>
    464 <li>RINEX and SP3 file input and output</li>
    465 <li>Encoding of SSR and ephemeris messages</li>
    466 <li>Upload of SSR and ephemeris messages</li>
    467 <li>PPP (Precise Point Positioning)</li>
    468 <li>Combining/merging SSR or ephemeris messages from various real-time sources</li>
     463  <li>RINEX Version 2.11 & 3.03, Receiver Independent Exchange format for observations, navigation and meteorological data</li>
     464  <li>SINEX Version 2.10, Solution Independent Exchange format for station position and velocity solutions</li>
     465  <li>SINEX TRO Draft Version 2.00, Troposphere Solution Independent Exchange format for zenith path delay products</li>
     466  <li>SP3 Version c format for orbit solutions</li>
     467  <li>Clock RINEX Version 3.02 format for station and satellite clock solutions</li>
     468  <li>ANTEX Version 1.4, Antenna Exchange format for Antenna Phase Center variations</li>
     469  <li>NMEA Version 0813, National Marine Electronics Association format for satellite navigation data</li>
     470</ul>
     471</p>
     472
     473<p>
     474Note that BNC allows to by-pass decoding and conversion algorithms for incoming streams, leaves whatever is received
     475untouched to save it in files or output it through local TCP/IP port.
     476</p>
     477
     478<p><h4 id="introSystem">1.2 Supported GNSS</h4></p>
     479<p>
     480BNC is permanently completed to finally support all existing GNSS systems throughout all features of the program.
     481The table below shows in detail which GNSS systems are supported so far by particular applications when using the
     482latest BNC version. Application areas named here are:
     483<ul>
     484  <li>Decoding of RTCM or RTNET streams</li>
     485  <li>RINEX and SP3 file input and output</li>
     486  <li>Encoding of SSR and ephemeris messages</li>
     487  <li>Upload of SSR and ephemeris messages</li>
     488  <li>PPP (Precise Point Positioning)</li>
     489  <li>Combining/merging SSR or ephemeris messages from various real-time sources</li>
    469490</ul>
    470491The table indicates if a message implementation in BNC could so far only be based on a 'RTCM Proposal'.
    471492</p>
    472 <p><u>Table 1:</u> Status of RTCM Version 3 message implementations in BNC supporting various GNSS systems</p>
     493<p>Table 1: Status of RTCM Version 3 message implementations in BNC supporting various GNSS systems</p>
    473494<p></p>
    474495<table border="1" rules="rows" frame="box" bgcolor="#FFF5EE" style="font-size:13">
     
    551572<br>
    552573
    553 <p><h4>1.3 <a name="introFlow">Data Flow</h4></p>
    554 
    555 <p>
    556 BNC can be used in different contexts with varying data flows. Typical real-time communication follows the Ntrip protocol over TCP/IP (probably via SSL), RTSP/RTP or UDP, plain TCP/IP protocol, or serial communication links. Stream content could be observations, ephemeris, satellite orbit/clock products or NMEA sentences.
    557 </p>
    558 <p>
    559 The first of the following figures shows a flow chart of BNC connected to a GNSS receiver providing observations via serial or TCP communication link for the purpose of Precise Point Positioning. The second figure shows the conversion of RTCM streams to RINEX files. The third figure shows a flow chart of BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine which estimates precise orbits and clocks. BNC is used in this scenario to encode correctors to RTCM Version 3 and upload them to an Ntrip Broadcaster. The fourth figure shows BNC combining several Broadcast Correction streams to disseminate the combination product while saving results in SP3 and Clock RINEX files.
     574<p><h4 id="introFlow">1.3 Data Flow</h4></p>
     575
     576<p>
     577BNC can be used in different contexts with varying data flows. Typical real-time communication follows the Ntrip protocol
     578over TCP/IP (probably via SSL), RTSP/RTP or UDP, plain TCP/IP protocol, or serial communication links.
     579Stream content could be observations, ephemeris, satellite orbit/clock products or NMEA sentences.
     580</p>
     581<p>
     582The first of the following figures shows a flow chart of BNC connected to a GNSS receiver providing observations via
     583serial or TCP communication link for the purpose of Precise Point Positioning. The second figure shows the conversion
     584of RTCM streams to RINEX files. The third figure shows a flow chart of BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine which
     585estimates precise orbits and clocks. BNC is used in this scenario to encode correctors to RTCM Version 3 and upload
     586them to an Ntrip Broadcaster. The fourth figure shows BNC combining several Broadcast Correction streams to
     587disseminate the combination product while saving results in SP3 and Clock RINEX files.
    560588</p>
    561589<p><img src="IMG/screenshot10.png"/></p>
    562 <p><u>Figure 1:</u> Flowchart, BNC connected to a GNSS rover for Precise Point Positioning</p>
     590<p>Figure 1: Flowchart, BNC connected to a GNSS rover for Precise Point Positioning</p>
    563591
    564592<p>
    565593</p>
    566594<p><img src="IMG/screenshot01.png"/></p>
    567 <p><u>Figure 2:</u> Flowchart, BNC converting RTCM streams to RINEX batches</p>
     595<p>Figure 2: Flowchart, BNC converting RTCM streams to RINEX batches</p>
    568596
    569597<p>
    570598</p>
    571599<p><img src="IMG/screenshot02.png"/></p>
    572 <p><u>Figure 3:</u> Flowchart, BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine and uploading encoded Broadcast Corrections</p>
     600<p>Figure 3: Flowchart, BNC feeding a real-time GNSS engine and uploading encoded Broadcast Corrections</p>
    573601
    574602<p>
    575603</p>
    576604<p><img src="IMG/screenshot19.png"/></p>
    577 <p><u>Figure 4:</u> Flowchart, BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</p>
    578 
    579 <p><h4>1.4 <a name="introHandling">Handling</h4></p>
     605<p>Figure 4: Flowchart, BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</p>
     606
     607<p><h4 id="introHandling">1.4 Handling</h4></p>
    580608<p>
    581609Although BNC is mainly a real-time tool to be operated online, it can be run offline
    582610<ul>
    583 <li>To simulate real-time observation situations for debugging purposes;</li>
    584 <li>For post processing purposes.</li>
    585 </ul>
    586 Furthermore, apart from its regular window mode, BNC can be run as a batch/background job in a 'no window' mode, using processing options from a previously saved configuration or from command line.
    587 </p>
     611  <li>To simulate real-time observation situations for debugging purposes;</li>
     612  <li>For post processing purposes.</li>
     613</ul>
     614Furthermore, apart from its regular window mode, BNC can be run as a batch/background job in a 'no window' mode,
     615using processing options from a previously saved configuration or from command line.
     616</p>
     617
    588618<p>
    589619Unless it runs offline, BNC
    590620</p>
    591621<ul>
    592 <li>Requires access to the Internet with a minimum of about 2 to 6 kbits/sec per stream depending on the stream format and the number of visible satellites. You need to make sure that the connection can sustain the required bandwidth;</li>
    593 <li>Requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized;</li>
    594 <li>Has the capacity to retrieve hundreds of GNSS data streams simultaneously. Please be aware that such usage may incur a heavy load on the Ntrip Broadcaster side depending on the number of streams requested. We recommend limiting the number of streams where possible to avoid unnecessary workload.</li>
    595 </ul>
    596 </p>
    597 
    598 <p>
    599 The main window of BNC shows a 'Top menu bar' section, a 'Settings' sections with panels to set processing options, a 'Streams' section, a section for 'Log' tabs, and a 'Bottom menu bar' section, see figure below.
     622  <li>Requires access to the Internet with a minimum of about 2 to 6 kbits/sec per stream depending on the stream
     623      format and the number of visible satellites. You need to make sure that the connection can sustain the required bandwidth;</li>
     624  <li>Requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized;</li>
     625  <li>Has the capacity to retrieve hundreds of GNSS data streams simultaneously. Please be aware that such usage may
     626      incur a heavy load on the Ntrip Broadcaster side depending on the number of streams requested. We recommend
     627      limiting the number of streams where possible to avoid unnecessary workload.</li>
     628</ul>
     629</p>
     630
     631<p>
     632The main window of BNC shows a 'Top menu bar' section, a 'Settings' sections with panels to set processing options,
     633a 'Streams' section, a section for 'Log' tabs, and a 'Bottom menu bar' section, see figure below.
    600634</p>
    601635<p><img src="IMG/screenshot09.png"/></p>
    602 <p><u>Figure 5:</u> Sections on BNC's main window</p>
     636<p>Figure 5: Sections on BNC's main window</p>
    603637
    604638<p>
     
    611645
    612646<p>
    613 The usual handling of BNC is that you first select a number of streams ('Add Stream'). Any stream configured to BNC shows up on the 'Streams' canvas in the middle of BNC's main window. You then go through BNC's various configuration panels to set a combination of input, processing and output options before you start the program ('Start'). Most configuration panels are dedicated to a certain function of BNC. If the first option field on such a configuration panel is empty, the affected functionality is deactivated.
    614 </p>
    615 
    616 <p>
    617 Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab which is part of the 'Log' canvas. The bandwidth consumption per stream, the latency of incoming observations, and a PPP time series for coordinate displacements are also part of that canvas and shown in the 'Throughput', 'Latency' and 'PPP Plot' tabs.
    618 </p>
    619 
    620 <p>
    621 Configuration options are usually first set using BNC's Graphical User Interface (GUI), then saved in a configuration file. For routine operations in batch mode all of BNC's configuration options can be extracted from the configuration file and applied using the program's Command Line Interface (CLI).
    622 </p>
    623 
    624 <p><h4>1.5 <a name="introInst">Installation</h4></p>
    625 <p>
    626 Precompiled builds of BNC are available for MS Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X systems. They can be downloaded for installation from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</u>. Please ensure that you always use the latest released version of the program.
    627 </p>
    628 <p>
    629 <u>MS Windows Build:</u> A dynamically compiled shared library build for Mircrosoft Windows systems is provided as Microsoft Installer (MSI) file. MSI files are used for installation, storage, and removal of programs. The BNC files are contained in a MSI package, which is used with the program's client-side installer service, an .EXE file, to open and install the program. We used the MinGW Version 4.4.0 compiler to create BNC for Windows. After installation your 'bnc.exe' file shows up e.g. under 'All Programs'.
    630 </p>
    631 
    632 <p>
    633 <u>Linux Build:</u> Static library and shared library builds for BNC are provided for a selection of Linux distributions. Download the ZIP archive for a version which fits to your Linux system, unzip the archive and run the included BNC binary. A static build would be sufficient in case you <u>do not want</u> BNC to plot PPP results with Google Map (GM) or OpenStreetMap (OSM) maps in the background. GM/OSM usage requires BNC builds from shared libraries.
    634 </p>
    635 
    636 <p>
    637 <u>Mac OS X Build:</u>
    638 A shared library 'Disk iMaGe' (DMG) file is provided for BNC on OS X systems; it also comes in a ZIP archive. The DMG file format is used in the Mac for distributing software. Mac install packages appear as a virtual disk drive. After download, when the DMG file icon is double clicked, the virtual drive is 'mounted' on the desktop. Install BNC by dragging the 'bnc.app' icon to your '/Applications' folder. To start BNC, double click on '/Applications/bnc.app'. You could also start BNC via Command Line Interface (CLI) using command '/Applications/bnc.app/Contents/MacOS/bnc'.
    639 </p>
    640 
    641 <p><h4>1.5.1 <a name="introCompile">Compilation</h4></p>
    642 
    643 <p>
    644 BNC has been written as Open Source and published under GNU General Public License (GPL). The latest source code can be checked out from Subversion repository <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</u>. A ZIP archive available from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</u> provides the source code for BNC Version 2.12.0, developed using Qt Version 4.8.5.
    645 </p>
    646 <p>The following describes how you can produce your own builds of BNC on MS Windows, Linux, and Mac systems. It is likely that BNC can also be compiled on other systems where a GNU compiler and Qt Version 4.8.5 or any later version is installed.
     647The usual handling of BNC is that you first select a number of streams ('Add Stream'). Any stream configured to BNC
     648shows up on the 'Streams' canvas in the middle of BNC's main window. You then go through BNC's various configuration
     649panels to set a combination of input, processing and output options before you start the program ('Start').
     650Most configuration panels are dedicated to a certain function of BNC. If the first option field on such a configuration
     651 panel is empty, the affected functionality is deactivated.
     652</p>
     653
     654<p>
     655Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab which is part of the 'Log' canvas. The bandwidth consumption
     656per stream, the latency of incoming observations, and a PPP time series for coordinate displacements are also part
     657of that canvas and shown in the 'Throughput', 'Latency' and 'PPP Plot' tabs.
     658</p>
     659
     660<p>
     661Configuration options are usually first set using BNC's Graphical User Interface (GUI), then saved in a configuration
     662 file. For routine operations in batch mode all of BNC's configuration options can be extracted from the configuration
     663 file and applied using the program's Command Line Interface (CLI).
     664</p>
     665
     666<p><h4 id="introInst">1.5 Installation</h4></p>
     667<p>
     668Precompiled builds of BNC are available for MS Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X systems. They can be downloaded for
     669installation from <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</a>.
     670Please ensure that you always use the latest released
     671 version of the program.
     672</p>
     673<p>
     674<b>MS Windows Build:</b> A dynamically compiled shared library build for Mircrosoft Windows systems is provided as
     675Microsoft Installer (MSI) file. MSI files are used for installation, storage, and removal of programs.
     676The BNC files are contained in a MSI package, which is used with the program's client-side installer service,
     677an .EXE file, to open and install the program. We used the MinGW Version 4.4.0 compiler to create BNC for Windows.
     678After installation your 'bnc.exe' file shows up e.g. under 'All Programs'.
     679</p>
     680
     681<p>
     682<b>Linux Build:</b> Static library and shared library builds for BNC are provided for a selection of Linux distributions.
     683Download the ZIP archive for a version which fits to your Linux system, unzip the archive and run the included BNC binary.
     684A static build would be sufficient in case you do not want BNC to plot PPP results with Google Map (GM) or
     685OpenStreetMap (OSM) maps in the background. GM/OSM usage requires BNC builds from shared libraries.
     686</p>
     687
     688<p>
     689<b>Mac OS X Build:</b>
     690A shared library 'Disk iMaGe' (DMG) file is provided for BNC on OS X systems; it also comes in a ZIP archive. The DMG
     691file format is used in the Mac for distributing software. Mac install packages appear as a virtual disk drive. After
     692download, when the DMG file icon is double clicked, the virtual drive is 'mounted' on the desktop. Install BNC by
     693dragging the 'bnc.app' icon to your <i>'/Applications'</i> folder. To start BNC, double click on <i>'/Applications/bnc.app'</i>.
     694You could also start BNC via Command Line Interface (CLI) using command <i>'/Applications/bnc.app/Contents/MacOS/bnc'</i>.
     695</p>
     696
     697<p><h4 id="introCompile">1.5.1 Compilation</h4></p>
     698
     699<p>
     700BNC has been written as Open Source and published under GNU General Public License (GPL). The latest source code can
     701be checked out from Subversion repository <a href="http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC"
     702target="_blank">http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</a>. A ZIP archive available from
     703<a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/download</a>
     704provides the source code.
     705</p>
     706<p>The following describes how you can produce your own builds of BNC on MS Windows, Linux, and Mac systems.
     707It is likely that BNC can also be compiled on other systems where a GNU compiler and Qt Version 4.8 or any later
     708 version is installed.
    647709</p>
    648710
    649711<p><b>Static versus Shared Libraries</b><br>
    650 You can produce static or shared library builds of BNC. <u>Static</u> builds are sufficient in case you do not want BNC to produce track maps on top of Google Map (GM) or OpenStreetMap (OSM). GM/OSM usage would require the QtWebKit library which can only be part of BNC builds from <u>shared</u> Qt libraries. Hence, having a shared library Qt installation available is a precondition for producing a shared library build of BNC.
     712You can produce static or shared library builds of BNC. <b>Static</b> builds are sufficient in case you do not want
     713BNC to produce track maps on top of Google Map (GM) or OpenStreetMap (OSM). GM/OSM usage would require the
     714QtWebKit library which can only be part of BNC builds from <b>shared</b> Qt libraries. Hence, having a shared library
     715 Qt installation available is a precondition for producing a shared library build of BNC.
    651716</p>
    652717
     
    655720</p>
    656721
    657 <ol type=f>
    658 <li>Supposing that 'Secure Socket Layer (SSL)' is not available on you system, you should install OpenSSL libraries in C:\OpenSSL-Win32. They are available e.g. from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/root_ftp/NTRIP/software/Win32OpenSSL-1_0_1e.exe</u>. See <u>http://slproweb.com/products/Win32OpenSSL.html</u> for other SSL resources. Ignore possibly occurring comments about missing components during installation.</li>
    659 
    660 <li>Download MinGW compiler Version 4.4.0 e.g. from <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/root_ftp/NTRIP/software/MinGW-gcc440_1.zip</u></li>
    661 
    662 <li>Unzip the ZIP archive and move its contents to a directory C:\MinGW. Now you can do either (4) or (5, 6, 8, 9, 10). Following (4) is suggested.</li>
    663 
    664 <li>Download file 'qt-win-opensource-4.8.5-mingw.exe' (317 MB) e.g. from <u>https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/</u>. Execute this file to install a pre-compiled shared Qt library.</li>
    665 
    666 <li>Download file 'qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.5.zip' (269 MB) e.g. from <u>https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/</u></li>
    667 
    668 <li>Unzip the ZIP archive and move the contents of the contained directory into a directory C:\Qt\4.8.5.</li>
     722<ol type="1">
     723<li>Supposing that 'Secure Socket Layer (SSL)' is not available on you system, you should install OpenSSL libraries
     724in C:\OpenSSL-Win32. They are available e.g. from <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/root_ftp/NTRIP/software/Win32OpenSSL-1_0_1e.exe"
     725target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/root_ftp/NTRIP/software/Win32OpenSSL-1_0_1e.exe</a>.
     726See <a href="http://slproweb.com/products/Win32OpenSSL.html" target="_blank">http://slproweb.com/products/Win32OpenSSL.html</a>
     727for other SSL resources. Ignore possibly occurring comments about missing components during installation.</li>
     728
     729<li>Download MinGW compiler Version 4.4.0 e.g. from <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/root_ftp/NTRIP/software/MinGW-gcc440_1.zip" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/root_ftp/NTRIP/software/MinGW-gcc440_1.zip</a></li>
     730
     731<li>Unzip the ZIP archive and move its contents to a directory <i>C:\MinGW</i>. Now you can do either (4) or (5, 6, 8, 9, 10). Following (4) is suggested.</li>
     732
     733<li>Download file 'qt-win-opensource-4.8.5-mingw.exe' (317 MB) e.g. from <a href="https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/"
     734   target="_blank">https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/</a>. Execute this file to install a pre-compiled shared Qt library.</li>
     735
     736<li>Download file 'qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.5.zip' (269 MB) e.g. from
     737   <a href="https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/" target="_blank">https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/</a></li>
     738
     739<li>Unzip the ZIP archive and move the contents of the contained directory into a directory <i>C:\Qt\4.8.5</i>.</li>
    669740
    670741<li>Create somewhere a file QtEnv.bat with the following content:
     
    690761Should you want to reconfiguring Qt following steps (8)-(10) you first need to clean the previous configuration using command 'mingw32-make confclean'. Run command 'mingw32-make clean' to delete previously compiled source code.</li>
    691762
    692 <li>Download latest BNC from SVN repository <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC.</u></li>
     763<li>Download latest BNC from SVN repository <a href="http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC"
     764target="_blank">http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</a>.</li>
    693765
    694766<li>Open command line window and execute file QtEnv.bat, see (7)</li>
     
    710782
    711783<p>
    712 Steps (11)-(15) can be repeated whenever a BNC update becomes available. Running bnc.exe on a windows system requires (1) when using the NTRIP Version 2s option for stream transfer over TLS/SSL.
     784Steps (11)-(15) can be repeated whenever a BNC update becomes available. Running bnc.exe on a windows system
     785requires (1) when using the NTRIP Version 2s option for stream transfer over TLS/SSL.
    713786</p>
    714787
     
    719792
    720793<p>
    721 Download file 'qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.5.tar.gz' (230 MB) available from <u>https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/</u>. Unzip file, extract tar archive and change to directory 'qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.5'. Run commands
     794Download file 'qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.5.tar.gz' (230 MB) available from <a href="https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/"
     795target="_blank">https://download.qt.io/archive/qt/4.8/4.8.5/</a>. Unzip file, extract tar archive and change to
     796directory 'qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.5'. Run commands
    722797<pre>
    723798  ./configure -fast -webkit -nomake examples -nomake tutorial
     
    729804
    730805<p>
    731 Qt will be installed into directory /usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-4.8.5. To reconfigure, run 'gmake confclean' and 'configure'. Note that the '-prefix' option allows you to specify a directory for saving the Qt libraries. This ensures that you do not run into conflicts with other
    732 Qt installations on your host. Note further that the following two lines<pre>
     806Qt will be installed into directory <i>/usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-4.8.5</i>. To reconfigure, run 'gmake confclean' and 'configure'.
     807Note that the '-prefix' option allows you to specify a directory for saving the Qt libraries. This ensures that you do not run
     808into conflicts with other Qt installations on your host. Note further that the following two lines<pre>
    733809  export QTDIR="/usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-4.8.5"
    734810  export PATH="$QTDIR/bin:$PATH"</pre>
     
    737813</p>
    738814<p>
    739 To compile the BNC program, you first download the source code from SVN repository <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</u>. Go to directory BNC and run the following commands: <pre>
     815To compile the BNC program, you first download the source code from SVN repository <a href="http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC"
     816target="_blank">http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/svn/trunk/BNC</a>. Go to directory BNC and run the following commands: <pre>
    740817  qmake bnc.pro
    741818  make
     
    747824
    748825<u>Xcode and Qt Installation</u><br>
    749 Xcode and Qt are required to compile BNC on OS X. Both tools are freely available. Xcode can be downloaded from the App Store or the Apple Developer Connection website. Once installed, run Xcode, go to 'Preferences->Downloads' and install the Command Line Tools component. Qt can be downloaded from the Qt Project website. We suggest installing version 4.8.4 or higher. The Qt libraries for Mac can be downloaded from <u>http://www.qt.io/download</u>. Once downloaded, mount the disk image, run the Qt.mpkg package and follow instructions from the installation wizard.
     826Xcode and Qt are required to compile BNC on OS X. Both tools are freely available. Xcode can be downloaded from the
     827App Store or the Apple Developer Connection website. Once installed, run Xcode, go to 'Preferences->Downloads' and install the Command Line Tools component. Qt can be downloaded from the Qt Project website. We suggest installing version 4.8.4 or higher. The Qt libraries for Mac can be downloaded from <u>http://www.qt.io/download</u>. Once downloaded, mount the disk image, run the Qt.mpkg package and follow instructions from the installation wizard.
    750828</p>
    751829
    752830<p>
    753831<u>Compiling BNC</u><br>
    754 The version of qmake supplied in the Qt binary package is configured to use the macx-xcode specification. This can be overridden with the '-spec macx-g++' option which makes it possible to use qmake to create a Makefile to be used by 'make'.
     832The version of qmake supplied in the Qt binary package is configured to use the macx-xcode specification.
     833This can be overridden with the '-spec macx-g++' option which makes it possible to use qmake to create a Makefile to
     834 be used by 'make'.
    755835</p>
    756836<p>
     
    760840   make
    761841</pre>
    762 Refer to the following webpage for further information: <u>http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/qmake-platform-notes.html</u>.
     842Refer to the following webpage for further information: <a href="http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/qmake-platform-notes.html" target="_blank">http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/qmake-platform-notes.html</a>.
    763843</p>
    764844
    765845<p>
    766846<u>Bundle Deployment</u><br>
    767 When distributing BNC it is necessary to bundle in all related Qt resources in the package. The Mac Deployment Tool has been designed to automate the process of creating a deployable application bundle that contains the Qt libraries as private frameworks. To use it, issue the following commands where bnc.app is located.
     847When distributing BNC it is necessary to bundle in all related Qt resources in the package. The Mac Deployment Tool
     848has been designed to automate the process of creating a deployable application bundle that contains the Qt libraries
     849as private frameworks. To use it, issue the following commands where bnc.app is located.
    768850<pre>
    769851   macdeployqt bnc.app -dmg
    770852</pre>
    771 Refer to the following webpage for further information: <u>http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/deployment-mac.html</u>.
    772 </p>
    773 <p>
    774 Once a DMG file for BNC is created, you can double click it and install BNC by dragging the 'bnc.app' icon to your 'Applications' folder. To start BNC, double click on '/Aplications/bnc.app'.
    775 </p>
    776 
    777 <p><h4>1.6 <a name="introConf">Configuration</h4></p>
    778 <p>
    779 As a default, configuration files for running BNC on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems are saved in directory '${HOME}/.config/BKG'. On Windows systems, they are typically saved in directory 'C:/Documents and Settings/Username/.config/BKG'. The default configuration filename is 'BNC.bnc'.</p>
    780 <p>
    781 The default filename 'BNC.bnc' can be changed and the file content can easily be edited. On graphical user interfaces it is possible to Drag &amp; Drop a configuration file icon to start BNC (not on Mac OS X systems). It is also possible to start and configure BNC via command line. Some configuration options can be changed on-the-fly. See annexed 'Command Line Help' for a complete set of configuration options.
     853Refer to the following webpage for further information: <a href="http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/deployment-mac.html"
     854target="_blank">http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/deployment-mac.html</a>.
     855</p>
     856<p>
     857Once a DMG file for BNC is created, you can double click it and install BNC by dragging the 'bnc.app' icon to your
     858'Applications' folder. To start BNC, double click on '/Aplications/bnc.app'.
     859</p>
     860
     861<p><h4 id="introConf">1.6 Configuration</h4></p>
     862<p>
     863As a default, configuration files for running BNC on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems are saved in directory
     864'${HOME}/.config/BKG'. On Windows systems, they are typically saved in directory 'C:/Documents and Settings/Username/.config/BKG'.
     865The default configuration filename is 'BNC.bnc'.</p>
     866<p>
     867The default filename 'BNC.bnc' can be changed and the file content can easily be edited. On graphical user interfaces
     868 it is possible to Drag &amp; Drop a configuration file icon to start BNC (not on Mac OS X systems).
     869 It is also possible to start and configure BNC via command line. Some configuration options can be changed on-the-fly.
     870 See annexed 'Command Line Help' for a complete set of configuration options.
    782871</p>
    783872
     
    786875</p>
    787876
    788 <ol type=b>
    789 <li>GUI, input fields level</li>
    790 <li>Active configuration level</li>
    791 <li>Configuration file, disk level</li>
     877<ol type="1">
     878  <li>GUI, input fields level</li>
     879  <li>Active configuration level</li>
     880  <li>Configuration file, disk level</li>
    792881</ol>
    793882
    794883<p><img src="IMG/screenshot31.png"/></p>
    795 <p><u>Figure 6:</u> Management of configuration options in BNC:<br>
     884<p>Figure 6: Management of configuration options in BNC:<br>
    796885<table>
    797886<tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </td><td>Left:</td><td>BNC in graphics mode; active configuration options are introduced through GUI input fields and finally saved on disk</td></tr>
     
    803892Configuration options are usually specified using GUI input fields (1) after launching BNC. When hitting the 'Start' button, configuration options are transferred one level down to become BNC's active configuration (2), allowing the program to begin its operation. Pushing the 'Stop' button ends data processing so that the user can finally terminate BNC through 'File'->'Quit'->'Save Options' which saves processing options in a configuration file to disk (3). It is important to understand that:
    804893<ul>
    805 <li>Active configuration options (2) are independent from GUI input fields and configuration file content.</li>
    806 <li>Hence changing configuration options at GUI level (1) while BNC is already processing data does not influence a running job.</li>
    807 <li>Editing configuration options at disk level (3) while BNC is already processing data does also not influence a running job. However, there are two exceptions which force BNC to update certain active options on-the-fly:</li>
    808 <ul>
    809 <li>Pushing the 'Reread & Save Configuration' button lets BNC immediately reread its configuration from GUI input fields to make them active configuration options. Then BNC saves them on disk.</li>
    810 <li>Specifying the 'Reread configuration' option lets BNC reread its configuration from disk at pre-defined intervals.</li>
    811 </ul>
    812 <li>A specific BNC configuration can be started in 'no window' mode from scratch without a configuration file if options for the active configuration level (2) are provided via command line.</li>
    813 </ul>
    814 </p>
    815 
    816 <p><h4>1.6.1 <a name="introExamples">Examples</h4></p>
    817 
    818 <p>
    819 BNC comes with a number of configuration examples which can be used on all operating systems. Copy the complete directory 'Example_Configs' which comes with the software to your disc. It includes sub-directories 'Input' and 'Output'. There are several ways to start BNC using one of the example configurations:
    820 </p>
    821 <ul>
    822 <li>
    823 On graphical systems (except for Mac systems), you may use the computer mouse to 'drag' a configuration file icon and 'drop' it on top of BNC's program icon.
     894  <li>Active configuration options (2) are independent from GUI input fields and configuration file content.</li>
     895  <li>Hence changing configuration options at GUI level (1) while BNC is already processing data does not influence a running job.</li>
     896  <li>Editing configuration options at disk level (3) while BNC is already processing data does also not influence a running job. However, there are two exceptions which force BNC to update certain active options on-the-fly:</li>
     897    <ul>
     898      <li>Pushing the 'Reread & Save Configuration' button lets BNC immediately reread its configuration from GUI input fields to make them active configuration options. Then BNC saves them on disk.</li>
     899      <li>Specifying the 'Reread configuration' option lets BNC reread its configuration from disk at pre-defined intervals.</li>
     900    </ul>
     901  <li>A specific BNC configuration can be started in 'no window' mode from scratch without a configuration file if options for the active configuration level (2) are provided via command line.</li>
     902</ul>
     903</p>
     904
     905<p><h4 id="introExamples">1.6.1 Examples</h4></p>
     906
     907<p>
     908BNC comes with a number of configuration examples which can be used on all operating systems.
     909Copy the complete directory 'Example_Configs' which comes with the software to your disc. It includes sub-directories
     910'Input' and 'Output'. There are several ways to start BNC using one of the example configurations:
     911</p>
     912<ul>
     913  <li>On graphical systems (except for Mac systems), you may use the computer mouse to 'drag' a configuration file icon and 'drop' it on top of BNC's program icon.</li>
     914  <li>You could also start BNC using a command line for naming a specific configuration file (suggested e.g. for Mac systems):<br>
     915      /Applications/bnc.app/Contents/MacOS/bnc --conf &lt;configFileName&gt;</li>
     916  <li>On non-graphical systems or when running BNC in batch mode in the background you may start the program using a command line with a configuration file option in '<u>n</u>o <u>w</u>indow' mode (example for Windows systems):<br>
     917      bnc.exe --conf &lt;configFileName&gt; --nw</li>
     918</ul>
     919<p>
     920Although it's not a must, we suggest that you always create BNC configuration files with filename extension '.bnc'.
     921</p>
     922
     923<p>
     924We furthermore suggest for convenience reasons that you configure your system to automatically start BNC when you double-click a file with the filename extension '.bnc'. The following describes what to do on MS Windows systems to associate the BNC program to such configuration files:
     925</p>
     926
     927<ol type="1">
     928  <li>Right-click a file that has the extension '.bnc' and then click 'Open'. If the 'Open' command is not available, click 'Open With' or double-click the file.</li>
     929  <li>Windows displays a dialog box that says that the system cannot open this file. The dialog box offers several options for selecting a program.</li>
     930  <li>Click 'Select the program from a list', and then click 'OK'.</li>
     931  <li>The 'Open With' dialog box is displayed. Click 'Browse', locate and then click the BNC program, and then click 'Open'.</li>
     932  <li>Click to select the 'Always use the selected program to open this kind of file' check box.</li>
     933  <li>Click 'OK'.</li>
     934</ol>
     935
     936<p>
     937Some of the presented example configurations contain a user ID 'Example' with a password 'Configs' for accessing a few
     938 GNSS streams from public Ntrip Broadcasters. This free generic account is arranged for convenience reasons only.
     939 Please be so kind as to replace the generic account details as well as the place holder's 'User' and 'Pass' by the
     940 personal user ID and password you receive following an online registration through <a href="http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org" target="_blank">http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</a>.
     941</p>
     942
     943<p>
     944Note that the account for an Ntrip Broadcaster is usually limited to pulling a specified maximum number of streams at the same time. As running some of the example configurations requires pulling several streams, it is suggested to make sure that you do not exceed your account's limits.
     945</p>
     946
     947<p>
     948Make also sure that sub-directories 'Input' and 'Output' which are part of the example configurations exist on your system or adjust the affected example configuration options according to your needs.
     949</p>
     950
     951<p>
     952Some BNC options require Antenna Phase Center variations as made available from IGS through so-called ANTEX files at <a href="ftp://igs.org/pub/station/general" target="_blank">ftp://igs.org/pub/station/general</a>.
     953An example ANTEX file 'igs14.atx' is part of the BNC package for convenience.
     954</p>
     955
     956<p>
     957The example configurations assume that no proxy protects your BNC host. Should a proxy be operated in front of BNC then
     958you need to introduce its name or IP and port number in the 'Network' panel.
     959</p>
     960
     961<p>
     962<b>(A) Working with Configuration Files</b><br><br>
     963You should be able to run all configuration file examples without changing contained options. However, configuration
     964'Upload.bnc' is an exception because it requires an input stream from a connected network engine.
     965</p>
     966
     967<ol type="1">
     968<li>Configuration File 'RinexObs.bnc'<br>
     969Purpose: Convert RTCM streams to RINEX Observation files. The configuration pulls streams from Ntrip
     970Broadcasters using Ntrip Version 1 to generate 15min 1Hz RINEX Version 3 Observation files.
     971See <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations</a> for observation
     972stream resources.
    824973</li>
    825 <li>
    826 You could also start BNC using a command line for naming a specific configuration file (suggested e.g. for Mac systems):<br>
    827 /Applications/bnc.app/Contents/MacOS/bnc --conf &lt;configFileName&gt;
    828 </li>
    829 <li>
    830 On non-graphical systems or when running BNC in batch mode in the background you may start the program using a command line with a configuration file option in '<u>n</u>o <u>w</u>indow' mode (example for Windows systems):<br>
    831 bnc.exe --conf &lt;configFileName&gt; --nw
    832 </li>
    833 </ul>
    834 <p>
    835 Although it's not a must, we suggest that you always create BNC configuration files with filename extension '.bnc'.
    836 </p>
    837 
    838 <p>
    839 We furthermore suggest for convenience reasons that you configure your system to automatically start BNC when you double-click a file with the filename extension '.bnc'. The following describes what to do on MS Windows systems to associate the BNC program to such configuration files:
    840 </p>
    841 
    842 <ol type=b>
    843 <li>Right-click a file that has the extension '.bnc' and then click 'Open'. If the 'Open' command is not available, click 'Open With' or double-click the file.</li>
    844 <li>Windows displays a dialog box that says that the system cannot open this file. The dialog box offers several options for selecting a program.</li>
    845 <li>Click 'Select the program from a list', and then click 'OK'.</li>
    846 <li>The 'Open With' dialog box is displayed. Click 'Browse', locate and then click the BNC program, and then click 'Open'.</li>
    847 <li>Click to select the 'Always use the selected program to open this kind of file' check box.</li>
    848 <li>Click 'OK'.</li>
    849 </ol>
    850 
    851 <p>
    852 Some of the presented example configurations contain a user ID 'Example' with a password 'Configs' for accessing a few GNSS streams from public Ntrip Broadcasters. This free generic account is arranged for convenience reasons only. Please be so kind as to replace the generic account details as well as the place holder's 'User' and 'Pass' by the personal user ID and password you receive following an online registration through <u>http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</u>.
    853 </p>
    854 
    855 <p>
    856 Note that the account for an Ntrip Broadcaster is usually limited to pulling a specified maximum number of streams at the same time. As running some of the example configurations requires pulling several streams, it is suggested to make sure that you do not exceed your account's limits.
    857 </p>
    858 
    859 <p>
    860 Make also sure that sub-directories 'Input' and 'Output' which are part of the example configurations exist on your system or adjust the affected example configuration options according to your needs.
    861 </p>
    862 
    863 <p>
    864 Some BNC options require Antenna Phase Center variations as made available from IGS through so-called ANTEX files at <u>ftp://igs.org/pub/station/general</u>. An example ANTEX file 'igs14.atx' is part of the BNC package for convenience.
    865 </p>
    866 
    867 <p>
    868 The example configurations assume that no proxy protects your BNC host. Should a proxy be operated in front of BNC then you need to introduce its name or IP and port number in the 'Network' panel.
    869 </p>
    870 
    871 <p>
    872 <b>(A) Working with Configuration Files</b><br><br>
    873 You should be able to run all configuration file examples without changing contained options. However, configuration 'Upload.bnc' is an exception because it requires an input stream from a connected network engine.
    874 </p>
    875 <ol type=b>
    876 
    877 <li>Configuration File 'RinexObs.bnc'<br>
    878 Purpose: Convert RTCM streams to
    879 RINEX Observation files. The configuration pulls streams from Ntrip
    880 Broadcasters using Ntrip Version 1 to generate 15min 1Hz RINEX Version 3
    881 Observation files. See <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations</u> for observation
    882 stream resources.
    883 </li><br>
    884974
    885975<li>Configuration File 'RinexEph.bnc'<br>
    886976Purpose: Convert a RTCM stream
    887 with navigation messages to RINEX Navigation files. The configuration
    888 pulls a RTCM Version 3 stream with Broadcast Ephemeris coming from the
    889 real-time EUREF and IGS networks and saves hourly RINEX Version 3 Navigation
    890 files. See <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u> for further real-time
    891 Broadcast Ephemeris resources.
    892 </li><br>
     977with navigation messages to RINEX Navigation files. The configuration pulls a RTCM Version 3 stream with Broadcast
     978Ephemeris coming from the real-time EUREF and IGS networks and saves hourly RINEX Version 3 Navigation files.
     979See <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</a>
     980for further real-time Broadcast Ephemeris resources.
     981</li>
    893982
    894983<li>Configuration File 'BrdcCorr.bnc'<br>
    895 Purpose: Save Broadcast Corrections from RTCM
    896 SSR messages in hourly plain ASCII files. See
    897 <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u> for various real-time IGS or EUREF
    898 orbit/clock correction products.
    899 </li><br>
     984Purpose: Save Broadcast Corrections from RTCM SSR messages in hourly plain ASCII files.
     985See <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</a>
     986 for various real-time IGS or EUREF orbit/clock correction products.
     987</li>
    900988
    901989<li>Configuration File 'RinexConcat.bnc'<br>
    902 Purpose: Concatenate several RINEX Version 3 files to
    903 produce one compiled file and edit the marker name in the file header. The
    904 sampling interval is set to 30 seconds. See section 'RINEX Editing & QC' in the
    905 documentation for examples on how to call BNC from command line in 'no window'
    906 mode for RINEX file editing, concatenation and quality check.
    907 </li><br>
     990Purpose: Concatenate several RINEX Version 3 files to produce one compiled file and edit the marker name in the file
     991header. The sampling interval is set to 30 seconds. See section 'RINEX Editing & QC' in the documentation for
     992examples on how to call BNC from command line in 'no window' mode for RINEX file editing, concatenation and quality check.
     993</li>
    908994
    909995<li>Configuration File 'RinexQC.bnc'<br>
    910 Purpose: Check the quality of a RINEX Version 3
    911 file by means of a multipath analysis. Results are saved on disk in terms of a
    912 plot in PNG format. See section 'RINEX Editing & QC' in the documentation for
    913 examples on how to call BNC from command line in 'no window' mode for RINEX
    914 file editing, concatenation and quality check.
    915 </li><br>
     996Purpose: Check the quality of a RINEX Version 3 file by means of a multipath analysis. Results are saved on disk in terms of a
     997plot in PNG format. See section 'RINEX Editing & QC' in the documentation for examples on how to call BNC from command
     998line in 'no window' mode for RINEX file editing, concatenation and quality check.
     999</li>
    9161000
    9171001<li>Configuration File 'RTK.bnc'<br>
    918 Purpose: Feed a serially connected receiver with
    919 observations from a nearby reference station for conventional RTK. The stream is
    920 scanned for RTCM messages. Message type numbers and latencies of incoming
    921 observations are reported in BNC's logfile.
    922 </li><br>
     1002Purpose: Feed a serially connected receiver with observations from a nearby reference station for conventional RTK.
     1003The stream is scanned for RTCM messages. Message type numbers and latencies of incoming observations are reported in BNC's logfile.
     1004</li>
    9231005
    9241006<li>Configuration File 'FeedEngine.bnc'<br>
    925 Purpose: Feed a real-time GNSS engine with
    926 observations from remote reference stations. The configuration pulls a single
    927 stream from an Ntrip Broadcaster. You could also pull
    928 several streams from different casters. Incoming observations are decoded,
    929 synchronized, output through a local IP port and also saved into a file. Failure
    930 and recovery thresholds are specified to inform about outages.
    931 </li><br>
     1007Purpose: Feed a real-time GNSS engine with observations from remote reference stations. The configuration pulls a single
     1008stream from an Ntrip Broadcaster. You could also pull several streams from different casters. Incoming observations are decoded,
     1009synchronized, output through a local IP port and also saved into a file. Failure and recovery thresholds are specified
     1010to inform about outages.
     1011</li>
    9321012
    9331013<li>Configuration File 'PPP.bnc'<br>
    934 Purpose: Precise Point Positioning from
    935 observations of a rover receiver. The configuration reads RTCM Version 3
    936 observations, a Broadcast Ephemeris stream and a stream with Broadcast
    937 Corrections. Positions are saved in the logfile.
    938 </li><br>
     1014Purpose: Precise Point Positioning from observations of a rover receiver. The configuration reads RTCM Version 3
     1015observations, a Broadcast Ephemeris stream and a stream with Broadcast Corrections. Positions are saved in the logfile.
     1016</li>
    9391017
    9401018<li>Configuration File 'PPPNet.bnc'<br>
    941 Purpose: Precise
    942 Point Positioning for several rovers or receivers from an entire network of
    943 reference stations in one BNC job. The possible maximum number of PPP solutions
    944 per job depends on the processing power of the hosting computer. This example
    945 configuration reads two RTCM Version 3 observation streams, a Broadcast
    946 Ephemeris stream and a stream with Broadcast Corrections. PPP Results for the
    947 two stations are saved in PPP logfiles.
    948 </li><br>
     1019Purpose: Precise Point Positioning for several rovers or receivers from an entire network of reference stations in one
     1020BNC job. The possible maximum number of PPP solutions per job depends on the processing power of the hosting computer.
     1021This example configuration reads two RTCM Version 3 observation streams, a Broadcast Ephemeris stream and a stream
     1022with Broadcast Corrections. PPP Results for the two stations are saved in PPP logfiles.
     1023</li>
    9491024
    9501025<li>Configuration File 'PPPQuickStart.bnc'<br>
    951 Purpose: Precise Point Positioning in Quick-Start
    952 mode from observations of a static receiver with precisely known position. The
    953 configuration reads RTCM Version 3 observations, Broadcast Corrections and a
    954 Broadcast Ephemeris stream. Positions are saved in NMEA format on disc.
    955 They are also output through IP port for real-time visualization with tools
     1026Purpose: Precise Point Positioning in Quick-Start mode from observations of a static receiver with precisely known
     1027position. The configuration reads RTCM Version 3 observations, Broadcast Corrections and a Broadcast Ephemeris stream.
     1028Positions are saved in NMEA format on disc. They are also output through IP port for real-time visualization with tools
    9561029like RTKPLOT. Positions are saved in the logfile.
    957 </li><br>
     1030</li>
    9581031
    9591032<li>Configuration File 'PPPPostProc.bnc'<br>
     
    9641037logfile and contains coordinates derived over time following the
    9651038implemented PPP filter algorithm.
    966 </li><br>
     1039</li>
    9671040
    9681041<li>Configuration File 'PPPGoogleMaps.bnc'<br>
     
    9731046this is not a real-time application, it requires the BNC host to be connected
    9741047to the Internet. Specify a computation speed, then hit button 'Open Map'
    975 to open the track map, then hit 'Start' to visualize receiver positions
    976 on top of GM/OSM maps.
    977 </li><br>
     1048to open the track map, then hit 'Start' to visualize receiver positions on top of GM/OSM maps.
     1049</li>
    9781050
    9791051<li>Configuration File 'SPPQuickStartGal.bnc'<br>
    9801052Purpose: Single Point Positioning in Quick-Start mode from observations of a static
    9811053receiver with quite precisely known position.
    982 The configuration uses GPS, GLONASS and Galileo observations and a Broadcast
    983 Ephemeris stream.
    984 </li><br>
     1054The configuration uses GPS, GLONASS and Galileo observations and a Broadcast Ephemeris stream.
     1055</li>
    9851056
    9861057<li>Configuration File 'SaveSp3.bnc'<br>
     
    9901061producing SP3 requires an ANTEX file because SP3 file content should be
    9911062referred to CoM.
    992 </li><br>
     1063</li>
    9931064
    9941065<li>Configuration File 'Sp3ETRF2000PPP.bnc'<br>
     
    10001071precisely known ETRF2000 position allows comparing an 'INTERNAL' PPP solution
    10011072with a known ETRF2000 reference coordinate.
    1002 </li><br>
     1073</li>
    10031074
    10041075<li>Configuration File 'Upload.bnc'<br>
     
    10111082Antenna Phase Center (APC) and reference system IGS14. Orbits are saved on disk
    10121083in SP3 format and clocks are saved in Clock RINEX format.
    1013 </li><br>
     1084</li>
    10141085
    10151086<li>Configuration File 'Combi.bnc'<br>
     
    10211092Center of Mass (CoM). Its reference system is IGS14. Orbits are saved in SP3
    10221093format (referred to CoM) and clocks in Clock RINEX format.
    1023 </li><br>
     1094</li>
    10241095
    10251096<li>Configuration File 'CombiPPP.bnc'<br>
     
    10291100coordinates. This allows a continuous quality check of the combination product
    10301101through observing coordinate displacements.
    1031 </li><br>
     1102</li>
    10321103
    10331104<li>Configuration File 'UploadEph.bnc'<br>
     
    10361107encoded to RTCM Version 3 format and uploaded for the purpose of providing
    10371108a Broadcast Ephemeris stream with an update rate of 5 seconds.
    1038 </li><br>
     1109</li>
    10391110
    10401111<li>Configuration File 'CompareSp3.bnc'<br>
     
    10431114satellite R18 are excluded from this comparison. Comparison results are saved
    10441115in a logfile.
    1045 </li><br>
     1116</li>
    10461117
    10471118<li>Configuration File 'Empty.bnc'<br>
     
    10521123</ol>
    10531124<b>(B) Working with Command Line configuration options</b><br><br>
    1054 The following configuration examples make use of BNC's 'Command Line Interface' (CLI). Configuration options are exclusively specified via command line. No configuration file is used. Examples are provided as shell scripts for a Linux system. They call BNC in 'no window' batch mode (command line option -nw). The scripts expect 'Example_Configs' to be the current working directory.
     1125The following configuration examples make use of BNC's 'Command Line Interface' (CLI). Configuration options are
     1126exclusively specified via command line. No configuration file is used. Examples are provided as shell scripts
     1127for a Linux system. They call BNC in 'no window' batch mode (command line option -nw). The scripts expect
     1128'Example_Configs' to be the current working directory.
    10551129
    10561130<ol start="22">
     
    10601134'Xvfb' is operated while producing plot files in PNG format. BNC is offline. All
    10611135results are saved on disk.
    1062 </li><br>
     1136</li>
    10631137
    10641138<li>Shell Script 'RinexConcat.sh'<br>
     
    10661140several RINEX Version 3 files to produce one compiled file and edit the marker
    10671141name in the file header. The sampling interval is set to 30 seconds.
    1068 </li><br>
     1142</li>
    10691143
    10701144<li>Shell Script 'RinexEph.sh'<br>
     
    10731147pulls a RTCM Version 3 stream with Broadcast Ephemeris coming from the
    10741148real-time EUREF and IGS networks and saves hourly RINEX Version 3 Navigation
    1075 files. BNC runs online until it's terminated after 10 seconds.  See
    1076 <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u> for further real-time Broadcast
    1077 Ephemeris resources.
    1078 </li><br>
     1149files. BNC runs online until it's terminated after 10 seconds. See <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris"
     1150target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</a> for further real-time Broadcast Ephemeris resources.
     1151</li>
    10791152
    10801153<li>Shell Script 'ScanLate.sh'<br>
     
    10831156reported every 10 seconds. BNC runs online until it's terminated after 20
    10841157seconds.
    1085 </li><br>
     1158</li>
    10861159
    10871160<li>Shell Script 'RinexObs.sh'<br>
     
    10891162streams to RINEX Observation files. The configuration pulls streams from two
    10901163Ntrip Broadcasters using Ntrip Version 1 to generate 15min 1Hz RINEX Version 3
    1091 Observation files. See <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations</u> for
     1164Observation files. See <a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations</a> for
    10921165observation stream resources. BNC runs online until it's terminated after 30
    10931166seconds.
     
    11031176</li>
    11041177</ol>
    1105 
    1106 </p>
    1107 
    1108 <p><h4>1.7 <a name="introLimit">Limitations</h4></p>
     1178</p>
     1179
     1180<p><h4 id="introLimit">1.7 Limitations</h4></p>
    11091181<ul>
    11101182<li>
    1111 In Qt-based desktop environments (like KDE) on Unix/Linux platforms it may happen that you experience a crash of BNC at startup even when running the program in the background using the '-nw' option. This is a known bug most likely resulting from an incompatibility of Qt libraries in the environment and in BNC. Entering the command 'unset SESSION_MANAGER' before running BNC may help as a work-around.
     1183In Qt-based desktop environments (like KDE) on Unix/Linux platforms it may happen that you experience a crash of BNC at startup
     1184even when running the program in the background using the '-nw' option. This is a known bug most likely resulting
     1185from an incompatibility of Qt libraries in the environment and in BNC. Entering the command 'unset SESSION_MANAGER'
     1186before running BNC may help as a work-around.
    11121187</li>
    11131188
     
    11221197</li>
    11231198<li>
    1124 EUREF as well as IGS adhere to an open data policy. Streams are made available through Ntrip Broadcasters at <u>www.euref-ip.net</u>, <u>www.igs-ip.net</u>, <u>products.igs-ip.net</u>, and <u>mgex.igs-ip.net</u> free of charge to anyone for any purpose. There is no indication up until now how many users will need to be supported simultaneously. The given situation may develop in such a way that it might become difficult to serve all registered users at the same times. In cases where limited resources on the Ntrip Broadcaster side (software restrictions, bandwidth limitation etc.) dictates, first priority in stream provision will be given to stream providers followed by re-broadcasting activities and real-time analysis centers while access to others might be temporarily denied.
     1199EUREF as well as IGS adhere to an open data policy. Streams are made available through Ntrip Broadcasters at
     1200<a href="http://www.euref-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://www.euref-ip.net/home</a>,
     1201 <a href="http://www.igs-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://www.igs-ip.net/home</a>,
     1202 <a href="http://products.igs-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://products.igs-ip.net/home</a> and
     1203 <a href="http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home" target="_blank">http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</a>
     1204 free of charge to anyone for any purpose. There is no indication up until now how many users will need to be supported simultaneously. The given situation may develop in such a way that it might become difficult to serve all registered users at the same times. In cases where limited resources on the Ntrip Broadcaster side (software restrictions, bandwidth limitation etc.) dictates, first priority in stream provision will be given to stream providers followed by re-broadcasting activities and real-time analysis centers while access to others might be temporarily denied.
    11251205</li>
    11261206<li>
     
    11321212</ul>
    11331213
    1134 <p><h4>1.8 <a name="introLBack">Looking Back</h4></p>
     1214<p><h4 id="introLBack">Looking Back</h4></p>
    11351215<p>
    11361216A basic function of BNC is streaming GNSS data over the open Internet using the Ntrip transport protocol. Employing IP streaming for satellite positioning goes back to the beginning of our century. Wolfgang Rupprecht has been the first person who developed TCP/IP server software under the acronym of DGPS-IP (Rupprecht 2000) and published it under GNU General Public License (GPL). While connecting marine beacon receivers to PCs with permanent access to the Internet he transmitted DGPS corrections in an RTCM format to support Differential GPS positioning over North America. With approximately 200 bits/sec the bandwidth requirement for disseminating beacon data was comparatively small. Each stream was transmitted over a unique combination of IP address and port. Websites informed about existing streams and corresponding receiver positions.
     
    11431223</p>
    11441224<p>
    1145 With the advent of Ntrip as an open streaming standard, BKG's interest turned towards taking advantage from free real-time access to GNSS observations. International Associations such as the IAG Reference Frame Sub Commissions for Africa (AFREF), Asia & Pacific (APREF), Europe (EUREF), North America (NAREF) Latin America & Caribbean (SIRGAS), and the International GNSS Service (IGS) maintain continental or even global GNSS networks with the majority of modern receivers supporting Ntrip stream upload. Through operating BKG's NtripCaster software, these networks became extremely valuable sources of real-time GNSS information.  In 2005, this was the starting point for developing the 'BKG Ntrip Client' (BNC) as a multi-stream Open Source NtripClient that allows pulling hundreds of streams simultaneously from any number of NtripCaster installations world-wide. Decoding incoming RTCM streams and output observations epoch by epoch via IP port to feed a real-time GNSS network engine became BNC's first and foremost ability (Weber and Mervart 2009). Converting decoded streams to short high-rate RINEX files to assist near real-time applications became a welcome by-product right from the start of this development.
     1225With the advent of Ntrip as an open streaming standard, BKG's interest turned towards taking advantage from free
     1226real-time access to GNSS observations. International Associations such as the IAG Reference Frame Sub Commissions
     1227for Africa (AFREF), Asia & Pacific (APREF), Europe (EUREF), North America (NAREF) Latin America & Caribbean (SIRGAS),
     1228and the International GNSS Service (IGS) maintain continental or even global GNSS networks with the majority of modern
     1229receivers supporting Ntrip stream upload. Through operating BKG's NtripCaster software, these networks became extremely
     1230valuable sources of real-time GNSS information.  In 2005, this was the starting point for developing the
     1231'BKG Ntrip Client' (BNC) as a multi-stream Open Source NtripClient that allows pulling hundreds of streams
     1232simultaneously from any number of NtripCaster installations world-wide. Decoding incoming RTCM streams and output
     1233observations epoch by epoch via IP port to feed a real-time GNSS network engine became BNC's first and foremost
     1234ability (Weber and Mervart 2009). Converting decoded streams to short high-rate RINEX files to assist near real-time
     1235applications became a welcome by-product right from the start of this development.
    11461236</p>
    11471237<p>
     
    11561246</p>
    11571247<p>
    1158 In February 2014 the overall responsibility at BKG for the concept and realization of BNC was handed over from Georg Weber to Axel Rülke. He is in charge now for guiding the application and further evolution of the software in view of appearing new satellite navigation systems and services.
    1159 </p>
    1160 
    1161 <p><h3>2. <a name="optsettings">Settings Details</h3></p>
     1248In February 2014 the overall responsibility at BKG for the concept and realization of BNC was handed over from Georg Weber to Axel Rülke. He is in charge now for guiding the application and further evolution of the software in view of appearing new satellite navigation systems and services.
     1249</p>
     1250
     1251<p><h3 id="optsettings">2. Settings Details</h3></p>
    11621252<p>
    11631253The general documentation approach is to create a separate chapter for each processing option in a sequence which follows the layout of BNC's Graphical User Interface (GUI). The advantage is that searching for help by means of the document's Table of Contents (TOC) is quite convenient. A rather comprehensive number of TOC entries is the accepted downside of this approach.
     
    11671257</p>
    11681258
    1169 <p><h4>2.1 <a name="topmenu">Top Menu Bar</h4></p>
     1259<p><h4 id="topmenu">2.1 Top Menu Bar</h4></p>
    11701260<p>
    11711261The top menu bar allows selecting a font for the BNC windows, save configured options, or quit the program execution. It also provides access to the program's documentation.
    11721262</p>
    11731263
    1174 <p><h4>2.1.1 <a name="file">File</h4></p>
     1264<p><h4 id="file">2.1.1 File</h4></p>
    11751265
    11761266<p>
    11771267The 'File' button lets you
    11781268<ul>
    1179 <li> Select an appropriate font.<br>
    1180 Use smaller font size if the BNC main window exceeds the size of your screen.
    1181 </li>
    1182 <li> Reread and save selected options in configuration file.<br>
    1183 When using 'Reread &amp; Save Configuration' while BNC is already processing data, some configuration options become immediately effective on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads while all of them are saved on disk. See section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of on-the-fly changeable configuration options.
    1184 </li>
    1185 <li> Quit the BNC program.
    1186 </li>
    1187 </ul>
    1188 </p>
    1189 
    1190 <p><h4>2.1.2 <a name="help">Help</h4></p>
     1269  <li>Select an appropriate font.<br>
     1270      Use smaller font size if the BNC main window exceeds the size of your screen.</li>
     1271  <li>Reread and save selected options in configuration file.<br>
     1272      When using 'Reread &amp; Save Configuration' while BNC is already processing data, some configuration options
     1273      become immediately effective on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads while all of them are saved on
     1274      disk. See section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of on-the-fly changeable configuration options.</li>
     1275  <li>Quit the BNC program.</li>
     1276</ul>
     1277</p>
     1278
     1279<p><h4 id="help">2.1.2 Help</h4></p>
    11911280
    11921281<p>
    11931282The 'Help' button provides access to
    11941283<ul>
    1195 <li>
    1196 Help contents.<br>
    1197 You may keep the 'Help Contents' window open while configuring BNC.
    1198 </li>
    1199 <li>
    1200 A 'Flow Chart' showing BNC linked to a real-time GNSS network engine such as RTNET.
    1201 </li>
    1202 <li>
    1203 General information about BNC.<br>
    1204 Close the 'About BNC' window to continue working with BNC.
    1205 </li>
    1206 </ul>
    1207 </p>
    1208 
    1209 <p><h4>2.2 <a name="network">Network</h4></p>
     1284  <li>Help contents.<br>You may keep the 'Help Contents' window open while configuring BNC.</li>
     1285  <li>A 'Flow Chart' showing BNC linked to a real-time GNSS network engine such as RTNET.</li>
     1286  <li>General information about BNC.<br>Close the 'About BNC' window to continue working with BNC.</li>
     1287</ul>
     1288</p>
     1289
     1290<p><h4 id="network">2.2 Network</h4></p>
    12101291<p>
    12111292You may need to specify a proxy when running BNC in a protected network. You may also like to use the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols for secure Ntrip communication over the Internet.
    12121293</p>
    1213 <p><h4>2.2.1 <a name="proxy">Proxy - Usage in a protected LAN</h4></p>
     1294<p><h4 id="proxy">2.2.1 Proxy - Usage in a protected LAN</h4></p>
    12141295<p>
    12151296If you are running BNC within a protected Local Area Network (LAN), you might need to use a proxy server to access the Internet. Enter your proxy server IP and port number in case one is operated in front of BNC. If you do not know the IP and port of your proxy server, check the proxy server settings in your Internet browser or ask your network administrator.</p>
     
    12181299</p>
    12191300
    1220 <p><h4>2.2.2 <a name="ssl">SSL - Transport Layer Security</h4></p>
     1301<p><h4 id="ssl">2.2.2 SSL - Transport Layer Security</h4></p>
    12211302<p>Communication with an Ntrip Broadcaster over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) as well as the download of RINEX skeleton files when available from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Specify the path to a directory where you save certificates on your system. You may like to check out <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/Certificates</u> for a list of known Ntrip Server certificates. You may also just try communication via SSL to check out whether this is supported by the involved Ntrip Broadcaster. </p>
    12221303<p>SSL communication may involve queries coming from the Ntrip Broadcaster or from a HTTPS website hosting RINEX skeletons. Such a query could show up under BNC's 'Log' tab especially when self-signed SSL certificates are used. Example:
     
    12391320
    12401321<p><img src="IMG/screenshot40.png"/></p>
    1241 <p><u>Figure 7:</u> BNC's 'Network' panel configured to ignore eventually occurring SSL error messages</p>
    1242 
    1243 <p><h4>2.3 <a name="general">General</h4></p>
     1322<p>Figure 7: BNC's 'Network' panel configured to ignore eventually occurring SSL error messages</p>
     1323
     1324<p><h4 id="general">2.3 General</h4></p>
    12441325<p>
    12451326The following defines general settings for BNC's logfile, file handling, reconfiguration on-the-fly, and auto-start.
    12461327</p>
    12471328
    1248 <p><h4>2.3.1 <a name="genlog">Logfile - optional</h4></p>
     1329<p><h4 id="genlog">2.3.1 Logfile - optional</h4></p>
    12491330<p>
    12501331Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '_YYMMDD' for the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the Ntrip Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file.
     
    12741355</pre>
    12751356
    1276 <p><h4>2.3.2 <a name="genapp">Append Files - optional</h4></p>
     1357<p><h4 id="genapp">2.3.2 Append Files - optional</h4></p>
    12771358<p>
    12781359When BNC is started, new files are created by default and existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or a BNC crash. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
    12791360</p>
    12801361
    1281 <p><h4>2.3.3 <a name="genconf">Reread Configuration - optional</h4></p>
     1362<p><h4 id="genconf">2.3.3 Reread Configuration - optional</h4></p>
    12821363<p>
    12831364When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), some configuration options can nevertheless be changed on-the-fly without interrupting the running process. For that, you force the program to reread parts of its configuration in pre-defined intervals from disk. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' to let BNC reread on-the-fly changeable configuration options every full minute, hour, or day. This lets in-between edited options become effective without interrupting uninvolved threads.
     
    12891370<p>
    12901371<ul>
    1291 <li>'mountPoints' to change the selection of streams to be processed, see section 'Streams';</li>
    1292 <li>'outWait' to change the 'Wait for full obs epoch' option, see section 'Feed Engine';</li>
    1293 <li>'outSampl' to change the 'Sampling' option, see section 'Feed Engine';</li>
    1294 <li>'outFile' to change the 'File' name where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format.</li>
    1295 </ul>
    1296 </p>
    1297 <p>
    1298 </p>
    1299 
    1300 <p><h4>2.3.4 <a name="genstart">Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
     1372  <li>'mountPoints' to change the selection of streams to be processed, see section 'Streams'</li>
     1373  <li>'outWait' to change the 'Wait for full obs epoch' option, see section 'Feed Engine'</li>
     1374  <li>'outSampl' to change the 'Sampling' option, see section 'Feed Engine'</li>
     1375  <li>'outFile' to change the 'File' name where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format</li>
     1376</ul>
     1377</p>
     1378<p>
     1379</p>
     1380
     1381<p><h4 id="genstart">2.3.4 Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
    13011382<p>
    13021383You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required e.g. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory /etc/init.d (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     
    13061387</p>
    13071388
    1308 <p><h4>2.3.5 <a name="rawout">Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
     1389<p><h4 id="rawout">2.3.5 Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
    13091390<p>
    13101391BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes (Record &amp; Replay functionality) and is not meant for post processing.
     
    13231404</p>
    13241405
    1325 <p><h4>2.4 <a name="rinex">RINEX Observations</h4></p>
     1406<p><h4 id="rinex">2.4 RINEX Observations</h4></p>
    13261407<p>
    13271408Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS, and/or BDS (BeiDou). In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000' or left blank. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system.
     
    13491430
    13501431<p><img src="IMG/screenshot16.png"/></p>
    1351 <p><u>Figure 8:</u> BNC translating incoming observation streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 Observation files</p>
    1352 
    1353 <p><h4>2.4.1 <a name="rnxname">RINEX Filenames</h4></p>
     1432<p>Figure 8: BNC translating incoming observation streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 Observation files</p>
     1433
     1434<p><h4 id="rnxname">2.4.1 RINEX Filenames</h4></p>
    13541435<p>
    13551436The default for RINEX filenames in BNC follows the convention of RINEX Version 2. However, the software provides options to alternatively follow the filename convention of RINEX Version 3. RINEX Version 2 filenames are derived by BNC from the first 4 characters of the corresponding stream's mountpoint (4-Char Station ID). For example, data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and WETTZELL will have hourly RINEX Observation files named</p>
     
    13881469<p>
    13891470<table>
    1390 <tr><td><b>Filename Parameter&nbsp; &nbsp;</b></td><td><b>&nbsp;# Char.</b></td><td><b>&nbsp; Meaning</b></td></tr>
    1391 <tr><td>Name</td><td>&nbsp; 9</td><td>&nbsp; Site, station and country code</td></tr>
    1392 <tr><td>S</td><td>&nbsp; 1</td><td>&nbsp; Data source</td></tr>
    1393 <tr><td>Start Time</td><td>&nbsp; 11</td><td>&nbsp; YYYYDDDHHMM</td></tr>
    1394 <tr><td>Period</td><td>&nbsp; 3</td><td>&nbsp; File period</td></tr>
    1395 <tr><td>Obs. Freq.</td><td>&nbsp; 3</td><td>&nbsp; Observation frequency</td></tr>
    1396 <tr><td>Content</td><td>&nbsp; 2</td><td>&nbsp; Content type</td></tr>
    1397 <tr><td>Format</td><td>&nbsp; 3</td><td>&nbsp; File format</td></tr>
    1398 <tr><td>Compression</td><td>&nbsp; 2-3</td><td>&nbsp; Compression method (optional)</td></tr>
     1471  <tr><td><b>Filename Parameter&nbsp; &nbsp;</b></td><td><b>&nbsp;# Char.</b></td><td><b>&nbsp; Meaning</b></td></tr>
     1472  <tr><td>Name</td><td>&nbsp; 9</td><td>&nbsp; Site, station and country code</td></tr>
     1473  <tr><td>S</td><td>&nbsp; 1</td><td>&nbsp; Data source</td></tr>
     1474  <tr><td>Start Time</td><td>&nbsp; 11</td><td>&nbsp; YYYYDDDHHMM</td></tr>
     1475  <tr><td>Period</td><td>&nbsp; 3</td><td>&nbsp; File period</td></tr>
     1476  <tr><td>Obs. Freq.</td><td>&nbsp; 3</td><td>&nbsp; Observation frequency</td></tr>
     1477  <tr><td>Content</td><td>&nbsp; 2</td><td>&nbsp; Content type</td></tr>
     1478  <tr><td>Format</td><td>&nbsp; 3</td><td>&nbsp; File format</td></tr>
     1479  <tr><td>Compression</td><td>&nbsp; 2-3</td><td>&nbsp; Compression method (optional)</td></tr>
    13991480</table>
    14001481</p>
     
    14091490</p>
    14101491
    1411 <p><h4>2.4.2 <a name="rnxdir">Directory - optional</h4></p>
     1492<p><h4 id="rnxdir">2.4.2 Directory - optional</h4></p>
    14121493<p>
    14131494Here you can specify the path to where the RINEX Observation files will be stored. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Observation files. Default value for 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Observation files will be written.
    14141495</p>
    14151496
    1416 <p><h4>2.4.3 <a name="rnxinterval">File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
     1497<p><h4 id="rnxinterval">2.4.3 File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
    14171498<p>
    14181499Select the length of the RINEX Observation file to be generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
    14191500</p>
    14201501
    1421 <p><h4>2.4.4 <a name="rnxsample">Sampling - mandatory if 'Directory' is set </h4></p>
     1502<p><h4 id="rnxsample">2.4.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Directory' is set </h4></p>
    14221503<p>
    14231504Select the RINEX Observation sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all received epochs into RINEX. This is the default value.
    14241505</p>
    14251506
    1426 <p><h4>2.4.5 <a name="rnxskl">Skeleton Extension - optional</h4></p>
    1427 <p>
    1428 Whenever BNC starts to generate RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived from sitelogs. An HTTP or HTTPS link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table. See <u>http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl</u> for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for EPN station Brussels. Note that the download of RINEX skeleton files from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Clarify 'SSL' options offered through panel 'Network' for details.
     1507<p><h4 id="rnxskl">2.4.5 Skeleton Extension - optional</h4></p>
     1508<p>
     1509Whenever BNC starts to generate RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to
     1510retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived
     1511from sitelogs. An HTTP or HTTPS link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data
     1512field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table.
     1513See <a href="http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl" target="_blank">http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl</a>
     1514for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for EPN station Brussels. Note that the download of RINEX
     1515skeleton files from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates.
     1516Clarify 'SSL' options offered through panel 'Network' for details.
    14291517</p>
    14301518<p>
     
    14451533Note the following regulations regarding personal RINEX header skeleton files:
    14461534<ul>
    1447 <li>If such a file exists in the 'RINEX directory', the corresponding public RINEX header skeleton file is ignored. The RINEX header is generated solely from the content of the personal skeleton.</li>
    1448 <li>Personal skeletons should contain a complete first header record of type
    1449 <br>- &nbsp; RINEX VERSION / TYPE<br></li>
    1450 <li>They should then contain an empty header record of type
    1451 <br>- &nbsp; PGM / RUN BY / DATE<br>
    1452 BNC will complete this line and include it in the RINEX file header.</li>
    1453 <li>They should further contain complete header records of type
    1454 <br>- &nbsp; MARKER NAME
    1455 <br>- &nbsp; OBSERVER / AGENCY
    1456 <br>- &nbsp; REC # / TYPE / VERS
    1457 <br>- &nbsp; ANT # / TYPE
    1458 <br>- &nbsp; APPROX POSITION XYZ
    1459 <br>- &nbsp; ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N
    1460 <br>- &nbsp; WAVELENGTH FACT L1/2 (RINEX Version 2)
    1461 <br>- &nbsp; SYS / # / OBS TYPES (for RINEX Version 3 files, will be ignored in Version 2 files)</li>
    1462 <li>They may contain any other optional complete header record as defined in the RINEX documentation.</li>
    1463 <li>They should also contain an empty header record of type
    1464 <br>- &nbsp; # / TYPES OF OBSERV (only RINEX Version 2, will be ignored when in Version 3 files)
    1465 <br>BNC will include these lines in the final RINEX file header together with an additional
    1466 <br>- &nbsp; COMMENT
    1467 <br>line describing the source of the stream.</li>
    1468 <li>They should finally contain an empty last header record of type
    1469 <br>- &nbsp; END OF HEADER</li>
    1470 
    1471 <li>They must not contain a header record of type
    1472 <br>- &nbsp; TIME OF FIRST OBS</li>
     1535  <li>If such a file exists in the 'RINEX directory', the corresponding public RINEX header skeleton file is ignored. The RINEX header is generated solely from the content of the personal skeleton.</li>
     1536  <li>Personal skeletons should contain a complete first header record of type<br>
     1537      - &nbsp; RINEX VERSION / TYPE<br></li>
     1538  <li>They should then contain an empty header record of type
     1539      <br>- &nbsp; PGM / RUN BY / DATE<br>BNC will complete this line and include it in the RINEX file header.</li>
     1540  <li>They should further contain complete header records of type
     1541      <br>- &nbsp; MARKER NAME
     1542      <br>- &nbsp; OBSERVER / AGENCY
     1543      <br>- &nbsp; REC # / TYPE / VERS
     1544      <br>- &nbsp; ANT # / TYPE
     1545      <br>- &nbsp; APPROX POSITION XYZ
     1546      <br>- &nbsp; ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N
     1547      <br>- &nbsp; WAVELENGTH FACT L1/2 (RINEX Version 2)
     1548      <br>- &nbsp; SYS / # / OBS TYPES (for RINEX Version 3 files, will be ignored in Version 2 files)</li>
     1549  <li>They may contain any other optional complete header record as defined in the RINEX documentation.</li>
     1550  <li>They should also contain an empty header record of type
     1551     <br>- &nbsp; # / TYPES OF OBSERV (only RINEX Version 2, will be ignored when in Version 3 files)
     1552     <br>BNC will include these lines in the final RINEX file header together with an additional
     1553     <br>- &nbsp; COMMENT
     1554     <br>line describing the source of the stream.</li>
     1555  <li>They should finally contain an empty last header record of type
     1556    <br>- &nbsp; END OF HEADER</li>
     1557<li>They must not contain a header record of type<br>- &nbsp; TIME OF FIRST OBS</li>
    14731558
    14741559</ul>
     
    15031588<p>
    15041589
    1505 <p><h4>2.4.6 <a name="sklMandat">Skeleton Mandatory - optional</h4></p>
     1590<p><h4 id="sklMandat">2.4.6 Skeleton Mandatory - optional</h4></p>
    15061591<p>
    15071592Tick check box 'Skeleton mandatory' in case you want that RINEX files are only produced when skeleton files are available for BNC. If no skeleton file is available for a particular source, then no RINEX observation file will be produced from the affected stream.
     
    15101595</p>
    15111596
    1512 <p><h4>2.4.7 <a name="rnxscript">Script - optional</h4></p>
     1597<p><h4 id="rnxscript">2.4.7 Script - optional</h4></p>
    15131598<p>
    15141599Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path to such script/batch file. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (%1 on Windows systems, $1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     
    15211606</p>
    15221607
    1523 <p><h4>2.4.8 <a name="rnxvers2">Version 2 - optional</h4></p>
     1608<p><h4 id="rnxvers2">2.4.8 Version 2 - optional</h4></p>
    15241609<p>
    15251610GNSS observation data are generally hold available within BNC according to attributes as defined in RINEX Version 3. These attributes describe the tracking mode or channel when generating the observation signals. Capital letters specifying signal generation attributes are A, B, C, D, I, L, M, N, P, Q, S, W, X, Y, and Z, see RINEX Version 3 documentation. Although RINEX Version 3 with its signal generation attributes is the internal default processing format for BNC, there are two applications where the program is explicitly required to produce data files in RINEX Version 2 format:
    1526 <ol type=1>
     1611<ol type="1">
    15271612<li>When saving the content of incoming observation streams in RINEX Version 2 files as described in this section.</li>
    15281613<li>When editing or concatenating RINEX 3 files to save them in Version 2 format, see section on 'RINEX Editing & QC'.</li>
     
    15571642</p>
    15581643
    1559 <p><h4>2.4.9 <a name="rnxvers3">Version 3 - optional</h4></p>
     1644<p><h4 id="rnxvers3">2.4.9 Version 3 - optional</h4></p>
    15601645<p>
    15611646The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select RINEX 'Version 3' if you would like to save RTCM Version 3 observation streams in RINEX Version 3.03 format.
     
    15661651</p>
    15671652
    1568 <p><h4>2.4.10 <a name="rnxvers3File">Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
     1653<p><h4 id="rnxvers3File">2.4.10 Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
    15691654<p>
    15701655Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard.
     
    15731658</p>
    15741659
    1575 <p><h4>2.5 <a name="ephemeris">RINEX Ephemeris</h4></p>
     1660<p><h4 id="ephemeris">2.5 RINEX Ephemeris</h4></p>
    15761661<p>
    15771662Broadcast Ephemeris can be saved in RINEX Navigation files when received e.g. via RTCM Version 3 message types 1019 (GPS) or 1020 (GLONASS) or 1044 (QZSS) or 1043 (SBAS) or 1045 and 1046 (Galileo) or 63 (BDS/BeiDou, tentative message number). The filename convention follows the details given in section 'RINEX Filenames' except that the first four characters are 'BRDC'.
     
    15981683</p>
    15991684
    1600 <p><h4>2.5.1 <a name="ephdir">Directory - optional</h4></p>
     1685<p><h4 id="ephdir">2.5.1 Directory - optional</h4></p>
    16011686<p>
    16021687Specify a path for saving Broadcast Ephemeris data in RINEX Navigation files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Navigation files. Default value for Ephemeris 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Navigation files will be created.
    16031688</p>
    16041689
    1605 <p><h4>2.5.2 <a name="ephint">Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
     1690<p><h4 id="ephint">2.5.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
    16061691<p>
    16071692Select the length of RINEX Navigation files. The default value is '1 day'.
    16081693</p>
    16091694
    1610 <p><h4>2.5.3 <a name="ephport">Port - optional</h4></p>
     1695<p><h4 id="ephport">2.5.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
    16111696<p>
    16121697BNC can output Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII ephemeris output via IP port is generated.
     
    16161701</p>
    16171702
    1618 <p><h4>2.5.4 <a name="ephvers">Version - optional</h4></p>
     1703<p><h4 id="ephvers">2.5.4 Version - optional</h4></p>
    16191704<p>
    16201705Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris data in RINEX Version 3.03 format.
     
    16241709</p>
    16251710
    1626 <p><h4>2.5.5 <a name="ephversFile">Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
     1711<p><h4 id="ephversFile">2.5.5 Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
    16271712<p>
    16281713Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard.
     
    16321717
    16331718<p><img src="IMG/screenshot42.png"/></p>
    1634 <p><u>Figure 9:</u> BNC converting Broadcast Ephemeris stream to RINEX Version 3 Navigation files</p>
    1635 
    1636 <p><h4>2.6 <a name="reqc">RINEX Editing & QC</h4></p>
     1719<p>Figure 9: BNC converting Broadcast Ephemeris stream to RINEX Version 3 Navigation files</p>
     1720
     1721<p><h4 id="reqc">2.6 RINEX Editing & QC</h4></p>
    16371722<p>
    16381723Besides stream conversion from RTCM to RINEX, BNC allows editing RINEX files or concatenate their content. RINEX Observation and Navigation files can be handled. BNC can also carry out a RINEX file Quality Check. In summary  and besides Stream <u><b>T</b></u>ranslation, this functionality in BNC covers
    16391724<ul>
    1640 <li>File <u><b>E</b></u>diting and concatenation</li>
    1641 <li>File <u><b>Q</b></u>uality <u><b>C</b></u>heck</li>
    1642 <ul>
    1643 <li>Multipath analysis sky plots</li>
    1644 <li>Signal-to-noise ratio sky plots</li>
    1645 <li>Satellite availability plots</li>
    1646 <li>Satellite elevation plots</li>
    1647 <li>PDOP plots</li>
    1648 </ul>
     1725  <li>File <u><b>E</b></u>diting and concatenation</li>
     1726  <li>File <u><b>Q</b></u>uality <u><b>C</b></u>heck</li>
     1727  <ul>
     1728    <li>Multipath analysis sky plots</li>
     1729    <li>Signal-to-noise ratio sky plots</li>
     1730    <li>Satellite availability plots</li>
     1731    <li>Satellite elevation plots</li>
     1732    <li>PDOP plots</li>
     1733  </ul>
    16491734</ul>
    16501735and hence follows UNAVCO's famous TEQC program (see Estey and Meertens 1999). The remarkable thing about BNC in this context is that it supports RINEX Version 3 under GNU General Public License with full GUI support and graphics output.
    16511736</p>
    16521737
    1653 <p><h4>2.6.1 <a name="reqcact">Action - optional</h4></p>
     1738<p><h4 id="reqcact">2.6.1 Action - optional</h4></p>
    16541739<p>Select an action. Options are 'Edit/Concatenate' and 'Analyze'.
    16551740<ul>
     
    16591744</p>
    16601745
    1661 <p><h4>2.6.2 <a name="reqcinp">Input Files - mandatory</h4></p>
     1746<p><h4 id="reqcinp">2.6.2 Input Files - mandatory</h4></p>
    16621747<p>
    16631748Specify full path to input RINEX Observation file(s), and<br>
     
    16711756</p>
    16721757
    1673 <p><h4>2.6.3 <a name="reqcout">Output Files - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
     1758<p><h4 id="reqcout">2.6.3 Output Files - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
    16741759<p>
    16751760If 'Edit/Concatenate' is selected, specifying the full path to output RINEX Observation file(s) and specifying the full path to output RINEX Navigation file(s) is optional. Default are empty option fields, meaning that no RINEX files will be saved on disk.
    16761761</p>
    16771762
    1678 <p><h4>2.6.4 <a name="reqclog">Logfile - optional</h4></p>
     1763<p><h4 id="reqclog">2.6.4 Logfile - optional</h4></p>
    16791764<p>
    16801765Specify the name of a logfile to save information on RINEX file Editing/Concatenation or Analysis. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no logfile will be saved.
     
    18961981</p>
    18971982
    1898 <p><h4>2.6.5 <a name="reqcplots">Plots for Signals - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
     1983<p><h4 id="reqcplots">2.6.5 Plots for Signals - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
    18991984<p>
    19001985Multipath and signal-to-noise sky plots as well as plots for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP are produced per GNSS system and frequency with the multipath analysis based on CnC observation types (n = band / frequency). The 'Plots for signals' option lets you exactly specify the observation signals to be used for that and also enables the plot production. You can specify the navigation system (C = BDS, E = Galileo, G = GPS, J = QZSS, R = GLONASS, S = SBAS), the frequency, and the tracking mode or channel as defined in RINEX Version 3. Specifications for frequency and tracking mode or channel must be separated by ampersand character '&'. Specifications for each navigation systems must be separated by blank character ' '. The following string is an example for option field 'Plots of signals':
     
    19141999</p>
    19152000
    1916 <p><h4>2.6.6 <a name="reqcdir">Directory for Plots - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
     2001<p><h4 id="reqcdir">2.6.6 Directory for Plots - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
    19172002<p>
    19182003If 'Analyze' is selected, specifying the path to a directory where plot files will be saved is optional. Filenames will be composed from the RINEX input filename(s) plus suffix 'PNG' to indicate the plot file format in use. Default is an empty option field, meaning that plots will not be saved on disk.
    19192004</p>
    19202005
    1921 <p><h4>2.6.7 <a name="reqcedit">Set Edit Options - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
     2006<p><h4 id="reqcedit">2.6.7 Set Edit Options - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
    19222007<p>Once the 'Edit/Concatenate' action is selected, you have to 'Set Edit Options'. BNC lets you specify the RINEX version, a signal priority list when mapping RINEX Version 3 to Version 2, the sampling interval, begin and end of file, operator, observation types, comment lines, and marker, antenna, receiver details. Note that some of the specifications for editing and concatenation are only meaningful for RINEX Observation files but not for RINEX Navigation files.
    19232008</p>
     
    19292014<p>
    19302015<ul>
    1931 <li>The RINEX Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes. Therefore, when converting <u>RINEX Version 3 to Version 2</u> Observation files, BNC is forced to somehow map signals with attributes to signals without attributes although this cannot be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2, see details in section 'RINEX Observations/Version 2'. Signal priorities can be specified as equal for all systems, as system specific or as system and frequency specific. For example:</li>
    1932 <ul>
    1933 <li>'CWPX_?' (General signal priorities valid for all GNSS)</li>
    1934 <li>'C:IQX I:ABCX' (System specific signal priorities for BDS and IRNSS)</li>
    1935 <li>'G:12&PWCSLXYN G:5&IQX R:12&PC R:3&IQX' (System and frequency specific signal priorities)</li>
    1936 </ul>
    1937 </p>
    1938 <p>
    1939 The default 'Signal priority' list is defined as follows:
    1940 <ul>
    1941  <li>'G:12&PWCSLXYN_ G:5&IQX_ R:12&PC_ R:3&IQX_ E:16&BCX_ E:578&IQX_ J:1&SLXCZ_ J:26&SLX_ J:5&IQX_ C:IQX_ I:ABCX_ S:1&C_ S:5&IQX_'</li>
    1942 </ul>
    1943 </p>
    1944 <p>
    1945 <li>When converting <u>RINEX Version 2 to Version 3</u> Observation files, the tracking mode or channel information in the (last character out of the 3-character) observation code is left blank if unknown. This is a compromise, knowing that it is not in accordance with the RINEX Version 3 documentation.</li>
     2016  <li>The RINEX Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes. Therefore, when converting <b>RINEX Version 3 to Version 2</b> Observation files, BNC is forced to somehow map signals with attributes to signals without attributes although this cannot be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2, see details in section 'RINEX Observations/Version 2'. Signal priorities can be specified as equal for all systems, as system specific or as system and frequency specific. For example:</li>
     2017  <ul>
     2018    <li>'CWPX_?' (General signal priorities valid for all GNSS)</li>
     2019    <li>'C:IQX I:ABCX' (System specific signal priorities for BDS and IRNSS)</li>
     2020    <li>'G:12&PWCSLXYN G:5&IQX R:12&PC R:3&IQX' (System and frequency specific signal priorities)</li>
     2021  </ul>
     2022  </p>
     2023  <p>
     2024  The default 'Signal priority' list is defined as follows:
     2025  <ul>
     2026    <li>'G:12&PWCSLXYN_ G:5&IQX_ R:12&PC_ R:3&IQX_ E:16&BCX_ E:578&IQX_ J:1&SLXCZ_ J:26&SLX_ J:5&IQX_ C:IQX_ I:ABCX_ S:1&C_ S:5&IQX_'</li>
     2027  </ul>
     2028  </p>
     2029  <p>
     2030  <li>When converting <b>RINEX Version 2 to Version 3</b> Observation files, the tracking mode or channel information in the (last character out of the 3-character) observation code is left blank if unknown. This is a compromise, knowing that it is not in accordance with the RINEX Version 3 documentation.</li>
    19462031</ul>
    19472032</p>
     
    19642049
    19652050<p><img src="IMG/screenshot27.png"/></p>
    1966 <p><u>Figure 10:</u> Example for BNC's 'RINEX Editing Options' window</p>
     2051<p>Figure 10: Example for BNC's 'RINEX Editing Options' window</p>
    19672052
    19682053<p><img src="IMG/screenshot25.png"/></p>
    1969 <p><u>Figure 11:</u> Example for RINEX file concatenation with BNC</p>
     2054<p>Figure 11: Example for RINEX file concatenation with BNC</p>
    19702055
    19712056<p><img src="IMG/screenshot29.png"/></p>
    1972 <p><u>Figure 12:</u> Example for creating RINEX quality check analysis graphics output with BNC</p>
     2057<p>Figure 12: Example for creating RINEX quality check analysis graphics output with BNC</p>
    19732058
    19742059<p><img src="IMG/screenshot30.png"/></p>
    1975 <p><u>Figure 13:</u> Example for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP plots as a result of a RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</p>
     2060<p>Figure 13: Example for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP plots as a result of a RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</p>
    19762061
    19772062<p><img src="IMG/screenshot33.png"/></p>
    1978 <p><u>Figure 14:</u> Sky plot examples for multipath, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</p>
     2063<p>Figure 14: Sky plot examples for multipath, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</p>
    19792064
    19802065<p><img src="IMG/screenshot34.png"/></p>
    1981 <p><u>Figure 15:</u> Sky plot examples for signal-to-noise ratio, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</p>
    1982 
    1983 <p><h4>2.6.8 <a name="reqccommand">Command Line, No Window - optional</h4></p>
     2066<p>Figure 15: Sky plot examples for signal-to-noise ratio, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC</p>
     2067
     2068<p><h4 id="reqccommand">2.6.8 Command Line, No Window - optional</h4></p>
    19842069<p>
    19852070BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the content of the configuration file remains unchanged, see section on 'Command Line Options'. Note the following syntax for Command Line Interface (CLI) options:
     
    20642149</table>
    20652150
    2066 <p><h4>2.7 <a name="sp3comp">SP3 Comparison</h4></p>
     2151<p><h4 id="sp3comp">2.6.7 SP3 Comparison</h4></p>
    20672152<p>
    20682153BNC allows to compare the contents of two files with GNSS orbit and clock data in SP3 format. SP3 ASCII files basically contain a list of records over a certain period of time. Each record carries a time tag, the XYZ position of the satellite's Center of Mass at that time and the corresponding satellite clock value. Both SP3 files may contain some records for different epochs. If so, then BNC only compares records for identical epochs. BNC accepts that a specific GNSS system or a specific satellite is only available from one of the SP3 files. Note that BNC does not interpolate orbits when comparing SP3 files.
     
    20722157</p>
    20732158
    2074 <p><h4>2.7.1 <a name="sp3input">Input SP3 Files - optional</h4></p>
     2159<p><h4 id="sp3input">2.7.1 Input SP3 Files - optional</h4></p>
    20752160<p>
    20762161Specify the full paths of two SP3 files, separate them by comma.
    20772162</p>
    20782163
    2079 <p><h4>2.7.2 <a name="sp3exclude">Exclude Satellites - optional</h4></p>
     2164<p><h4 id="sp3exclude">2.7.2 Exclude Satellites - optional</h4></p>
    20802165<p>
    20812166You may want to exclude one or more satellites in your SP3 files from the comparison. Or you may like to exclude all satellites of a specific GNSS system from the comparison. The following are example strings to be entered for excluding satellites from the comparison.
    20822167<ul>
    2083 <li>G05,G31 (excluding GPS satellites with PRN 5 and 31)</li>
    2084 <li>G (excluding all GPS satellites)</li>
    2085 <li>R (excluding all GLONASS satellites)</li>
    2086 <li>R12,R24 (excluding GLONASS satellites with slot number 12 and 24)</li>
    2087 <li>G04,G31,R (excluding GPS satellites with PRN 4 and 31 as well as all GLONASS satellites)</li>
     2168  <li>G05,G31 (excluding GPS satellites with PRN 5 and 31)</li>
     2169  <li>G (excluding all GPS satellites)</li>
     2170  <li>R (excluding all GLONASS satellites)</li>
     2171  <li>R12,R24 (excluding GLONASS satellites with slot number 12 and 24)</li>
     2172  <li>G04,G31,R (excluding GPS satellites with PRN 4 and 31 as well as all GLONASS satellites)</li>
    20882173</ul>
    20892174</p>
     
    20922177</p>
    20932178
    2094 <p><h4>2.7.3 <a name="sp3log">Logfile - mandatory if 'Input SP3 Files' is set</h4></p>
     2179<p><h4 id="sp3log">2.7.3 Logfile - mandatory if 'Input SP3 Files' is set</h4></p>
    20952180<p>
    20962181Specify a logfile name to save results of the SP3 file comparison.
     
    21752260
    21762261<p><img src="IMG/screenshot36.png"/></p>
    2177 <p><u>Figure 16:</u> Example for comparing two SP3 files with satellite orbit and clock data using BNC</p>
    2178 
    2179 <p><h4>2.8 <a name="correct">Broadcast Corrections</h4></p>
     2262<p>Figure 16: Example for comparing two SP3 files with satellite orbit and clock data using BNC</p>
     2263
     2264<p><h4 id="correct">2.8 Broadcast Corrections</h4></p>
    21802265<p>
    21812266Differential GNSS and RTK operation using RTCM streams is currently based on corrections and/or raw measurements from single or multiple reference stations. This approach to differential positioning uses 'observation space' information. The representation with the RTCM standard can be called 'Observation Space Representation' (OSR).
     
    21882273
    21892274<ul>
    2190 <li>SSR, Step I:</li>
    2191 <ul>
    2192 <li>Orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    2193 <li>Clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    2194 <li>High-rate clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    2195 <li>Combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    2196 <li>User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    2197 <li>High Rate User Range Accuracy (HR URA)</li>
    2198 <li>Code biases</li>
    2199 </ul>
    2200 <li>SSR, Step II:</li>
    2201 <ul>
    2202 <li>Phase biases</li>
    2203 <li>Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC)</li>
    2204 </ul>
     2275  <li>SSR, Step I:</li>
     2276  <ul>
     2277    <li>Orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     2278    <li>Clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     2279    <li>High-rate clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     2280    <li>Combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     2281    <li>User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     2282    <li>High Rate User Range Accuracy (HR URA)</li>
     2283    <li>Code biases</li>
     2284  </ul>
     2285  <li>SSR, Step II:</li>
     2286  <ul>
     2287    <li>Phase biases</li>
     2288    <li>Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC)</li>
     2289  </ul>
    22052290</ul>
    22062291
     
    22532338</p>
    22542339<ol type="1">
    2255 <li>Special character '&#62;' is the first character in each 'Epoch Record' (as we have it in RINEX Version 3)</li>
    2256 <li>SSR message or topic descriptor, valid descriptors are:<br>ORBIT, CLOCK, CODE_BIAS, PHASE_BIAS, or VTEC</li>
    2257 <li>Year, GPS time</li>
    2258 <li>Month, GPS time</li>
    2259 <li>Day, GPS time</li>
    2260 <li>Hour, GPS time</li>
    2261 <li>Minute, GPS time</li>
    2262 <li>Second, GPS time</li>
    2263 <li>SSR message update interval indicator</li>
    2264 <ul>
    2265 <li>0 = 1 sec</li>
    2266 <li>1 = 2 sec</li>
    2267 <li>2 = 5 sec</li>
    2268 <li>3 = 10 sec</li>
    2269 <li>4 = 15 sec</li>
    2270 <li>5 = 30 sec</li>
    2271 <li>6 = 60 sec</li>
    2272 <li>7 = 120 sec</li>
    2273 <li>8 = 240 sec</li>
    2274 <li>9 = 300 sec</li>
    2275 <li>10 = 600 sec</li>
    2276 <li>11 = 900 sec</li>
    2277 <li>12 = 1800 sec</li>
    2278 <li>13 = 3600 sec</li>
    2279 <li>14 = 7200 sec</li>
    2280 <li>15 = 10800 sec</li>
    2281 </ul>
    2282 <li>Number of following records in this block</li>
    2283 <li>Mountpoint, source/stream indicator</li>
     2340  <li>Special character '&#62;' is the first character in each 'Epoch Record' (as we have it in RINEX Version 3)</li>
     2341  <li>SSR message or topic descriptor, valid descriptors are:<br>ORBIT, CLOCK, CODE_BIAS, PHASE_BIAS, or VTEC</li>
     2342  <li>Year, GPS time</li>
     2343  <li>Month, GPS time</li>
     2344  <li>Day, GPS time</li>
     2345  <li>Hour, GPS time</li>
     2346  <li>Minute, GPS time</li>
     2347  <li>Second, GPS time</li>
     2348  <li>SSR message update interval indicator</li>
     2349  <ul>
     2350    <li>0 = 1 sec</li>
     2351    <li>1 = 2 sec</li>
     2352    <li>2 = 5 sec</li>
     2353    <li>3 = 10 sec</li>
     2354    <li>4 = 15 sec</li>
     2355    <li>5 = 30 sec</li>
     2356    <li>6 = 60 sec</li>
     2357    <li>7 = 120 sec</li>
     2358    <li>8 = 240 sec</li>
     2359    <li>9 = 300 sec</li>
     2360    <li>10 = 600 sec</li>
     2361    <li>11 = 900 sec</li>
     2362    <li>12 = 1800 sec</li>
     2363    <li>13 = 3600 sec</li>
     2364    <li>14 = 7200 sec</li>
     2365    <li>15 = 10800 sec</li>
     2366  </ul>
     2367  <li>Number of following records in this block</li>
     2368  <li>Mountpoint, source/stream indicator</li>
    22842369</ol>
    22852370Each of the following 'satellite records' in such a block carries information for one specific satellite. Undefined parameters in the 'satellite records' could be set to zero &quot;0.000&quot;.
     
    23632448Records in this block provide the following satellite specific information:
    23642449<ul>
    2365 <li>GNSS Indicator and Satellite Vehicle Pseudo Random Number</li>
    2366 <li>Number of Code Biases, succeeded by code specific information:</li>
    2367 <ul>
    2368 <li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
    2369 <li>Code Bias [m]</li>
    2370 <li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
    2371 <li>Code Bias [m]</li>
    2372 <li>etc.</li>
    2373 </ul>
     2450  <li>GNSS Indicator and Satellite Vehicle Pseudo Random Number</li>
     2451  <li>Number of Code Biases, succeeded by code specific information:</li>
     2452  <ul>
     2453    <li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
     2454    <li>Code Bias [m]</li>
     2455    <li>Indicator to specify the signal and tracking mode</li>
     2456    <li>Code Bias [m]</li>
     2457    <li>etc.</li>
     2458  </ul>
    23742459</ul>
    23752460</p>
     
    24042489Following records provide satellite specific information:
    24052490<ul>
    2406 <li>GNSS Indicator and Satellite Vehicle Pseudo Random Number</li>
    2407 <li>Yaw angle [&deg;], restricted to [0&deg... 360&deg]</li>
    2408 <li>Yaw rate [&deg;/s]</li>
    2409 <li>Number of phase biases in this record, succeeded by phase specific information:</li>
    2410 <ul>
    2411 <li>Signal and tracking mode indicator</li>
    2412 <li>Phase bias [m]</li>
    2413 <li>Signal integer indicator</li>
    2414 <li>Signal wide-lane integer indicator</li>
    2415 <li>Signal discontinuity counter</li>
    2416 </ul>
     2491  <li>GNSS Indicator and Satellite Vehicle Pseudo Random Number</li>
     2492  <li>Yaw angle [&deg;], restricted to [0&deg... 360&deg]</li>
     2493  <li>Yaw rate [&deg;/s]</li>
     2494  <li>Number of phase biases in this record, succeeded by phase specific information:</li>
     2495  <ul>
     2496    <li>Signal and tracking mode indicator</li>
     2497    <li>Phase bias [m]</li>
     2498    <li>Signal integer indicator</li>
     2499    <li>Signal wide-lane integer indicator</li>
     2500    <li>Signal discontinuity counter</li>
     2501  </ul>
    24172502</ul>
    24182503</p>
     
    24422527The second record in this block provides four parameters:
    24432528<ul>
    2444 <li>Layer number</li>
    2445 <li>Maximum degree of spherical harmonics</li>
    2446 <li>Maximum order of spherical harmonics</li>
    2447 <li>Height of ionospheric layer [m]</li>
     2529  <li>Layer number</li>
     2530  <li>Maximum degree of spherical harmonics</li>
     2531  <li>Maximum order of spherical harmonics</li>
     2532  <li>Height of ionospheric layer [m]</li>
    24482533</ul>
    24492534Subsequent records in this block provide the following information:
    24502535<ul>
    2451 <li>Spherical harmonic coefficients C and S, sorted by degree and order (0 to maximum)</li>
    2452 </ul>
    2453 </p>
    2454 
    2455 <p><h4>2.8.1 <a name="corrdir">Directory, ASCII - optional</h4></p>
     2536  <li>Spherical harmonic coefficients C and S, sorted by degree and order (0 to maximum)</li>
     2537</ul>
     2538</p>
     2539
     2540<p><h4 id="corrdir">2.8.1 Directory, ASCII - optional</h4></p>
    24562541<p>
    24572542Specify a directory for saving Broadcast Corrections in files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Broadcast Correction files. Default value for Broadcast Correction 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction files will be created.
    24582543</p>
    24592544
    2460 <p><h4>2.8.2 <a name="corrint">Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
     2545<p><h4 id="corrint">2.8.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
    24612546<p>
    24622547Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is '1 day'.
    24632548</p>
    24642549
    2465 <p><h4>2.8.3 <a name="corrport">Port - optional</h4></p>
     2550<p><h4 id="corrport">2.8.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
    24662551<p>
    24672552BNC can output epoch by epoch synchronized Broadcast Corrections in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction output via IP port is generated.
     
    25392624
    25402625<p><img src="IMG/screenshot37.png"/></p>
    2541 <p><u>Figure 17:</u> Example for pulling, saving and output of Broadcast Corrections using BNC</p>
    2542 
    2543 <p><h4>2.9 <a name="syncout">Feed Engine</h4></p>
     2626<p>Figure 17: Example for pulling, saving and output of Broadcast Corrections using BNC</p>
     2627
     2628<p><h4 id="syncout">2.9 Feed Engine</h4></p>
    25442629
    25452630<p>
     
    25592644</p>
    25602645
    2561 <p><u>Table 2:</u> Contents and format of synchronized output of observations feeding a GNSS engine</p>
     2646<p>Table 2: Contents and format of synchronized output of observations feeding a GNSS engine</p>
    25622647<p>
    25632648<table>
     
    25762661<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr>
    25772662
    2578 <tr><td><u>Pseudo-Range Data</u></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
     2663<tr><td><b>Pseudo-Range Data</b></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
    25792664<tr><td>Observation Code</td><td><b>C</b>1C</td><td>1X,A3</td></tr>
    25802665<tr><td>Pseudo-Range Observation</td><td>25394034.112</td><td>1X,F14.3</td></tr>
     
    25822667<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr>
    25832668
    2584 <tr><td><u>Carrier Phase Data</u></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
     2669<tr><td><b>Carrier Phase Data</b></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
    25852670<tr><td>Observation Code</td><td><b>L</b>1C</td><td>1X,A3</td></tr>
    25862671<tr><td>Carrier Phase Observation</td><td>133446552.870</td><td>1X,F14.3</td></tr>
     
    25892674<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr>
    25902675
    2591 <tr><td><u>Doppler Data</u></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
     2676<tr><td><b>Doppler Data</b></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
    25922677<tr><td>Observation Code</td><td><b>D</b>1C</td><td>1X,A3</td></tr>
    25932678<tr><td>Doppler Observation</td><td>-87.977</td><td>1X,F14.3</td></tr>
     
    25952680<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr>
    25962681
    2597 <tr><td><u>Signal Strength</u></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
     2682<tr><td><b>Signal Strength</b></td><td></td><td></td></tr>
    25982683<tr><td>Observation Code</td><td><b>S</b>2W</td><td>1X,A3</td></tr>
    25992684<tr><td>Observed Signal Strength &nbsp; &nbsp;</td><td>34.750</td><td>1X,F8.3</td></tr>
     
    26512736</p>
    26522737<p><img src="IMG/screenshot12.png"/></p>
    2653 <p><u>Figure 18:</u> Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine</p>
    2654 
    2655 <p><h4>2.9.1 <a name="syncport">Port - optional</h4></p>
     2738<p>Figure 18: Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine</p>
     2739
     2740<p><h4 id="syncport">2.9.1 Port - optional</h4></p>
    26562741<p>
    26572742BNC can produce synchronized observations in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Synchronized means that BNC collects all observation data for a specific epoch, which become available within a certain number of seconds (see 'Wait for Full Obs Epoch' option). It then - epoch by epoch - outputs whatever has been received. The output comes block-wise per stream following the format specified in Table 2. Enter an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no synchronized output is generated.</p>
    26582743</p>
    26592744
    2660 <p><h4>2.9.2 <a name="syncwait">Wait for Full Obs Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
     2745<p><h4 id="syncwait">2.9.2 Wait for Full Obs Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
    26612746<p>
    26622747When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting for synchronized observations epoch by epoch, BNC drops whatever is received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds. A value of 3 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming streams and the delay acceptable for your real-time GNSS product. Default value for 'Wait for full obs epoch' is 5 seconds.
     
    26662751</p>
    26672752
    2668 <p><h4>2.9.3 <a name="syncsample">Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set</h4></p>
     2753<p><h4 id="syncsample">2.9.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set</h4></p>
    26692754<p>
    26702755Select a synchronized observation output sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to send/store all received epochs. This is the default value.
    26712756</p>
    26722757
    2673 <p><h4>2.9.4 <a name="syncfile">File - optional</h4></p>
     2758<p><h4 id="syncfile">2.9.4 File - optional</h4></p>
    26742759<p>
    26752760Specify the full path to a 'File' where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format. The default value is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII output file is created.
     
    26792764</p>
    26802765
    2681 <p><h4>2.9.5 <a name="syncuport">Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
     2766<p><h4 id="syncuport">2.9.5 Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
    26822767<p>
    26832768BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Nevertheless, the output is produced block-wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated.
     
    26982783</pre>
    26992784
    2700 <p><h4>2.10 <a name="serial">Serial Output</h4></p>
     2785<p><h4 id="serial">2.10 Serial Output</h4></p>
    27012786<p>
    27022787You may use BNC to feed a serially connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that, an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. Depending on the stream content, the receiver may use it for Differential GNSS, Precise Point Positioning or any other purpose supported by its firmware.
     
    27072792
    27082793<p><img src="IMG/screenshot35.png"/></p>
    2709 <p><u>Figure 19:</u> Flowcharts, BNC forwarding a stream to a serially connected receiver; sending NMEA sentences is mandatory for VRS streams</p>
     2794<p>Figure 19: Flowcharts, BNC forwarding a stream to a serially connected receiver; sending NMEA sentences is mandatory for VRS streams</p>
    27102795
    27112796<p>
     
    27142799
    27152800<p><img src="IMG/screenshot11.png"/></p>
    2716 <p><u>Figure 20:</u> BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serially connected RTK rover</p>
    2717 
    2718 <p><h4>2.10.1 <a name="sermount">Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
     2801<p>Figure 20: BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serially connected RTK rover</p>
     2802
     2803<p><h4 id="sermount">2.10.1 Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
    27192804<p>
    27202805Enter a 'Mountpoint' to forward its corresponding stream to a serially connected GNSS receiver.
     
    27242809</p>
    27252810
    2726 <p><h4>2.10.2 <a name="serport">Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2811<p><h4 id="serport">2.10.2 Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27272812<p>
    27282813Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the serially connected receiver. Valid port names are
     
    27412826</p>
    27422827
    2743 <p><h4>2.10.3 <a name="serbaud">Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2828<p><h4 id="serbaud">2.10.3 Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27442829<p>
    27452830Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial output link. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.
    27462831</p>
    27472832
    2748 <p><h4>2.10.4 <a name="serflow">Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2833<p><h4 id="serflow">2.10.4 Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27492834<p>
    27502835Select a 'Flow control' for the serial output link. Note that your selection must equal the flow control configured to the serially connected device. Select 'OFF' if you do not know better.
    27512836</p>
    27522837
    2753 <p><h4>2.10.5 <a name="serparity">Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2838<p><h4 id="serparity">2.10.5 Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27542839<p>
    27552840Select the 'Parity' for the serial output link. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.
    27562841</p>
    27572842
    2758 <p><h4>2.10.6 <a name="serdata">Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2843<p><h4 id="serdata">2.10.6 Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27592844<p>
    27602845Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '8' data bits are used.
    27612846</p>
    27622847
    2763 <p><h4>2.10.7 <a name="serstop">Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2848<p><h4 id="serstop">2.10.7 Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27642849<p>
    27652850Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.
    27662851</p>
    27672852
    2768 <p><h4>2.10.8 <a name="serauto">NMEA - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2853<p><h4 id="serauto">2.10.8 NMEA - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    27692854<p>The 'NMEA' option supports the so-called 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) concept which requires the receiver to send approximate position information to the Ntrip Broadcaster. Select 'no' if you do not want BNC to forward or upload any NMEA sentence to the Ntrip broadcaster in support of VRS.
    27702855</p>
     
    27762861</p>
    27772862
    2778 <p><h4>2.10.9 <a name="serfile">File - optional if 'NMEA' is set to 'Auto'</h4></p>
     2863<p><h4 id="serfile">2.10.9 File - optional if 'NMEA' is set to 'Auto'</h4></p>
    27792864<p>Specify the full path to a file where NMEA sentences coming from your serially connected receiver are saved. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no NMEA sentences will be saved on disk.
    27802865</p>
    2781 <p><h4>2.10.10 <a name="serheight">Height - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
     2866<p><h4 id="serheight">2.10.10 Height - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
    27822867<p>
    27832868Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meters for the reference station introduced through 'Mountpoint'. Together with the latitude and longitude from the Ntrip broadcaster source-table, the height information is used to build GGA sentences to be sent to the Ntrip broadcaster.
     
    27882873</p>
    27892874
    2790 <p><h4>2.10.11 <a name="sersampl">Sampling - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
     2875<p><h4 id="sersampl">2.10.11 Sampling - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
    27912876<p>
    27922877Select a sampling interval in seconds for manual generation and upload of NMEA GGA sentences.
     
    27962881</p>
    27972882
    2798 <p><h4>2.11 <a name="advnote">Outages</h4></p>
     2883<p><h4 id="advnote">2.11 Outages</h4></p>
    27992884<p>
    28002885At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
     
    28102895</p>
    28112896
    2812 <p><h4>2.11.1 <a name="obsrate">Observation Rate - optional</h4></p>
     2897<p><h4 id="obsrate">2.11.1 Observation Rate - optional</h4></p>
    28132898<p>
    28142899BNC can collect all returns (success or failure) coming from a decoder within a certain short time span to then decide whether a stream has an outage or its content is corrupted. This procedure needs a rough a priori estimate of the expected observation rate of the incoming streams.</p><p>An empty option field (default) means that you do not want explicit information from BNC about stream outages and incoming streams that cannot be decoded.
    28152900</p>
    28162901
    2817 <p><h4>2.11.2 <a name="advfail">Failure Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
     2902<p><h4 id="advfail">2.11.2 Failure Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    28182903<p>
    28192904Event 'Begin_Failure' will be reported if no data is received continuously for longer than the 'Failure threshold' time. Similarly, event 'Begin_Corrupted' will be reported when corrupted data is detected by the decoder continuously for longer than this 'Failure threshold' time. The default value is set to 15 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports.
     
    28232908</p>
    28242909
    2825 <p><h4>2.11.3 <a name="advreco">Recovery Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
     2910<p><h4 id="advreco">2.11.3 Recovery Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    28262911<p>
    28272912Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports.
     
    28312916</p>
    28322917
    2833 <p><h4>2.11.4 <a name="advscript">Script - optional if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
     2918<p><h4 id="advscript">2.11.4 Script - optional if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    28342919<p>
    28352920As mentioned before, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the described events is reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information.
     
    28642949</p>
    28652950
    2866 <p><h4>2.12 <a name="misc">Miscellaneous</h4></p>
     2951<p><h4 id="misc">2.12 Miscellaneous</h4></p>
    28672952<p>
    28682953This section describes several miscellaneous options which can be applied to a single stream (mountpoint) or to all configured streams.
     
    28732958</p>
    28742959<p><img src="IMG/screenshot14.png"/></p>
    2875 <p><u>Figure 21:</u> RTCM message numbers, latencies and observation types logged by BNC</p>
    2876 
    2877 
    2878 <p><h4>2.12.1 <a name="miscmount">Mountpoint - optional </h4></p>
     2960<p>Figure 21: RTCM message numbers, latencies and observation types logged by BNC</p>
     2961
     2962
     2963<p><h4 id="miscmount">2.12.1 Mountpoint - optional </h4></p>
    28792964<p>
    28802965Specify a mountpoint to apply one or several of the 'Miscellaneous' options to the corresponding stream. Enter 'ALL' if you want to apply these options to all configured streams. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to apply any of these options.
    28812966</p>
    28822967
    2883 <p><h4>2.12.2 <a name="miscperf">Log Latency - optional </h4></p>
     2968<p><h4 id="miscperf">2.12.2 Log Latency - optional </h4></p>
    28842969<p>
    28852970 BNC can average latencies per stream over a certain period of GPS time, the 'Log latency' interval. Mean latencies are calculated from the individual latencies of one (first incoming) observation or Broadcast Correction per second. The mean latencies are then saved in BNC's logfile. Note that computing correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. Note further that visualized latencies from the 'Latency' tab on the bottom of the main window represent individual latencies and not the mean latencies for the logfile.
    28862971</p>
    28872972<p>
    2888 <u>Latency:</u> Latency is defined in BNC by the following equation:
     2973<b>Latency:</b> Latency is defined in BNC by the following equation:
    28892974</p>
    28902975<pre>
     
    28962981</pre>
    28972982<p>
    2898 <u>Statistics:</u> BNC counts the number of GPS seconds covered by at least one observation. It also estimates an observation rate (independent from the a priori specified 'Observation rate') from all observations received throughout the first full 'Log latency' interval. Based on this rate, BNC estimates the number of data gaps when appearing in subsequent intervals.
     2983<b>Statistics:</b> BNC counts the number of GPS seconds covered by at least one observation. It also estimates an observation rate (independent from the a priori specified 'Observation rate') from all observations received throughout the first full 'Log latency' interval. Based on this rate, BNC estimates the number of data gaps when appearing in subsequent intervals.
    28992984</p>
    29002985<p>
     
    29092994
    29102995
    2911 <p><h4>2.12.3 <a name="miscscan">Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
     2996<p><h4 id="miscscan">2.12.3 Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
    29122997<p>
    29132998When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types and observation types. As reliable information concerning stream content should be available e.g. for Ntrip Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a priori for the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'inspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. St&ouml;cker.
     
    29173002</p>
    29183003<ul>
    2919 <li>Numbers of incoming message types</li>
    2920 <li>Antenna Reference Point (ARP) coordinates</li>
    2921 <li>Antenna Phase Center (APC) coordinates</li>
    2922 <li>Antenna height above marker</li>
    2923 <li>Antenna descriptor.</li>
     3004  <li>Numbers of incoming message types</li>
     3005  <li>Antenna Reference Point (ARP) coordinates</li>
     3006  <li>Antenna Phase Center (APC) coordinates</li>
     3007  <li>Antenna height above marker</li>
     3008  <li>Antenna descriptor.</li>
    29243009</ul>
    29253010In case of RTCM Version 3 streams the output includes
    29263011<ul>
    2927 <li>RINEX Version 3 Observation types</li>
     3012  <li>RINEX Version 3 Observation types</li>
    29283013</ul>
    29293014</p>
     
    29443029
    29453030
    2946 <p><h4>2.12.4 <a name="miscport">Port - optional</h4></p>
     3031<p><h4 id="miscport">2.12.4 Port - optional</h4></p>
    29473032<p>
    29483033BNC can output streams related to the above specified 'Mountpoint' through a TCP/IP port of your local host. Enter a port number to activate this function. The stream content remains untouched. BNC does not decode or reformat the data for this output.
     
    29563041
    29573042
    2958 <p><h4>2.13 <a name="pppclient">PPP Client</h4></p>
     3043<p><h4 id="pppclient">2.13 PPP Client</h4></p>
    29593044<p>
    29603045BNC can derive coordinates for rover positions following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses code or code plus phase data from one or more GNSS systems in ionosphere-free linear combinations P3, L3, or P3&L3. Besides pulling streams of observations from a dual frequency GNSS receiver, this
    29613046<ul>
    2962 <li>Requires pulling in addition a stream carrying satellite orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages. Note that for BNC these Broadcast Corrections need to be referred to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u> (Caissy et al. 2012). Stream 'CLK11' on Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
    2963 <li>May require pulling a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris available as RTCM Version 3 message types 1019, 1020, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046 and 63 (tentative). This becomes a must only when the stream coming from the receiver does not contain Broadcast Ephemeris or provides them only at very low repetition rate. Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
     3047  <li>Requires pulling in addition a stream carrying satellite orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages. Note that for BNC these Broadcast Corrections need to be referred to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u> (Caissy et al. 2012). Stream 'CLK11' on Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
     3048  <li>May require pulling a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris available as RTCM Version 3 message types 1019, 1020, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046 and 63 (tentative). This becomes a must only when the stream coming from the receiver does not contain Broadcast Ephemeris or provides them only at very low repetition rate. Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
    29643049</ul>
    29653050Note that Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect or outdated ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
     
    29693054</p>
    29703055<ul>
    2971 <li>BNC does correct for Solid Earth Tides and Phase Windup.</li>
    2972 <li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center offsets are corrected.</li>
    2973 <li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center variations are neglected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
    2974 <li>Observations can be corrected for a Receiver Antenna Offset and Receiver Antenna Phase Center Variation. Depending on whether or not these corrections are applied, the estimated position is either that of the receiver's Antenna Phase Center or that of the receiver's Antenna Reference Point.</li>
    2975 <li>Ocean and atmospheric loading is neglected. Atmospheric loading is pretty small. Ocean loading is usually also a small effect but may reach up to about 10 centimeters for coastal stations.</li>
    2976 <li>Rotational deformation due to polar motion (Polar Tides) is not corrected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
     3056  <li>BNC does correct for Solid Earth Tides and Phase Windup.</li>
     3057  <li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center offsets are corrected.</li>
     3058  <li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center variations are neglected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
     3059  <li>Observations can be corrected for a Receiver Antenna Offset and Receiver Antenna Phase Center Variation. Depending on whether or not these corrections are applied, the estimated position is either that of the receiver's Antenna Phase Center or that of the receiver's Antenna Reference Point.</li>
     3060  <li>Ocean and atmospheric loading is neglected. Atmospheric loading is pretty small. Ocean loading is usually also a small effect but may reach up to about 10 centimeters for coastal stations.</li>
     3061  <li>Rotational deformation due to polar motion (Polar Tides) is not corrected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
    29773062</ul>
    29783063</p>
     
    29853070PPP options are specified in BNC through the following four panels.
    29863071<ul>
    2987 <li>PPP (1): Input and output, specifying real-time or post processing mode and associated data sources</li>
    2988 <li>PPP (2): Processed stations, specifying sigmas and noise of a priori coordinates and NMEA stream output</li>
    2989 <li>PPP (3): Processing options, specifying general PPP processing options</li>
    2990 <li>PPP (4): Plots, specifying visualization through time series and track maps</li>
    2991 </ul>
    2992 </p>
    2993 
    2994 <p><h4>2.13.1 <a name="pppInp">PPP (1): Input and Output</h4></p>
     3072  <li>PPP (1): Input and output, specifying real-time or post processing mode and associated data sources</li>
     3073  <li>PPP (2): Processed stations, specifying sigmas and noise of a priori coordinates and NMEA stream output</li>
     3074  <li>PPP (3): Processing options, specifying general PPP processing options</li>
     3075  <li>PPP (4): Plots, specifying visualization through time series and track maps</li>
     3076</ul>
     3077</p>
     3078
     3079<p><h4 id="pppInp">2.13.1 PPP (1): Input and Output</h4></p>
    29953080<p>
    29963081This panel provides options for specifying the input and output streams and files required by BNC for real-time or post processing PPP.
     
    29983083
    29993084<p><img src="IMG/screenshot03.png"/></p>
    3000 <p><u>Figure 22:</u> Real-time Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1</p>
    3001 
    3002 <p><h4>2.13.1.1 <a name="pppdatasource">Data Source - optional</h4></p>
     3085<p>Figure 22: Real-time Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1</p>
     3086
     3087<p><h4 id="pppdatasource">2.13.1.1 Data Source - optional</h4></p>
    30033088<p>
    30043089Choose between input from 'Real-time Streams' or 'RINEX Files' for PPP with BNC in real-time or post processing mode.
     
    30303115</p>
    30313116
    3032 <p><h4>2.13.1.2 <a name="ppprnxobs">RINEX Observation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
     3117<p><h4 id="ppprnxobs">2.13.1.2 RINEX Observation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
    30333118<p>
    30343119Specify a RINEX Observation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3.
    30353120</p>
    30363121
    3037 <p><h4>2.13.1.3 <a name="ppprnxnav">RINEX Navigation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
     3122<p><h4 id="ppprnxnav">2.13.1.3 RINEX Navigation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
    30383123<p>
    30393124Specify a RINEX Navigation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3.
    30403125</p>
    30413126
    3042 <p><h4>2.13.1.4 <a name="pppcorrstream">Corrections Stream - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'Real-Time Streams'</h4></p>
     3127<p><h4 id="pppcorrstream">2.13.1.4 Corrections Stream - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'Real-Time Streams'</h4></p>
    30433128<p>
    30443129Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections stream' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to correct your satellite ephemeris accordingly. Note that the stream's orbit and clock corrections must refer to the satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such corrections are made available e.g. through the International GNSS Service (IGS) and listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u>. The stream format must be RTCM Version 3 containing so-called SSR messages. Streams 'IGS03' and 'CLK11' supporting GPS plus GLONASS are examples.
     
    30483133</p>
    30493134
    3050 <p><h4>2.13.1.5 <a name="pppcorrfile">Corrections File - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
     3135<p><h4 id="pppcorrfile">2.13.1.5 Corrections File - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
    30513136<p>
    30523137Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections file' as saved beforehand using BNC. The file content is basically the ASCII representation of a RTCM Version 3 Broadcast Correction (SSR) stream.
     
    30563141</p>
    30573142
    3058 <p><h4>2.13.1.6 <a name="pppantexfile">ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
     3143<p><h4 id="pppantexfile">2.13.1.6 ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
    30593144<p>
    30603145IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations in PPP for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations. Note that for applying such corrections you need to specify the receiver's antenna name and radome in BNC's 'Coordinates file'.
     
    30643149</p>
    30653150
    3066 <p><h4>2.13.1.7 <a name="pppmarkcoor">Coordinates File - optional </h4></p>
     3151<p><h4 id="pppmarkcoor">2.13.1.7 Coordinates File - optional </h4></p>
    30673152<p>
    30683153Enter the full path to an ASCII file which specifies all observation streams or files from stationary or mobile receivers you possibly may want to process. Specifying a 'Coordinates file' is optional. If it exists, it should contain one record per stream or file with the following parameters separated by blank characters:
     
    30703155<p>
    30713156<ul>
    3072 <li>Input data source, to be specified either through
    3073 <ul>
    3074 <li>the 'Mountpoint' of an RTCM stream (when in real-time PPP mode), or
    3075 </li>
    3076 <li>the first four characters of the RINEX observations file (when in post processing PPP mode).</li>
    3077 </ul>
    3078 Having at least this first parameter in each record is mandatory.</li><br>
    3079 <li>Only for static observations from a stationary receiver:<br>Approximate a priori XYZ coordinate [m] of the station's marker; specify '0.0 0.0 0.0' if unknown or when observations come from a mobile receiver.</li><br>
    3080 <li>Nort, East and Up component [m] of antenna eccentricity which is the difference between Antenna Reference Point (ARP) and a nearby marker position; when specifying the antenna eccentricity BNC will produce coordinates referring to the marker position and not referring to ARP; specify '0.0 0.0 0.0' if eccentricity is unknown or the ARP itself is understood as the marker.</li><br>
    3081 <li>Receiver's antenna name as defined in your ANTEX file (see below); Observations will be corrected for the Antenna Phase Center (APC) offsets and variations, which may result in a reduction of a few centimeters at max; the specified name must consist of 20 characters; add trailing blanks if the antenna name has less than 20 characters; examples:<br><pre>
     3157  <li>Input data source, to be specified either through
     3158  <ul>
     3159    <li>the 'Mountpoint' of an RTCM stream (when in real-time PPP mode), or</li>
     3160    <li>the first four characters of the RINEX observations file (when in post processing PPP mode).</li>
     3161  </ul>
     3162  Having at least this first parameter in each record is mandatory.</li><br>
     3163  <li>Only for static observations from a stationary receiver:<br>Approximate a priori XYZ coordinate [m] of the station's marker; specify '0.0 0.0 0.0' if unknown or when observations come from a mobile receiver.</li><br>
     3164  <li>Nort, East and Up component [m] of antenna eccentricity which is the difference between Antenna Reference Point (ARP) and a nearby marker position; when specifying the antenna eccentricity BNC will produce coordinates referring to the marker position and not referring to ARP; specify '0.0 0.0 0.0' if eccentricity is unknown or the ARP itself is understood as the marker.</li><br>
     3165  <li>Receiver's antenna name as defined in your ANTEX file (see below); Observations will be corrected for the Antenna Phase Center (APC) offsets and variations, which may result in a reduction of a few centimeters at max; the specified name must consist of 20 characters; add trailing blanks if the antenna name has less than 20 characters; examples:<br><pre>
    30823166&nbsp; &nbsp;'JPSREGANT_SD_E      ' (no radome)
    30833167&nbsp; &nbsp;'LEIAT504        NONE' (no radome)
    30843168&nbsp; &nbsp;'LEIAR25.R3      LEIT' (radome is LEIT)</pre>
    30853169Leave antenna name blank if you do not want to correct observations for APC offsets and variations or if you do not know the antenna name.</li><br>
    3086 <li>
    3087 Receiver type following the naming convention for IGS equipment as defined in <u>https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr_ant.tab</u>. Specifying the receiver type is only required when saving SINEX Troposphere files. In those files it becomes part of the 'SITE/RECEIVER' specifications, see section 'SNX TRO Directory'.
    3088 </li>
     3170  <li>Receiver type following the naming convention for IGS equipment as defined in <a href="https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr_ant.tab" target="_blank">https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr_ant.tab</a>.
     3171  Specifying the receiver type is only required when saving SINEX Troposphere files. In those files it becomes part of the 'SITE/RECEIVER' specifications, see section
     3172   'SNX TRO Directory'.</li>
    30893173</ul>
    30903174</p>
     
    31513235</p>
    31523236<ul>
    3153 <li> Record 'WTZR0' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate, antenna eccentricity, antenna and radome type and receiver type.</li>
    3154 <li> Record 'CUT07' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate, antenna eccentricity and antenna and radome type. The receiver type is unknown.</li>
    3155 <li> Record 'FFMJ1' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate and antenna eccentricity but unknown antenna, radome and receiver type.</li>
    3156 <li> Record 'TITZ1' describes a stream coming from a stationary receiver where an a priori marker coordinate is known but antenna eccentricity, name and radome and receiver type are unknown.</li>
    3157 <li>The 4-character station ID 'WARN' indicates that a RINEX observations file for post processing PPP is available for station 'WARN' but an a priori marker coordinate as well as antenna eccentricity, name and radome are unknown.</li>
    3158 <li>Record 'SASS1' stands for a mountpoint where the stream comes from a mobile rover receiver. Hence an a priori coordinate is unknown although antenna eccentricity, name and radome and receiver type are known.</li>
    3159 </ul>
    3160 </p>
    3161 
    3162 <p><h4>2.13.1.8 <a name="pppv3filename">Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
     3237  <li> Record 'WTZR0' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate, antenna eccentricity, antenna and radome type and receiver type.</li>
     3238  <li> Record 'CUT07' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate, antenna eccentricity and antenna and radome type. The receiver type is unknown.</li>
     3239  <li> Record 'FFMJ1' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate and antenna eccentricity but unknown antenna, radome and receiver type.</li>
     3240  <li> Record 'TITZ1' describes a stream coming from a stationary receiver where an a priori marker coordinate is known but antenna eccentricity, name and radome and receiver type are unknown.</li>
     3241  <li>The 4-character station ID 'WARN' indicates that a RINEX observations file for post processing PPP is available for station 'WARN' but an a priori marker coordinate as well as antenna eccentricity, name and radome are unknown.</li>
     3242  <li>Record 'SASS1' stands for a mountpoint where the stream comes from a mobile rover receiver. Hence an a priori coordinate is unknown although antenna eccentricity, name and radome and receiver type are known.</li>
     3243</ul>
     3244</p>
     3245
     3246<p><h4 id="pppv3filename">2.13.1.8 Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
    31633247<p>
    31643248Tick 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames for PPP logfiles, NMEA files and SINEX Troposphere files to follow the RINEX Version 3 standard, see section 'RINEX Filenames' for details.
     
    31723256</p>
    31733257<table>
    3174 <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT018671.nmea</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; NMEA filename, suffix 'nmea'</td></tr>
    3175 <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT018671.ppp</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; PPP logfile name, suffix 'ppp'</td></tr>
    3176 <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT018671J30.tro</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; SINEX Troposphere filename, suffix 'tro'</td></tr>
     3258  <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT018671.nmea</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; NMEA filename, suffix 'nmea'</td></tr>
     3259  <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT018671.ppp</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; PPP logfile name, suffix 'ppp'</td></tr>
     3260  <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT018671J30.tro</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; SINEX Troposphere filename, suffix 'tro'</td></tr>
    31773261</table>
    31783262</p>
     
    31813265</p>
    31823266<table>
    3183 <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT000AUS_U_20152920000_01D_01S.nmea</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; NMEA filename, suffix 'nmea'</td></tr>
    3184 <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT000AUS_U_20152920000_01D_01S.ppp</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; PPP logfile name, suffix 'ppp'</td></tr>
    3185 <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT000AUS_U_20152920945_15M_01S.tra</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; SINEX Troposphere filename, suffix 'tra'</td></tr>
     3267  <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT000AUS_U_20152920000_01D_01S.nmea</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; NMEA filename, suffix 'nmea'</td></tr>
     3268  <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT000AUS_U_20152920000_01D_01S.ppp</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; PPP logfile name, suffix 'ppp'</td></tr>
     3269  <tr><td>&nbsp; CUT000AUS_U_20152920945_15M_01S.tra</td><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; SINEX Troposphere filename, suffix 'tra'</td></tr>
    31863270</table>
    31873271</p>
    31883272
    3189 <p><h4>2.13.1.9 <a name="ppplogfile">Logfile Directory - optional</h4></p>
     3273<p><h4 id="ppplogfile">2.13.1.9 Logfile Directory - optional</h4></p>
    31903274<p>
    31913275Essential PPP results are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of BNC's main window. Depending on the processing options, the following values are presented about once per second (example):
     
    33043388 Depending on selected processing options you find 'GPS Time' stamps (yyyy-mm-dd_hh:mm:ss.sss) followed by
    33053389<ul>
    3306 <li>SATNUM: Number of satellites per GNSS,</li>
    3307 <li>RES: Code and phase residuals for contributing GNSS systems in [m]<br>Given per satellite with cIF/lIF for ionosphere-free linear combination of code/phase observations,</li>
    3308 <li>CLK: Receiver clock errors in [m], </li>
    3309 <li>TRP: A priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
    3310 <li>OFFGLO: Time offset between GPS time and GLONASS time in [m],
    3311 <li>OFFGAL: Time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m],
    3312 <li>OFFBDS: Time offset between GPS time and BDS time in [m],
    3313 <li>AMB: L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities'<br>Given per satellite with 'nEpo' = number of epochs since last ambiguity reset,
    3314 <li>MOUNTPOINT: Here 'CUT07' with XYZ position in [m] and dN/dE/dU in [m] for North, East, and Up displacements compared to a priori marker coordinates.</li>
     3390  <li>SATNUM: Number of satellites per GNSS,</li>
     3391  <li>RES: Code and phase residuals for contributing GNSS systems in [m]<br>Given per satellite with cIF/lIF for ionosphere-free linear combination of code/phase observations,</li>
     3392  <li>CLK: Receiver clock errors in [m], </li>
     3393  <li>TRP: A priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
     3394  <li>OFFGLO: Time offset between GPS time and GLONASS time in [m],
     3395  <li>OFFGAL: Time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m],
     3396  <li>OFFBDS: Time offset between GPS time and BDS time in [m],
     3397  <li>AMB: L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities'<br>Given per satellite with 'nEpo' = number of epochs since last ambiguity reset,
     3398  <li>MOUNTPOINT: Here 'CUT07' with XYZ position in [m] and dN/dE/dU in [m] for North, East, and Up displacements compared to a priori marker coordinates.</li>
    33153399</ul>
    33163400Estimated parameters are presented together with their formal errors as derived from the implemented filter. The PPP algorithm includes outlier and cycle slip detection.
    33173401</p>
     3402
    33183403<p>
    33193404Default value for 'Logfile directory' is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want to save daily PPP logfiles on disk. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create PPP logfiles.
    33203405</p>
    33213406
    3322 <p><h4>2.13.1.10 <a name="pppnmeafile">NMEA Directory - optional</h4></p>
     3407<p><h4 id="pppnmeafile">2.13.1.10 NMEA Directory - optional</h4></p>
    33233408<p>
    33243409You can specify a 'NMEA directory' to save daily NMEA files with Point Positioning results recorded as NMEA sentences. Such sentences are usually generated about once per second with pairs of
     
    33263411<p>
    33273412<ul>
    3328 <li> GPGGA sentences which mainly carry the estimated latitude, longitude, and height values, plus</li>
    3329 <li> GPRMC sentences which mainly carry date and time information.</li>
     3413  <li> GPGGA sentences which mainly carry the estimated latitude, longitude, and height values, plus</li>
     3414  <li> GPRMC sentences which mainly carry date and time information.</li>
    33303415</ul>
    33313416</p>
     
    33613446</p>
    33623447
    3363 <p><h4>2.13.1.11 <a name="pppsnxtrofile">SNX TRO Directory - optional</h4></p>
     3448<p><h4 id="pppsnxtrofile">2.13.1.11 SNX TRO Directory - optional</h4></p>
    33643449<p>
    33653450BNC estimates the tropospheric delay according to equation
     
    33713456
    33723457<p>
    3373 You can specify a 'SNX TRO Directory' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk, see <u>https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt</u> for a documentation of the file format. Note that receiver type information for these files must be provided through the coordinates file described in section 'Coordinates file'. The following is an example for a troposphere file content:
     3458You can specify a 'SNX TRO Directory' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk, see <a href="https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt" target="_blank">https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt</a> for a documentation of the file format. Note that receiver type information for these files must be provided through the coordinates file described in section 'Coordinates file'. The following is an example for a troposphere file content:
    33743459</p>
    33753460
     
    34353520</p>
    34363521
    3437 <p><h4>2.13.1.11.1 <a name="pppsnxtrointr">Interval - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
     3522<p><h4 id="pppsnxtrointr">2.13.1.11.1 Interval - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
    34383523<p>
    34393524Select the length of SINEX Troposphere files.
    34403525</p>
     3526
    34413527<p>
    34423528Default 'Interval' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk is '1 day'.
    34433529</p>
    34443530
    3445 <p><h4>2.13.1.11.2 <a name="pppsnxtrosampl">Sampling - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
     3531<p><h4 id="pppsnxtrosampl">2.13.1.11.2 Sampling - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
    34463532<p>
    34473533Select a 'Sampling' rate in seconds for saving troposphere parameters.
     
    34513537</p>
    34523538
    3453 <p><h4>2.13.1.11.3 <a name="pppsnxAc">Analysis Center - Mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
     3539<p><h4 id="pppsnxAc">2.13.1.11.3 Analysis Center - Mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
    34543540<p>
    34553541Specify a 3-character abbreviation describing you as the generating Analysis Center (AC) in your SINEX troposphere files. String 'BKG' is an example.
    34563542</p>
    34573543
    3458 <p><h4>2.13.1.11.4 <a name="pppsnxSol">Solution ID - Mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
     3544<p><h4 id="pppsnxSol">2.13.1.11.4 Solution ID - Mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set</h4></p>
    34593545<p>
    34603546Specify a 4-character solution ID to allow a distingtion between different solutions per AC. String '0001' is an example.
    34613547</p>
    34623548
    3463 <p><h4>2.13.2 <a name="pppStation">PPP (2): Processed Stations</h4></p>
     3549<p><h4 id="pppStation">2.13.2 PPP (2): Processed Stations</h4></p>
    34643550
    34653551<p>
    34663552This panel allows to enter parameters specific to each PPP process or thread. Individual sigmas for a priori coordinates and a noise for coordinate variations over time can be introduced. Furthermore, a sigma for model-based troposphere estimates and the corresponding noise for troposphere variations can be specified. Finally, local IP server ports can be defined for output of NMEA streams carrying PPP results.
    34673553</p>
     3554
    34683555<p>
    34693556BNC offers to create a table with one line per PPP process or thread to specify station-specific parameters. Hit the 'Add Station' button to create the table or add a new line to it. To remove a line from the table, highlight it by clicking it and hit the 'Delete Station' button. You can also remove multiple lines simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift or +Ctrl.</p>
    34703557</p>
     3558
    34713559<p>
    34723560BNC will simultaneously produce PPP solutions for all stations listed in the 'Station' column of this table.
     
    34743562
    34753563<p><img src="IMG/screenshot17.png"/></p>
    3476 <p><u>Figure 23:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 2, using RTKPLOT for visualization</p>
    3477 
    3478 <p><h4>2.13.2.1 <a name="pppsite">Station - mandatory</h4></p>
     3564<p>Figure 23: Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 2, using RTKPLOT for visualization</p>
     3565
     3566<p><h4 id="pppsite">2.13.2.1 Station - mandatory</h4></p>
    34793567<p>
    34803568Hit the 'Add Station' button, double click on the 'Station' field, then specify an observation's mountpoint from the 'Streams' section or introduce the 4-character Station ID of your RINEX observation file and hit Enter. BNC will only produce PPP solutions for stations listed in this table.
    34813569</p>
    34823570
    3483 <p><h4>2.13.2.2 <a name="pppnehsigma">Sigma North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
     3571<p><h4 id="pppnehsigma">2.13.2.2 Sigma North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
    34843572<p>
    34853573Enter sigmas in meters for the initial coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (e.g. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with a well-known position in so-called Quick-Start mode.
    34863574</p>
    34873575
    3488 <p><h4>2.13.2.3 <a name="pppnehnoise">Noise North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
     3576<p><h4 id="pppnehnoise">2.13.2.3 Noise North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
    34893577<p>
    34903578Enter a white 'Noise' in meters for estimated coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be appropriate when considering possible sudden movements of a rover.
    34913579</p>
    34923580
    3493 <p><h4>2.13.2.4 <a name="ppptropsigma">Tropo Sigma - mandatory</h4></p>
     3581<p><h4 id="ppptropsigma">2.13.2.4 Tropo Sigma - mandatory</h4></p>
    34943582<p>
    34953583Enter a sigma in meters for the a priori model based tropospheric delay estimation. A value of 0.1 (default) may be an appropriate choice.
    34963584</p>
    34973585
    3498 <p><h4>2.13.2.5 <a name="ppptropnoise">Tropo Noise - mandatory</h4></p>
     3586<p><h4 id="ppptropnoise">2.13.2.5 Tropo Noise - mandatory</h4></p>
    34993587<p>
    35003588Enter a white 'Noise' in meters per second to describe the expected variation of the tropospheric effect. Supposing 1Hz observation data, a value of 3e-6 (default) would mean that the tropospheric effect may vary for 3600 * 3e-6 = 0.01 meters per hour.
    35013589</p>
    35023590
    3503 <p><h4>2.13.2.6 <a name="pppnmeaport">NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
     3591<p><h4 id="pppnmeaport">2.13.2.6 NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
    35043592Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA sentences. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA sentences via IP port. Note that NMEA file output and NMEA IP port output are the same.
    35053593</p>
    35063594<p>
    3507 Note also that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from <u>http://www.rtklib.com</u> and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
    3508 </p>
    3509 <p>
    3510 Furthermore, NASA's 'World Wind' software (see <u>http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download</u>) can be used for real-time visualization of positions provided through BNC's NMEA IP output port. You need the 'GPS Tracker' plug-in available from <u>http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker</u> for that. The 'Word Wind' map resolution is not meant for showing centimeter level details.
    3511 </p>
    3512 
    3513 <p><h4>2.13.3 <a name="pppOptions">PPP (3): Processing Options</h4></p>
     3595Note also that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from <a href="http://www.rtklib.com" target="_blank">http://www.rtklib.com</a> and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
     3596</p>
     3597<p>
     3598Furthermore, NASA's 'World Wind' software (see <a href="http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download" target="_blank">http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download</a>) can be used for real-time visualization of positions provided through BNC's NMEA IP output port. You need the 'GPS Tracker' plug-in available from <a href="http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker" target="_blank">http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker</a> for that. The 'Word Wind' map resolution is not meant for showing centimeter level details.
     3599</p>
     3600
     3601<p><h4 id="pppOptions">2.13.3 PPP (3): Processing Options</h4></p>
    35143602<p>BNC allows using various Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. You can introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for a priori coordinates and troposphere estimates. You could also carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold.
    35153603</p>
     
    35193607
    35203608<p><img src="IMG/screenshot18.png"/></p>
    3521 <p><u>Figure 24:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 3</p>
    3522 
    3523 <p><h4>2.13.3.1 <a name="ppplinecombi">Linear Combinations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3609<p>Figure 24: Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 3</p>
     3610
     3611<p><h4 id="ppplinecombi">2.13.3.1 Linear Combinations - mandatory</h4></p>
    35243612<p>
    35253613<p>
     
    35283616<p>
    35293617<ul>
    3530 <li>Selecting 'P3' means that you request BNC to use code data and the so-called P3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code observations.</li>
    3531 <li>'L3' means that you request BNC to use phase data and the so-called L3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of phase observations.</li>
    3532 <li>'P3&L3' means that you request BNC to use both, code and phase data and the so-called P3 and L3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code and phase observations.
    3533 </li>
     3618  <li>Selecting 'P3' means that you request BNC to use code data and the so-called P3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code observations.</li>
     3619  <li>'L3' means that you request BNC to use phase data and the so-called L3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of phase observations.</li>
     3620  <li>'P3&L3' means that you request BNC to use both, code and phase data and the so-called P3 and L3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code and phase observations.</li>
    35343621</ul>
    35353622</p>
     
    35393626</p>
    35403627
    3541 <p><h4>2.13.3.2 <a name="pppcodeobs">Code Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    3542 </p>
     3628<p><h4 id="pppcodeobs">2.13.3.2 Code Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3629<p>
    35433630Enter a 'Sigma C1' for C1 code observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of C1 code observations to a PPP solution based on a combination of code and phase data. '2.0' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice.
    35443631</p>
     
    35483635
    35493636
    3550 <p><h4>2.13.3.3 <a name="pppphaseobs">Phase Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3637<p><h4 id="pppphaseobs">2.13.3.3 Phase Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    35513638<p>
    35523639Enter a 'Sigma L1' for L1 phase observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of L1 phase observations to a PPP solutions based on a combination of code and phase data. '0.01' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice.
     
    35593646As the convergence characteristic of a PPP solution can be influenced by the ratio of sigmas for code and phase, you may like to introduce sigmas which differ from the default values.
    35603647<ul>
    3561 <li>Introducing a smaller sigma (higher accuracy) for code observations or a bigger sigma for phase observations leads to better results shortly after program start. However, it may take more time until you finally get the best possible solution.</li>
    3562 <li>Introducing a bigger sigma (lower accuracy) for code observations or a smaller sigma for phase observations may lead to less accurate results shortly after program start and thus a prolonged period of convergence but could provide better positions in the long run.</li>
    3563 </ul>
    3564 </p>
    3565 
    3566 <p><h4>2.13.3.4 <a name="pppeleweight">Elevation Dependent Weighting - mandatory</h4></p>
     3648  <li>Introducing a smaller sigma (higher accuracy) for code observations or a bigger sigma for phase observations leads to better results shortly after program start. However, it may take more time until you finally get the best possible solution.</li>
     3649  <li>Introducing a bigger sigma (lower accuracy) for code observations or a smaller sigma for phase observations may lead to less accurate results shortly after program start and thus a prolonged period of convergence but could provide better positions in the long run.</li>
     3650</ul>
     3651</p>
     3652
     3653<p><h4 id="pppeleweight">2.13.3.4 Elevation Dependent Weighting - mandatory</h4></p>
    35673654<p>
    35683655BNC allows elevation dependent weighting when processing GNSS observations. A weight function
     
    35823669</p>
    35833670
    3584 <p><h4>2.13.3.5 <a name="pppminobs">Minimum Number of Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3671<p><h4 id="pppminobs">2.13.3.5 Minimum Number of Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    35853672<p>
    35863673Select the minimum number of observations you want to use per epoch. The minimum for parameter 'Min # of Obs' is 4. This is also the default.
    35873674</p>
    35883675
    3589 <p><h4>2.13.3.6 <a name="pppmineleva">Minimum Elevation - mandatory</h4></p>
     3676<p><h4 id="pppmineleva">2.13.3.6 Minimum Elevation - mandatory</h4></p>
    35903677<p>
    35913678Select a minimum for satellite elevation angles. Selecting '10 deg' for option 'Min Elevation' may be an appropriate choice.
     
    35953682</p>
    35963683
    3597 <p><h4>2.13.3.7 <a name="pppwaitclockcorr">Wait for Clock Corrections - optional</h4></p>
     3684<p><h4 id="pppwaitclockcorr">2.13.3.7 Wait for Clock Corrections - optional</h4></p>
    35983685<p>
    35993686Specifying 'no' for option 'Wait for clock corr.' means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after its arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. A non-zero value means that epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed until satellite clock corrections not older than 'Wait for clock corr.' seconds are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections (e.g. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate.
     
    36063693</p>
    36073694
    3608 <p><h4>2.13.3.8 <a name="pppseeding">Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates file'</h4></p>
     3695<p><h4 id="pppseeding">2.13.3.8 Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates file'</h4></p>
    36093696<p>
    36103697Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to a known position, see option 'Coordinates file'. Constraining a priori coordinates is done in BNC through setting their white 'Noise' temporarily to zero.
    36113698</p>
    36123699<p>
    3613 This so-called <u>Quick-Start</u> option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the known position throughout the defined period. A value of '60' seconds is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Seeding'. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to start in Quick-Start mode.
     3700This so-called <b>Quick-Start</b> option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the known position throughout the defined period. A value of '60' seconds is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Seeding'. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to start in Quick-Start mode.
    36143701<p>
    36153702You may need to create your own reference coordinate beforehand through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the 'Seeding' option. Do not forget to introduce realistic North/East/Up sigmas under panel 'PPP (2)' corresponding to the coordinate's precision.
     
    36173704
    36183705<p>
    3619 'Seeding' has also a function for <u>bridging gaps</u> in PPP solutions from failures caused e.g. by longer lasting outages. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed the limit of 60 seconds (maximum solution gap, hard-wired), the algorithm fixes the latest derived coordinate for a period of 'Seeding' seconds. This option avoids time-consuming reconvergences and makes especially sense for stationary operated receivers where convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the receiver position is known.
     3706'Seeding' has also a function for <b>bridging gaps</b> in PPP solutions from failures caused e.g. by longer lasting
     3707outages. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed the limit of 60 seconds (maximum solution gap,
     3708 hard-wired), the algorithm fixes the latest derived coordinate for a period of 'Seeding' seconds. This option avoids
     3709 time-consuming reconvergences and makes especially sense for stationary operated receivers where convergence can be
     3710 enforced because a good approximation for the receiver position is known.
    36203711</p>
    36213712
     
    36253716
    36263717<p><img src="IMG/screenshot22.png"/></p>
    3627 <p><u>Figure 25:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode, PPP Panel 4</p>
    3628 
    3629 <p><h4>2.13.4 <a name="pppPlots">PPP (4): Plots</h4></p>
    3630 <p>
    3631 This panel presents options for visualizing PPP results as a time series plot or as a track map with PPP tracks on top of OSM or Google maps.
    3632 </p>
    3633 
    3634 <p><h4>2.13.4.1 <a name="ppptimeseries">PPP Plot - optional</h4></p>
    3635 <p>
    3636 PPP time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) displacements will be plotted under the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' is specified. Values will be referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified, see 'Coordinates file'). The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes.
     3718<p>Figure 25: Precise Point Positioning with BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode, PPP Panel 4</p>
     3719
     3720<p><h4 id="pppPlots">2.13.4 PPP (4): Plots</h4></p>
     3721<p>
     3722This panel presents options for visualizing PPP results as a time series plot or as a track map with PPP tracks on top
     3723of OSM or Google maps.
     3724</p>
     3725
     3726<p><h4 id="ppptimeseries">2.13.4.1 PPP Plot - optional</h4></p>
     3727<p>
     3728PPP time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) displacements will be plotted under the 'PPP Plot' tab when
     3729 a 'Mountpoint' is specified. Values will be referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified, see
     3730 'Coordinates file'). The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes.
    36373731</p>
    36383732<p>
     
    36403734</p>
    36413735
    3642 <p><h4>2.13.4.2 <a name="pppaudioresp">Audio Response - optional</h4></p>
    3643 <p>
    3644 For natural hazard prediction and monitoring landslides, it may be appropriate to generate audio alerts. For that you can specify an 'Audio response' threshold in meters. A beep is produced by BNC whenever a horizontal PPP coordinate component differs by more than the threshold value from the specified marker coordinate.
     3736<p><h4 id="pppaudioresp">2.13.4.2 Audio Response - optional</h4></p>
     3737<p>
     3738For natural hazard prediction and monitoring landslides, it may be appropriate to generate audio alerts. For that
     3739you can specify an 'Audio response' threshold in meters. A beep is produced by BNC whenever a horizontal PPP coordinate
     3740 component differs by more than the threshold value from the specified marker coordinate.
    36453741</p>
    36463742<p>
     
    36483744</p>
    36493745
    3650 <p><h4>2.13.4.3 <a name="ppptrackmap">Track Map - optional</h4></p>
    3651 <p>
    3652 You may like to track your rover position using Google Maps or OpenStreetMap as a background map. Track maps can be produced with BNC in 'Real-time Streams' mode or in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode with data coming from files.
    3653 </p>
    3654 <p>
    3655 Even when in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode, you should not forget to go online with your host and specify a proxy under the 'Network' panel if that is operated in front of BNC.
     3746<p><h4 id="ppptrackmap">2.13.4.3 Track Map - optional</h4></p>
     3747<p>
     3748You may like to track your rover position using Google Maps or OpenStreetMap as a background map. Track maps can be
     3749produced with BNC in 'Real-time Streams' mode or in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode with data coming from files.
     3750</p>
     3751<p>
     3752Even when in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode, you should not forget to go online with your host and specify a
     3753proxy under the 'Network' panel if that is operated in front of BNC.
    36563754</p>
    36573755<p>
     
    36603758
    36613759<p><img src="IMG/screenshot32.png"/></p>
    3662 <p><u>Figure 26:</u> Track of positions from BNC with Google Maps in background</p>
    3663 
    3664 <p><h4>2.13.4.3.1 <a name="pppmaptype">Google/OSM - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3760<p>Figure 26: Track of positions from BNC with Google Maps in background</p>
     3761
     3762<p><h4 id="pppmaptype">2.13.4.3.1 Google/OSM - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    36653763<p>
    36663764Select either 'Google' or 'OSM' as the background map for your rover positions.
     
    36683766
    36693767<p><img src="IMG/screenshot41.png"/></p>
    3670 <p><u>Figure 27:</u> Example for background map from Google Maps and OpenStreetMap (OSM)</p>
    3671 
    3672 <p><h4>2.13.4.4 <a name="pppdotprop">Dot-properties - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3768<p>Figure 27: Example for background map from Google Maps and OpenStreetMap (OSM)</p>
     3769
     3770<p><h4 id="pppdotprop">2.13.4.4 Dot-properties - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    36733771<p>
    36743772PPP tracks are presented on maps through plotting one colored dot per observation epoch.
    36753773</p>
    36763774
    3677 <p><h4>2.13.4.4.1 <a name="pppdotsize">Size - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    3678 <p>
    3679 Specify the size of dots showing the rover position. A dot size of '3' may be appropriate. The maximum possible dot size is '10'. An empty option field or a size of '0' would mean that you do not want BNC to show the rover's track on the map.
    3680 </p>
    3681 
    3682 <p><h4>2.13.4.4.2 <a name="pppdotcolor">Color - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3775<p><h4 id="pppdotsize">2.13.4.4.1 Size - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3776<p>
     3777Specify the size of dots showing the rover position. A dot size of '3' may be appropriate. The maximum possible dot
     3778size is '10'. An empty option field or a size of '0' would mean that you do not want BNC to show the rover's track
     3779on the map.
     3780</p>
     3781
     3782<p><h4 id="pppdotcolor">2.13.4.4.2 Color - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    36833783<p>
    36843784Select the color of dots showing the rover track.
    36853785</p>
    36863786
    3687 <p><h4>2.13.4.5 <a name="pppspeed">Post Processing Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    3688 <p>
    3689 With BNC in PPP 'RINEX File' post processing mode, you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations.
    3690 </p>
    3691 
    3692 <p><h4>2.14 <a name="combi">Combine Corrections</h4></p>
    3693 <p>
    3694 BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined by BNC while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference imposes the potential to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach.
    3695 </p>
    3696 <p>
    3697 In the Kalman Filter approach, satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction, which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters affected by white noise.
    3698 </p>
    3699 <p>
    3700 The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints. In case of a change of the 'SSR Provider ID', 'SSR Solution ID', or 'IOD SSR' (see section 'Upload Corrections'), the satellite clock offsets belonging to the corresponding analysis center are reset in the adjustment.
    3701 </p>
     3787<p><h4 id="pppspeed">2.13.4.5 Post Processing Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3788<p>
     3789With BNC in PPP 'RINEX File' post processing mode, you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for
     3790visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations.
     3791</p>
     3792
     3793<p><h4 id="combi">2.14 Combine Corrections</h4></p>
     3794<p>
     3795BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a
     3796combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite
     3797Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined by BNC while orbit
     3798corrections in the combination product as well as product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming
     3799Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference imposes the potential
     3800to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach.
     3801The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach.
     3802</p>
     3803
     3804<p>
     3805In the Kalman Filter approach, satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo
     3806observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum)
     3807of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite
     3808 clock correction, which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical
     3809  properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific
     3810  offsets are stochastic parameters affected by white noise.
     3811</p>
     3812
     3813<p>
     3814The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints. In case of a change of the 'SSR Provider ID',
     3815'SSR Solution ID', or 'IOD SSR' (see section 'Upload Corrections'), the satellite clock offsets belonging to the
     3816corresponding analysis center are reset in the adjustment.
     3817</p>
     3818
    37023819<p>
    37033820Removing the AC-dependent biases as well as possible is a major issue with clock combinations. Since they vary in time, it can be tricky to do this. Otherwise, there will be artificial jumps in the combined clock stream if one or more AC contributions drop out for certain epochs. Here the Kalman Filter approach is expected to do better than the Single-Epoch approach.
     
    37063823In view of IGS real-time products, the 'Combine Corrections' functionality has been integrated in BNC (Weber and Mervart 2010) because
    37073824<ul>
    3708 <li>The software with its Graphic User Interface and range of supported Operating Systems represents a perfect platform to process many Broadcast Correction streams in parallel;</li>
    3709 <li>Outages of single AC product streams can be mitigated through merging several incoming streams into a combined product;</li>
    3710 <li>Generating a combination product from several AC products allows detecting and rejecting outliers;</li>
    3711 <li>A Combination Center (CC) can operate BNC to globally disseminate a combination product via Ntrip broadcast;</li>
    3712 <li>An individual AC could prefer to disseminate a stream combined from primary and backup IT resources to reduce outages;</li>
    3713 <li>It enables a BNC PPP user to follow his own preference in combining streams from individual ACs for Precise Point Positioning;</li>
    3714 <li>It allows an instantaneous quality control of the combination process not only in the time domain but also in the space domain; this can be done by direct application of the combined stream in a PPP solution even without prior upload to an Ntrip Broadcaster;</li>
    3715 <li>It provides the means to output SP3 and Clock RINEX files containing precise orbit and clock information for further processing using other tools than BNC.</li>
    3716 </ul>
    3717 </p>
    3718 <p>
    3719 Note that the combination process requires real-time access to Broadcast Ephemeris. Therefore, in addition to the orbit and clock correction streams BNC must pull a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 messages. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster <u>products.igs-ip.net</u> is an example for that. Note further that BNC will ignore incorrect or outdated Broadcast Ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
     3825  <li>The software with its Graphic User Interface and range of supported Operating Systems represents a perfect platform to process many Broadcast Correction streams in parallel;</li>
     3826  <li>Outages of single AC product streams can be mitigated through merging several incoming streams into a combined product;</li>
     3827  <li>Generating a combination product from several AC products allows detecting and rejecting outliers;</li>
     3828  <li>A Combination Center (CC) can operate BNC to globally disseminate a combination product via Ntrip broadcast;</li>
     3829  <li>An individual AC could prefer to disseminate a stream combined from primary and backup IT resources to reduce outages;</li>
     3830  <li>It enables a BNC PPP user to follow his own preference in combining streams from individual ACs for Precise Point Positioning;</li>
     3831  <li>It allows an instantaneous quality control of the combination process not only in the time domain but also in the space domain; this can be done by direct application of the combined stream in a PPP solution even without prior upload to an Ntrip Broadcaster;</li>
     3832  <li>It provides the means to output SP3 and Clock RINEX files containing precise orbit and clock information for further processing using other tools than BNC.</li>
     3833</ul>
     3834</p>
     3835
     3836<p>
     3837Note that the combination process requires real-time access to Broadcast Ephemeris. Therefore, in addition to the orbit
     3838 and clock correction streams BNC must pull a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 messages.
     3839 Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster <a href="http://products.igs-ip.net" target="_blank">http://products.igs-ip.net</a> is an example for that. Note further that BNC will ignore incorrect
     3840 or outdated Broadcast Ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
    37203841</p>
    37213842
     
    37313852</p>
    37323853<p>
    3733 The following recursive algorithm is used to detect orbit outliers in the Kalman Filter combination when Broadcast Corrections are provided by several ACs:
    3734 <br>
    3735 Step 1: We do not produce a combination for a certain satellite if only one AC provides corrections for it.
    3736 <br>
    3737 Step 2: A mean satellite position is calculated as the average of positions from all ACs.
    3738 <br>
    3739 Step 3: For each AC and satellite, the 3D distance between individual and mean satellite position is calculated.
    3740 <br>
    3741 Step 4: We find the greatest difference between AC specific and mean satellite positions.
    3742 <br>
    3743 Step 5: If that is less than a threshold, the conclusion is that we do not have an outlier and can proceed to the next epoch.
    3744 <br>
     3854The following recursive algorithm is used to detect orbit outliers in the Kalman Filter combination when Broadcast Corrections are provided by several ACs:<br>
     3855Step 1: We do not produce a combination for a certain satellite if only one AC provides corrections for it.<br>
     3856Step 2: A mean satellite position is calculated as the average of positions from all ACs.<br>
     3857Step 3: For each AC and satellite, the 3D distance between individual and mean satellite position is calculated.<br>
     3858Step 4: We find the greatest difference between AC specific and mean satellite positions.<br>
     3859Step 5: If that is less than a threshold, the conclusion is that we do not have an outlier and can proceed to the next epoch.<br>
    37453860Step 6: If that is greater than a threshold, then corrections of the affiliated AC are ignored for the affected epoch and the outlier detection restarts with step 1.
    37463861</p>
     3862
    37473863<p>
    37483864The following screenshot shows an example setup of BNC when combining Broadcast Correction streams CLK11, CLK21, CLK91, and CLK80.
     
    37503866
    37513867<p><img src="IMG/screenshot20.png"/></p>
    3752 <p><u>Figure 28:</u> BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</p>
     3868<p>Figure 28: BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams</p>
    37533869<p></p>
    37543870<p>
    37553871Note that BNC can produce an internal PPP solution from combined Broadcast Corrections. For that you have to specify the keyword 'INTERNAL' as 'Corrections stream' in the PPP (1) panel. The following example combines correction streams IGS01 and IGS02 and simultaneously carries out a PPP solution with observations from stream FFMJ1 to allow monitoring the quality of the combination product in the space domain.
    37563872</p>
     3873
    37573874<p><img src="IMG/screenshot23.png"/></p>
    3758 <p><u>Figure 29:</u> 'INTERNAL' PPP with BNC using a combination of Broadcast Corrections</p>
    3759 
    3760 <p><h4>2.14.1 <a name="combimounttab">Combine Corrections Table - optional</h4></p>
     3875<p>Figure 29: 'INTERNAL' PPP with BNC using a combination of Broadcast Corrections</p>
     3876
     3877<p><h4 id="combimounttab">2.14.1 Combine Corrections Table - optional</h4></p>
    37613878<p>
    37623879Hit the 'Add Row' button, double click on the 'Mountpoint' field, enter a Broadcast Correction mountpoint from the 'Streams' section and hit Enter. Then double click on the 'AC Name' field to enter your choice of an abbreviation for the Analysis Center (AC) providing the Antenna Phase Center (APC) related correction stream. Finally, double click on the 'Weight' field to enter a weight to be applied to this stream in the combination.
    37633880</p>
     3881
    37643882<p>
    37653883The sequence of entries in the 'Combine Corrections' table is not of importance. Note that the orbit information in the final combination stream is just copied from one of the incoming streams. The stream used for providing the orbits may vary over time: if the orbit-providing stream has an outage then BNC switches to the next remaining stream for getting hold of the orbit information.</p>
     
    37673885It is possible to specify only one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream in the 'Combine Corrections' table. Instead of combining corrections from several sources, BNC will then merge the single corrections stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to allow saving results in SP3 and/or Clock RINEX format when specified accordingly under the 'Upload Corrections' panel. Note that in such a BNC application you must not pull more than one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream even if a second stream would provide the same corrections from a backup caster.
    37683886</p>
     3887
    37693888<p>
    37703889Default is an empty 'Combine Corrections' table, meaning that you do not want BNC to combine orbit and clock correction streams.
    37713890</p>
    37723891
    3773 <p><h4>2.14.1.1 <a name="combiadd">Add Row, Delete - optional</h4></p>
     3892<p><h4 id="combiadd">2.14.1.1 Add Row, Delete - optional</h4></p>
    37743893<p>
    37753894Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the 'Combine Corrections' table or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
    37763895</p>
    37773896
    3778 <p><h4>2.14.1.2 <a name="combimethod">Method - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     3897<p><h4 id="combimethod">2.14.1.2 Method - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
    37793898<p>
    37803899Select a clock combination method. Available options are Kalman 'Filter' and 'Single-Epoch. It is suggested to use the Kalman Filter approach in case the combined stream of Broadcast Corrections is intended for Precise Point Positioning.
    37813900</p>
    37823901
    3783 <p><h4>2.14.1.3 <a name="combimax">Maximal Residuum - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     3902<p><h4 id="combimax">2.14.1.3 Maximal Residuum - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
    37843903
    37853904<p>BNC combines all incoming clocks according to specified weights. Individual clock estimates that differ by more than 'Maximal Residuum' meters from the average of all clocks will be ignored.<p>
     
    37873906<p>Default is a 'Maximal Residuum' of 999.0 meters.</p>
    37883907
    3789 <p><h4>2.14.1.4 <a name="combismpl">Sampling - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     3908<p><h4 id="combismpl">2.14.1.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
    37903909<p>Specify a combination sampling interval. Orbit and clock corrections will be produced following that interval. A value of 10 sec may be an appropriate choice.</p>
    37913910
    3792 <p><h4>2.14.1.5 <a name="combiGLO">Use GLONASS - optional</h4></p>
     3911<p><h4 id="combiGLO">2.14.1.5 Use GLONASS - optional</h4></p>
    37933912<p>
    37943913You may tick the 'Use GLONASS' option in case you want to produce a GPS plus GLONASS combination and both systems are supported by the Broadcast Correction streams participating in the combination.
    37953914</p>
    37963915
    3797 <p><h4>2.15 <a name="upclk">Upload Corrections</h4></p>
    3798 <p>
    3799 BNC can upload streams carrying orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in radial, along-track and out-of-plane components if they are<ol type=a>
    3800 <li>
    3801 either generated by BNC as a combination of several individual Broadcast Correction streams coming from an number of real-time Analysis Centers (ACs), see section 'Combine Corrections',</li>
    3802 <li>
    3803 or generated by BNC while the program receives an ASCII stream of precise satellite orbits and clocks via IP port from a connected real-time GNSS engine. Such a stream would be expected in a plain ASCII format and the associated 'decoder' string would have to be 'RTNET', see format description below. </li>
     3916<p><h4 id="upclk">2.15 Upload Corrections</h4></p>
     3917<p>
     3918BNC can upload streams carrying orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in radial, along-track and out-of-plane components if they are
     3919<ol type="a">
     3920  <li>either generated by BNC as a combination of several individual Broadcast Correction streams coming from an number of real-time Analysis Centers (ACs), see section 'Combine Corrections',</li>
     3921  <li>or generated by BNC while the program receives an ASCII stream of precise satellite orbits and clocks via IP port from a connected real-time GNSS engine. Such a stream would be expected in a plain ASCII format and the associated 'decoder' string would have to be 'RTNET', see format description below. </li>
    38043922</ol>
    38053923The procedure taken by BNC to generate the orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and upload them to an Ntrip Broadcaster is as follow:
    38063924<ul>
    3807 <li>Continuously receive up-to-date Broadcast Ephemeris carrying approximate orbits and clocks for all satellites. Read new Broadcast Ephemeris immediately whenever they become available. This information may come via a stream of RTCM messages generated from another BNC instance.</li>
     3925  <li>Continuously receive up-to-date Broadcast Ephemeris carrying approximate orbits and clocks for all satellites. Read new Broadcast Ephemeris immediately whenever they become available. This information may come via a stream of RTCM messages generated from another BNC instance.</li>
    38083926</ul>
    38093927Then, epoch by epoch:
    38103928<ul>
    3811 <li>Continuously receive the best available orbit and clock estimates for all satellites in XYZ Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed IGS14 reference system. Receive them every epoch in plain ASCII format as provided by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNET or generate them following a combination approach. </li>
    3812 <li>Calculate XYZ coordinates from Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. </li>
    3813 <li>Calculate differences dX,dY,dZ between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS14 orbits. </li>
    3814 <li>Transform these differences into radial, along-track and out-of-plane corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. </li>
    3815 <li>Calculate corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris clocks as differences between Broadcast Ephemeris clocks and IGS14 clocks. </li>
    3816 <li>Encode Broadcast Ephemeris orbit and clock corrections in RTCM Version 3 format. </li>
    3817 <li>Upload Broadcast Correction stream to Ntrip Broadcaster. </li>
     3929  <li>Continuously receive the best available orbit and clock estimates for all satellites in XYZ Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed IGS14 reference system. Receive them every epoch in plain ASCII format as provided by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNET or generate them following a combination approach. </li>
     3930  <li>Calculate XYZ coordinates from Broadcast Ephemeris orbits.</li>
     3931  <li>Calculate differences dX,dY,dZ between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS14 orbits.</li>
     3932  <li>Transform these differences into radial, along-track and out-of-plane corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris orbits.</li>
     3933  <li>Calculate corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris clocks as differences between Broadcast Ephemeris clocks and IGS14 clocks.</li>
     3934  <li>Encode Broadcast Ephemeris orbit and clock corrections in RTCM Version 3 format.</li>
     3935  <li>Upload Broadcast Correction stream to Ntrip Broadcaster.</li>
    38183936</ul>
    38193937<p>
    38203938The orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris are usually referred to the latest set of broadcast messages, which are generally also received in real-time by a GNSS rover. However, the use of the latest broadcast message is delayed for a period of 60 seconds, measured from the time of complete reception of ephemeris and clock parameters, in order to accommodate rover applications to obtain the same set of broadcast orbital and clock parameters. This procedure is recommended in the RTCM SSR standard.
    38213939</p>
    3822 </p>
     3940
     3941<p>
    38233942Because the stream delivery process may put a significant load on the communication link between BNC and the real-time GNSS engine, it is recommended to run both programs on the same host. However, doing so is not compulsory.
    38243943</p>
     
    38263945The usual handling of BNC when uploading a stream with Broadcast Corrections is that you first specify Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Correction streams. You then specify an Ntrip Broadcaster for stream upload before you start the program.
    38273946</p>
     3947
    38283948<p>
    38293949<u>'RTNET' Stream Format</u><br>
     
    38333953Below you find an example for the 'RTNET' ASCII format coming from a real-time GNSS engine. Each epoch begins with an asterisk character followed by the time as year, month, day of month, hour, minute and second. Subsequent records can provide
    38343954</p>
    3835 <p>
    3836 <ul>
    3837 <li>Satellite specific parameters </li>
    3838 </ul>
    3839 </p>
     3955
     3956<p>
     3957<ul>
     3958  <li>Satellite specific parameters </li>
     3959</ul>
     3960</p>
     3961
    38403962<p>
    38413963A set of parameters can be defined for each satellite as follows:
     
    38463968The following satellite specific keys and values are currently specified for that in BNC:<br><br>
    38473969<table>
    3848 <tr><td><i>Key&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</i></td><td><i>Values</i></td></tr>
    3849 <tr><td>APC</td><td>Satellite Antenna Phase Center coordinates in meters</td></tr>
    3850 <tr><td>Clk</td><td>Satellite clock correction in meters, relativistic correction applied like in broadcast clocks</td></tr>
    3851 <tr><td>Vel</td><td>Satellite velocity in meters per second</td></tr>
    3852 <tr><td>CoM</td><td>Satellite Center of Mass coordinates in meters</td></tr>
    3853 <tr><td>CodeBias</td><td>Satellite Code Biases in meters with two characters for frequency and tracking mode per bias as defined in RINEX 3 and preceded by total number of biases</td></tr>
    3854 <tr><td>YawAngle</td><td>Satellite Yaw Angle in radian, restricted to be in [0, 2&#960] which shall be used for the computation of phase wind-up correction</td></tr>
    3855 <tr><td>YawRate</td><td>Satellite Yaw Rate in radian per second which is the rate of Yaw Angle</td></tr>
    3856 <tr><td>PhaseBias</td><td>Satellite Phase Biases in meters with two characters for frequency and tracking mode per bias as defined in RINEX 3, preceded by total number of biases and followed by Signal Integer Indicator, Signals Wilde-Lane Integer Indicator as well as Signal Discontinuity Counter</td></tr>
     3970  <tr><td><i>Key&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</i></td><td><i>Values</i></td></tr>
     3971  <tr><td>APC</td><td>Satellite Antenna Phase Center coordinates in meters</td></tr>
     3972  <tr><td>Clk</td><td>Satellite clock correction in meters, relativistic correction applied like in broadcast clocks</td></tr>
     3973  <tr><td>Vel</td><td>Satellite velocity in meters per second</td></tr>
     3974  <tr><td>CoM</td><td>Satellite Center of Mass coordinates in meters</td></tr>
     3975  <tr><td>CodeBias</td><td>Satellite Code Biases in meters with two characters for frequency and tracking mode per bias as defined in RINEX 3 and preceded by total number of biases</td></tr>
     3976  <tr><td>YawAngle</td><td>Satellite Yaw Angle in radian, restricted to be in [0, 2&#960] which shall be used for the computation of phase wind-up correction</td></tr>
     3977  <tr><td>YawRate</td><td>Satellite Yaw Rate in radian per second which is the rate of Yaw Angle</td></tr>
     3978  <tr><td>PhaseBias</td><td>Satellite Phase Biases in meters with two characters for frequency and tracking mode per bias as defined in RINEX 3, preceded by total number of biases and followed by Signal Integer Indicator, Signals Wilde-Lane Integer Indicator as well as Signal Discontinuity Counter</td></tr>
    38573979</table>
    38583980<p>
    38593981<ul>
    3860 <li> Non-satellite specific parameters
     3982  <li> Non-satellite specific parameters
    38613983</ul>
    38623984</p>
     
    38683990&nbsp;
    38693991</pre>
     3992
    38703993<p>
    38713994</ul>
    38723995The following non-satellite specific keys and values are currently specified in BNC:<br><br>
    38733996<table>
    3874 <tr><td><i>Key&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</i></td><td><i>Values</i></td></tr>
    3875 <tr><td>IND</td><td>Stands for phase bias information and is followed by Dispersive Bias Consistency Indicator and MW Consistency Indicator</td></tr>
    3876 <tr><td>VTEC</td><td>Stands for Vertical TEC information and is followed by Update Interval and Number of Ionospheric Layers</td></tr>
     3997  <tr><td><i>Key&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</i></td><td><i>Values</i></td></tr>
     3998  <tr><td>IND</td><td>Stands for phase bias information and is followed by Dispersive Bias Consistency Indicator and MW Consistency Indicator</td></tr>
     3999  <tr><td>VTEC</td><td>Stands for Vertical TEC information and is followed by Update Interval and Number of Ionospheric Layers</td></tr>
    38774000</table>
    38784001<br>
    38794002If key VTEC is specified, a data set for each layer contains within its first line the Layers Number, followed by Maximum Degree, Maximum Order and Layer Height. After that, Cosine and Sinus Spherical Harmonic Coefficients will follow, one block each.
    38804003</p>
     4004
    38814005<p>
    38824006Because each keyword is associated to a certain number of values, an 'old' BNC could be operated with an incoming 'new' RTNET stream containing so far unknown keys - they would just be skipped in BNC.
    38834007</p>
     4008
    38844009<p>
    38854010Example for 'RTNET' stream content and format:
    38864011</p>
     4012
    38874013<p>
    38884014<pre>
     
    39054031</pre>
    39064032</p>
     4033
    39074034<p>
    39084035Note that the end of an epoch in the incoming stream is indicated by an ASCII string 'EOE' (for End Of Epoch).
    39094036</p>
     4037
    39104038<p>
    39114039When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as
     
    39164044</p>
    39174045
    3918 <p><h4>2.15.1 <a name="upadd">Add, Delete Row - optional</h4></p>
     4046<p><h4 id="upadd">2.15.1 Add, Delete Row - optional</h4></p>
    39194047<p>Hit 'Add Row' button to add a row to the stream 'Upload Table' or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
    39204048</p>
     4049
    39214050<p>
    39224051Having an empty 'Upload Table' is default and means that you do not want BNC to upload orbit and clock correction streams to any Ntrip Broadcaster.
    39234052</p>
    39244053
    3925 <p><h4>2.15.2 <a name="uphost">Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password - optional</h4></p>
     4054<p><h4 id="uphost">2.15.2 Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password - optional</h4></p>
    39264055
    39274056<p>Specify the domain name or IP number of an Ntrip Broadcaster for uploading the stream. Furthermore, specify the caster's listening IP port, an upload mountpoint and an upload password. Note that Ntrip Broadcasters are often configured to provide access through more than one port, usually ports 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s).
    39284057</p>
     4058
    39294059<p>
    39304060BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a 4-character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
     
    39344064</p>
    39354065
    3936 <p><h4>2.15.3 <a name="upsystem">System - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
     4066<p><h4 id="upsystem">2.15.3 System - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    39374067<p>
    39384068BNC allows configuring several Broadcast Correction streams for upload so that they refer to different reference systems and different Ntrip Broadcasters. You may use this functionality for parallel support of a backup Ntrip Broadcaster or for simultaneous support of various regional reference systems. Available options for transforming orbit and clock corrections to specific target reference systems are
    39394069<p>
    39404070<ul>
    3941 <li>IGS14 which stands for the GNSS-based IGS realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (ITRF2014), and</li>
    3942 <li>ETRF2000 which stands for the European Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 adopted by EUREF, and</li>
    3943 <li>NAD83 which stands for the North American Datum 1983 as adopted for the U.S.A., and</li>
    3944 <li>GDA2020 which stands for the Geodetic Datum Australia 2020 as adopted for Australia, and</li>
    3945 <li>SIRGAS2000 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Brazil, and</li>
    3946 <li>DREF91 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Germany, and</li>
    3947 <li>'Custom' which allows a transformation of Broadcast Corrections from the IGS14 system to any other system through specifying up to 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters.</li>
     4071  <li>IGS14 which stands for the GNSS-based IGS realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (ITRF2014), and</li>
     4072  <li>ETRF2000 which stands for the European Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 adopted by EUREF, and</li>
     4073  <li>NAD83 which stands for the North American Datum 1983 as adopted for the U.S.A., and</li>
     4074  <li>GDA2020 which stands for the Geodetic Datum Australia 2020 as adopted for Australia, and</li>
     4075  <li>SIRGAS2000 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Brazil, and</li>
     4076  <li>DREF91 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Germany, and</li>
     4077  <li>'Custom' which allows a transformation of Broadcast Corrections from the IGS14 system to any other system through specifying up to 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters.</li>
    39484078</ul>
    39494079</p>
     
    39584088where s is the transformation scale, c is the speed of light, and &rho; are the topocentric distance between an (approximate) center of the transformation's validity area and the satellite.
    39594089</p>
     4090
    39604091<p>
    39614092From a theoretical point of view, this kind of approximation leads to inconsistencies between orbits and clocks and is therefore not allowed (Huisman et al. 2012). However, it has been proved that resulting errors in Precise Point Positioning are on millimeter level for horizontal components and below one centimeter for height components.
     
    39634094
    39644095<p>
    3965 <u>IGS14:</u> As the orbits and clocks coming from real-time GNSS engine are expected to be in the IGS14 system, no transformation is carried out if this option is selected.
    3966 </p>
    3967 
    3968 <p>
    3969 <u>ETRF2000:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;ETRF2000' are taken from 'Claude Boucher and Zuheir Altamimi 2008: Specifications for reference frame fixing in the analysis of EUREF GPS campaign', see <u>http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr/memo-V8.pdf</u>. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced:
     4096<b>IGS14:</b> As the orbits and clocks coming from real-time GNSS engine are expected to be in the IGS14 system, no transformation is carried out if this option is selected.
     4097</p>
     4098
     4099<p>
     4100<b>ETRF2000:</b> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;ETRF2000' are taken from 'Claude Boucher and Zuheir Altamimi 2008: Specifications for reference frame fixing in the analysis of EUREF GPS campaign', see <u>http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr/memo-V8.pdf</u>. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced:
    39704101</p>
    39714102<p>
     
    39914122
    39924123<p>
    3993 <u>NAD83:</u> Formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;NAD83' are taken from 'Chris Pearson, Richard Snay 2013: Introducing HTDP 3.1 to transform coordinates across time and spatial reference frames', GPS Solutions, January 2013, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 1-15.
     4124<b>NAD83:</b> Formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008-&gt;NAD83' are taken from 'Chris Pearson, Richard Snay 2013: Introducing HTDP 3.1 to transform coordinates across time and spatial reference frames', GPS Solutions, January 2013, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 1-15.
    39944125</p>
    39954126<p>
     
    40154146
    40164147<p>
    4017 <u>GDA2020:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2014-&gt;GDA2020' were provided via personal communication from Ryan Ruddick: 'Geocentric Datum of Australia 2020, Interim Release Note Version 1.01, Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), Permanent Committee on Geodesy (PCG), 03 March 2017'.
     4148<b>GDA2020:</b> The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2014-&gt;GDA2020' were provided via personal communication from Ryan Ruddick: 'Geocentric Datum of Australia 2020, Interim Release Note Version 1.01, Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), Permanent Committee on Geodesy (PCG), 03 March 2017'.
    40184149</p>
    40194150<p>
     
    40384169
    40394170<p>
    4040 <u>SIRGAS2000:</u> The formulas for the transformation 'IGb14-&gt;SIRGAS2000' were provided via personal communication from CGED-Coordenacao de Geodesia, IBGE/DGC - Diretoria de Geociencias, Brazil.</u>.
     4171<b>SIRGAS2000:</b> The formulas for the transformation 'IGb14-&gt;SIRGAS2000' were provided via personal communication from CGED-Coordenacao de Geodesia, IBGE/DGC - Diretoria de Geociencias, Brazil.</u>.
    40414172</p>
    40424173<p>
     
    40614192
    40624193<p>
    4063 <u>DREF91:</u> 'Referenzkoordinaten fuer SAPOS, Empfehlungen der Projektgruppe SAPOS-Koordinatenmonitoring 2008', Personal communication with Peter Franke, BKG, Germany. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced:
     4194<b>DREF91:</b> 'Referenzkoordinaten fuer SAPOS, Empfehlungen der Projektgruppe SAPOS-Koordinatenmonitoring 2008', Personal communication with Peter Franke, BKG, Germany. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced:
    40644195</p>
    40654196<p>
     
    40854216
    40864217<p>
    4087 <u>Custom:</u> Feel free to specify your own 14 Helmert Transformation parameters for transformations from IGS14/ITRF2014 into your own target system.
     4218<b>Custom:</b> Feel free to specify your own 14 Helmert Transformation parameters for transformations from IGS14/ITRF2014 into your own target system.
    40884219</p>
    40894220
    40904221<p><img src="IMG/screenshot38.png"/></p>
    4091 <p><u>Figure 30:</u> Setting BNC's Custom Transformation Parameters window, example for 'ITRF2014->GDA94'</p>
    4092 
    4093 <p><h4>2.15.4 <a name="upcom">Center of Mass - optional</h4></p>
     4222<p>Figure 30: Setting BNC's Custom Transformation Parameters window, example for 'ITRF2014->GDA94'</p>
     4223
     4224<p><h4 id="upcom">2.15.4 Center of Mass - optional</h4></p>
    40944225<p>
    40954226BNC allows to either refer Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default, corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM.
    40964227</p>
    40974228
    4098 <p><h4>2.15.5 <a name="upsp3">SP3 File - optional</h4></p>
     4229<p><h4 id="upsp3">2.15.5  SP3 File - optional</h4></p>
    40994230<p>Specify a path for saving the generated orbit corrections as SP3 orbit files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create SP3 orbit files. The following is a path example for a Linux system:
    41004231
     
    41074238Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to save the uploaded stream content in daily SP3 files.
    41084239</p>
     4240
    41094241<p>
    41104242As a SP3 file content should be referred to the satellites' Center of Mass (CoM) while Broadcast Corrections are referred to the satellites' APC, an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see option 'ANTEX File' below). Hence, you should specify the 'ANTEX File' path there if you want to save the stream content in SP3 format. If you do not specify an 'ANTEX File' path, the SP3 file content will be referred to the satellites APCs.
    41114243</p>
     4244
    41124245<p>
    41134246The filenames for the daily SP3 files follow the convention for SP3 filenames. The first three characters of each filename are set to 'BNC'. Note that clocks in the SP3 orbit files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect.
    41144247</p>
     4248
    41154249<p>
    41164250In case the 'Combine Corrections' table contains only one Broadcast Correction stream, BNC will merge that stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in files specified here through SP3 and/or Clock RINEX file path. In such a case you have to define only the SP3 and Clock RINEX file path and no further option in the 'Upload Corrections' table.
     
    41214255</p>
    41224256
    4123 <p><h4>2.15.6 <a name="uprinex">RNX File - optional</h4></p>
     4257<p><h4 id="uprinex">2.15.6 RNX File - optional</h4></p>
    41244258<p>
    41254259The clock corrections generated by BNC for upload can be logged in Clock RINEX format. The file naming follows the RINEX convention.
     
    41324266Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the filename.
    41334267</p>
     4268
    41344269<p>
    41354270Note further that clocks in the Clock RINEX files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect.
    41364271</p>
    41374272
    4138 <p><h4>2.15.7 <a name="pidsidiod">PID, SID, IOD - optional</h4></p>
     4273<p><h4 id="pidsidiod">2.15.7 PID, SID, IOD - optional</h4></p>
    41394274<p>
    41404275When applying Broadcast Ephemeris corrections in a PPP algorithm or in a combination of several correction streams, it is important for the client software to receive information on the continuity of discontinuity of the stream contents. Here you can specify three ID's to describe the contents of your Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream when it is uploaded.
    41414276<ul>
    4142 <li>A 'SSR Provider ID' is issued by RTCM SC-104 on request to identify a SSR service (see e.g. <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/SSRProvider</u>). This ID is globally unique. Values vary in the range of 0-65535. Values in the range of 0-255 are reserved for experimental services.</li>
    4143 <li>A provider may generate several Broadcast Ephemeris correction streams with different contents. The 'SSR Solution ID' indicates different SSR services of one SSR provider. Values vary in the range of 0-15.</li>
    4144 <li>A change of the 'IOD SSR' is used to indicate a change in the SSR generating configuration which may be relevant for the rover. Values vary in the range of 0-15.</li>
    4145 </ul>
    4146 </p>
    4147 
    4148 <p><h4>2.15.8 <a name="upinter">Interval - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
     4277  <li>A 'SSR Provider ID' is issued by RTCM SC-104 on request to identify a SSR service (see e.g. <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/SSRProvider</u>). This ID is globally unique. Values vary in the range of 0-65535. Values in the range of 0-255 are reserved for experimental services.</li>
     4278  <li>A provider may generate several Broadcast Ephemeris correction streams with different contents. The 'SSR Solution ID' indicates different SSR services of one SSR provider. Values vary in the range of 0-15.</li>
     4279  <li>A change of the 'IOD SSR' is used to indicate a change in the SSR generating configuration which may be relevant for the rover. Values vary in the range of 0-15.</li>
     4280</ul>
     4281</p>
     4282
     4283<p><h4 id="upinter">2.15.8 Interval - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
    41494284<p>
    41504285Select the length of Clock RINEX files and SP3 Orbit files. The default value is 1 day.
    41514286</p>
    41524287
    4153 <p><h4>2.15.9 <a name="upclksmpl">Sampling</h4></p>
     4288<p><h4 id="upclksmpl">2.15.9 Sampling</h4></p>
    41544289<p>BNC requires an orbit corrections sampling interval for the stream to be uploaded and sampling intervals for SP3 and Clock RINEX files. The outgoing stream's clock correction sampling interval follows that of incoming corrections and is therefore nothing to be specified here.</p>
    41554290
    4156 <p><h4>2.15.9.1 <a name="upclkorb">Orbits (Orb) - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
     4291<p><h4 id="upclkorb">2.15.9.1 Orbits (Orb) - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
    41574292<p>Select the stream's orbit correction sampling interval in seconds. A value of 60 sec may be appropriate.</p>
    41584293<p> A value of zero '0' tells BNC to upload all orbit correction samples coming in from the real-time GNSS engine along with the clock correction samples to produce combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris (1060 for GPS, 1066 for GLONASS).
     
    41614296Configuration examples:
    41624297</p>
    4163 Let us suppose a real-time network engine supporting BNC every <u>5 sec</u> with GPS Broadcast Corrections for orbits, clocks and code biases in 'RTNET' stream format.
    4164 <ul>
    4165 <li>With 'Sampling Orb' set to '0'  BNC will produce</li>
    4166 <ul>
    4167 <li>Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases,</li>
    4168 <li>Every 5 sec a 1060 message for combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris.</li>
     4298Let us suppose a real-time network engine supporting BNC every <b>5 sec</b> with GPS Broadcast Corrections for orbits, clocks and code biases in 'RTNET' stream format.
     4299<ul>
     4300  <li>With 'Sampling Orb' set to '0'  BNC will produce</li>
     4301  <ul>
     4302    <li>Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases,</li>
     4303    <li>Every 5 sec a 1060 message for combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris.</li>
     4304  </ul>
     4305  <br>
     4306  <li>With 'Sampling Orb' set to '5' BNC will produce</li>
     4307  <ul>
     4308    <li>Every 5 sec a 1057 message for GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
     4309    <li>Every 5 sec a 1058 message for GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
     4310    <li>Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases.</li>
     4311  </ul>
     4312  <br>
     4313  <li>With 'Sampling Orb' set to '10' BNC will produce</li>
     4314  <ul>
     4315    <li>Every 10 sec a 1057 message for GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
     4316    <li>Every 5 sec a 1058 message for GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
     4317    <li>Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases.</li>
     4318  </ul>
    41694319</ul>
    41704320<br>
    4171 <li>With 'Sampling Orb' set to '5' BNC will produce</li>
    4172 <ul>
    4173 <li>Every 5 sec a 1057 message for GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
    4174 <li>Every 5 sec a 1058 message for GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
    4175 <li>Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases.</li>
    4176 </ul>
    4177 <br>
    4178 <li>With 'Sampling Orb' set to '10' BNC will produce</li>
    4179 <ul>
    4180 <li>Every 10 sec a 1057 message for GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
    4181 <li>Every 5 sec a 1058 message for GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris,</li>
    4182 <li>Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases.</li>
    4183 </ul>
    4184 </ul>
    4185 <br>
    4186 Note that only when specifying a value of zero '0' (default) for 'Sampling Orb', BNC produces <u>combined</u> orbit and clock correction messages.
    4187 <p><h4>2.15.9.2 <a name="upclksp3">SP3 - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
     4321Note that only when specifying a value of zero '0' (default) for 'Sampling Orb', BNC produces <b>combined</b> orbit and clock correction messages.
     4322<p><h4 id="upclksp3">2.15.9.2 SP3 - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
    41884323<p>Select the SP3 orbit file sampling interval in minutes. A value of 15 min may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all available samples into SP3 orbit files.</p>
    41894324
    4190 <p><h4>2.15.9.3 <a name="upclkrnx">RINEX (RNX) - mandatory if 'RNX File' is specified</h4></p>
     4325<p><h4 id="upclkrnx">2.15.9.3 RINEX (RNX) - mandatory if 'RNX File' is specified</h4></p>
    41914326<p>Select the Clock RINEX file sampling interval in seconds. A value of 10 sec may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all available samples into Clock RINEX files.</p>
    41924327
    4193 <p><h4>2.15.10 <a name="upcustom">Custom Trafo - optional if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
     4328<p><h4 id="upcustom">2.15.10 Custom Trafo - optional if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
    41944329<p>Hit 'Custom Trafo' to specify your own 14 parameter Helmert Transformation instead of selecting a predefined transformation through 'System' button.</p>
    41954330
    4196 <p><h4>2.15.11 <a name="upantex">ANTEX File - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
     4331<p><h4 id="upantex">2.15.11 ANTEX File - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
    41974332<p>
    41984333IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center variations for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required here for referring the SP3 file content to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM). If you do not specify an ANTEX file, the SP3 file will contain orbit information which is referred to Antenna Phase Center (APC) instead of CoM.
     
    42024337</p>
    42034338<p><img src="IMG/screenshot26.png"/></p>
    4204 <p><u>Figure 31:</u> BNC producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an Ntrip Broadcaster</p>
     4339<p>Figure 31: BNC producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an Ntrip Broadcaster</p>
    42054340<p>
    42064341The following screenshot shows the encoding and uploading of several Broadcast Ephemeris correction streams combined from streams CLK11, CLK21, CLK80, and CLK91. Combined streams are uploaded to different Ntrip Broadcasters and referred to different reference systems. One of the uploaded streams is locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. Different SSR Provider IDs, SSR Solution IDs and Issue of Data IDs are specified. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'.
    42074342</p>
    42084343<p><img src="IMG/screenshot21.png"/></p>
    4209 <p><u>Figure 32:</u> BNC uploading a combined Broadcast Correction stream</p>
     4344<p>Figure 32: BNC uploading a combined Broadcast Correction stream</p>
    42104345<p></p>
    42114346
    4212 <p><h4>2.16 <a name="upeph">Upload Ephemeris</h4></p>
    4213 <p>
    4214 BNC can generate streams carrying only Broadcast Ephemeris in RTCM Version 3 format and upload them to an Ntrip Broadcaster. This can be done for individual satellite systems or for all satellite systems, specifying the parameter ‘System’ for each stream.
     4347<p><h4 id="upeph">2.16 Upload Ephemeris</h4></p>
     4348<p>
     4349BNC can generate streams carrying only Broadcast Ephemeris in RTCM Version 3 format and upload them to an Ntrip Broadcaster. This can be done for individual satellite systems or for all satellite systems, specifying the parameter ‘System’ for each stream.
    42154350</p>
    42164351
     
    42284363A note 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' will be given in the logfile and the data will be disregarded when necessary.
    42294364</p>
     4365
    42304366<p>
    42314367Furthermore, received Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
    42324368</p>
    42334369
    4234 <p><h4>2.16.1 <a name="brdcserver">Host &amp; Port - optional</h4></p>
     4370<p><h4 id="brdcserver">2.16.1 Host &amp; Port - optional</h4></p>
    42354371<p>
    42364372Specify the 'Host' IP number or URL of an Ntrip Broadcaster to upload the stream. An empty option field means that you do not want to upload Broadcast Ephemeris.
     
    42404376</p>
    42414377
    4242 <p><h4>2.16.2 <a name="brdcmount">Mountpoint &amp; Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
     4378<p><h4 id="brdcmount">2.16.2 Mountpoint &amp; Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    42434379<p>
    42444380BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring it to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a 4-character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
     
    42464382</p>
    42474383
    4248 <p><h4>2.16.3 <a name="brdcsmpl">Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
     4384<p><h4 id="brdcsmpl">2.16.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    42494385Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5', meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds.
    42504386</p>
    42514387
    42524388<p><img src="IMG/screenshot28.png"/></p>
    4253 <p><u>Figure 33:</u> BNC producing a Broadcast Ephemeris stream from navigation messages of globally distributed RTCM streams and uploading them in RTCM Version 3 format to an Ntrip Broadcaster</p>
    4254 
    4255 <p><h4>2.17 <a name="streams">Streams Canvas</h4></p>
     4389<p>Figure 33: BNC producing a Broadcast Ephemeris stream from navigation messages of globally distributed RTCM streams and uploading them in RTCM Version 3 format to an Ntrip Broadcaster</p>
     4390
     4391<p><h4 id="streams">2.17 Streams Canvas</h4></p>
    42564392<p>
    42574393Each stream on an Ntrip Broadcaster (and consequently on BNC) is defined using a unique source ID called mountpoint. An Ntrip Client like BNC accesses the desired stream by referring to its mountpoint. Information about streams and their mountpoints is available through the source-table maintained by the Ntrip Broadcaster.
     
    42614397Streams selected for retrieval are listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. The list provides the following information either extracted from source-table(s) produced by the Ntrip Broadcasters or introduced by BNC's user:
    42624398</p>
     4399
    42634400<p>
    42644401<table>
    4265 <tr><td>'resource loader'&nbsp; </td><td>Ntrip Broadcaster URL and port, or<br>TCP/IP host and port, or<br>UDP port, or<br>Serial input port specification.</td></tr>
    4266 <tr><td>'mountpoint' &nbsp;</td><td>Mountpoint introduced by Ntrip Broadcaster, or<br>Mountpoint introduced by BNC's user.</td></tr>
    4267 <tr><td>'decoder' &nbsp;</td><td>Name of decoder used to handle the incoming stream content according to its format; editable.</td></tr>
    4268 <tr><td>'lat' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate latitude of reference station, in degrees, north; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
    4269 <tr><td>'long' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate longitude of reference station, in degrees, east; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
    4270 <tr><td>'nmea' &nbsp;</td><td>Indicates whether or not streaming needs to be initiated by BNC through sending NMEA-GGA message carrying position coordinates in 'lat' and 'long'.</td></tr>
    4271 <tr><td>'ntrip' &nbsp;</td><td>Selected Ntrip transport protocol version (1, 2, 2s, R, or U), or<br>'N' for TCP/IP streams without Ntrip, or<br>'UN' for UDP streams without Ntrip, or<br>'S' for serial input streams without Ntrip.</td></tr>
    4272 <tr><td>'bytes' &nbsp;</td><td>Number of bytes received.
     4402  <tr><td>'resource loader'&nbsp; </td><td>Ntrip Broadcaster URL and port, or<br>TCP/IP host and port, or<br>UDP port, or<br>Serial input port specification.</td></tr>
     4403  <tr><td>'mountpoint' &nbsp;</td><td>Mountpoint introduced by Ntrip Broadcaster, or<br>Mountpoint introduced by BNC's user.</td></tr>
     4404  <tr><td>'decoder' &nbsp;</td><td>Name of decoder used to handle the incoming stream content according to its format; editable.</td></tr>
     4405  <tr><td>'lat' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate latitude of reference station, in degrees, north; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
     4406  <tr><td>'long' &nbsp;</td><td>Approximate longitude of reference station, in degrees, east; editable if 'nmea' = 'yes'.</td></tr>
     4407  <tr><td>'nmea' &nbsp;</td><td>Indicates whether or not streaming needs to be initiated by BNC through sending NMEA-GGA message carrying position coordinates in 'lat' and 'long'.</td></tr>
     4408  <tr><td>'ntrip' &nbsp;</td><td>Selected Ntrip transport protocol version (1, 2, 2s, R, or U), or<br>'N' for TCP/IP streams without Ntrip, or<br>'UN' for UDP streams without Ntrip, or<br>'S' for serial input streams without Ntrip.</td></tr>
     4409  <tr><td>'bytes' &nbsp;</td><td>Number of bytes received.
    42734410</table>
    42744411</p>
    42754412
    4276 <p><h4>2.17.1 <a name="streamedit">Edit Streams</h4></p>
    4277 <ul>
    4278 <li>
    4279 BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to an incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. Accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x' and 'RTNET'.
    4280 </li>
    4281 <li>
    4282 In case you need to log the raw data as it is, BNC allows users to by-pass its decoders and directly save the input in daily logfiles. To do this, specify the decoder string as 'ZERO'. The generated filenames are created from the characters of the streams mountpoints plus two-digit numbers each for year, month, and day. Example: Setting the 'decoder' string for mountpoint WTZZ0 to 'ZERO' and running BNC on March 29, 2007 would save raw data in a file named WTZZ0_070329.
    4283 </li>
    4284 <li>
    4285 BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the Ntrip Broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by Network RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the Ntrip Broadcaster via NMEA GGA sentences.
    4286 <br>If NMEA GGA sentences are not coming from a serially connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in many cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position should preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.
    4287 <br>Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner when not using the Ntrip Version 2 transport protocol.
    4288 </li>
    4289 </ul>
    4290 
    4291 <p><h4>2.17.2 <a name="streamdelete">Delete Stream</h4></p>
     4413<p><h4 id="streamedit">2.17.1 Edit Streams</h4></p>
     4414<ul>
     4415  <li>BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to an incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. Accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x' and 'RTNET'.</li>
     4416  <li>In case you need to log the raw data as it is, BNC allows users to by-pass its decoders and directly save the input in daily logfiles. To do this, specify the decoder string as 'ZERO'. The generated filenames are created from the characters of the streams mountpoints plus two-digit numbers each for year, month, and day. Example: Setting the 'decoder' string for mountpoint WTZZ0 to 'ZERO' and running BNC on March 29, 2007 would save raw data in a file named WTZZ0_070329.</li>
     4417  <li>BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the Ntrip Broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by Network RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the Ntrip Broadcaster via NMEA GGA sentences.<br>
     4418      If NMEA GGA sentences are not coming from a serially connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in many cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position should preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.<br>
     4419      Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner when not using the Ntrip Version 2 transport protocol.</li>
     4420</ul>
     4421
     4422<p><h4 id="streamdelete">2.17.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
    42924423<p>
    42934424To remove a stream from the 'Streams' canvas in the main window, highlight it by clicking on it and hit the 'Delete Stream' button. You can also remove multiple streams simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift or +Ctrl.</p>
    42944425
    4295 <p><h4>2.17.3 <a name="streamconf">Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</h4></p>
     4426<p><h4 id="streamconf">2.17.3 Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</h4></p>
    42964427<p>
    42974428The streams selection can be changed on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads in the running BNC process.
    42984429</p>
    4299 <p>
    4300 <u>Window mode:</u> Hit 'Reread &amp; Save Configuration' while BNC is in window mode and already processing data to let changes of your stream selection immediately become effective.
    4301 <p>
    4302 <u>No window mode:</u> When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), you force BNC to reread its 'mountPoints' configuration option from disk at pre-defined intervals. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' as 'Reread configuration' option to reread the 'mountPoints' option every full minute, hour, or day. This lets a 'mountPoints' option edited in between in the configuration file become effective without terminating uninvolved threads. See section 'Configuration Examples' for configuration file examples and section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of other on-the-fly changeable options.
    4303 </p>
    4304 
    4305 <p><h4>2.18 <a name="logs">Logging Canvas</h4></p>
     4430
     4431<p>
     4432<b>Window mode:</b> Hit 'Reread &amp; Save Configuration' while BNC is in window mode and already processing data to let changes of your stream selection immediately become effective.
     4433<p>
     4434<b>No window mode:</b> When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), you force BNC to reread its 'mountPoints' configuration option from disk at pre-defined intervals. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' as 'Reread configuration' option to reread the 'mountPoints' option every full minute, hour, or day. This lets a 'mountPoints' option edited in between in the configuration file become effective without terminating uninvolved threads. See section 'Configuration Examples' for configuration file examples and section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of other on-the-fly changeable options.
     4435</p>
     4436
     4437<p><h4 id="logs">2.18 Logging Canvas</h4></p>
    43064438<p>
    43074439The 'Logging Canvas' above the bottom menu bar on the main window labeled 'Log', 'Throughput', 'Latency', and 'PPP Plot' provides control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available for continuously showing logfile content, for a plot controlling the bandwidth consumption, a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
    43084440</p>
    4309 <p><h4>2.18.1 <a name="logfile">Log</h4></p>
     4441
     4442<p><h4 id="logfile">2.18.1 Log</h4></p>
    43104443<p>
    43114444Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. They can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field.
    43124445</p>
    43134446
    4314 <p><h4>2.18.2 <a name="throughput">Throughput</h4></p>
     4447<p><h4 id="throughput">2.18.2 Throughput</h4></p>
    43154448<p>
    43164449The bandwidth consumption per stream is shown in the 'Throughput' tab in bits per second (bps) or kilobits per second (kbps). The following figure shows an example for the bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.
     
    43184451
    43194452<p><img src="IMG/screenshot08.png"/></p>
    4320 <p><u>Figure 34:</u> Bandwidth consumption of RTCM streams received by BNC</p>
    4321 
    4322 <p><h4>2.18.3 <a name="latency">Latency</h4></p>
     4453<p>Figure 34: Bandwidth consumption of RTCM streams received by BNC</p>
     4454
     4455<p><h4 id="latency">2.18.3 Latency</h4></p>
    43234456<p>
    43244457The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (e.g. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. The next figure shows an example for the latency of incoming streams.
     
    43264459
    43274460<p><img src="IMG/screenshot07.png"/></p>
    4328 <p><u>Figure 35:</u> Latency of RTCM streams received by BNC</p>
    4329 
    4330 <p><h4>2.18.4 <a name="ppptab">PPP Plot</h4></p>
     4461<p>Figure 35: Latency of RTCM streams received by BNC</p>
     4462
     4463<p><h4 id="ppptab">2.18.4 PPP Plot</h4></p>
    43314464<p>
    43324465Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' option is defined under PPP (4). Values are referred to a priori reference coordinates. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more until the first PPP solutions becomes available. The following figure shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate displacements.
     
    43344467
    43354468<p><img src="IMG/screenshot13.png"/></p>
    4336 <p><u>Figure 36:</u> Example for time series plot of displacements produced by BNC</p>
    4337 
    4338 <p><h4>2.19 <a name="bottom">Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
     4469<p>Figure 36: Example for time series plot of displacements produced by BNC</p>
     4470
     4471<p><h4 id="bottom">2.19 Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
    43394472<p>
    43404473The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to or from BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows users to select one of several input communication links, see figure below.
     
    43424475
    43434476<p><img src="IMG/screenshot06.png"/></p>
    4344 <p><u>Figure 37:</u> Steam input communication links accepted by BNC</p>
    4345 
    4346 <p><h4>2.19.1 <a name="streamadd">Add Stream</h4></p>
     4477<p>Figure 37: Steam input communication links accepted by BNC</p>
     4478
     4479<p><h4 id="streamadd">2.19.1 Add Stream</h4></p>
    43474480<p>
    43484481Button 'Add Stream' allows you to pull streams either from an Ntrip Broadcaster or from a TCP/IP port, UPD port, or serial port.
    43494482</p>
    43504483
    4351 <p><h4>2.19.1.1 <a name="streamcaster">Add Stream - Coming from Caster</h4></p>
     4484<p><h4 id="streamcaster">2.19.1.1 Add Stream - Coming from Caster</h4></p>
    43524485
    43534486<p>
     
    43554488</p>
    43564489
    4357 <p><h4>2.19.1.1.1 <a name="streamhost">Caster Host and Port - mandatory</h4></p>
     4490<p><h4 id="streamhost">2.19.1.1.1 Caster Host and Port - mandatory</h4></p>
    43584491<p>
    43594492Enter the Ntrip Broadcaster host IP and port number. Note that EUREF and IGS operate Ntrip Broadcasters at <u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u>, <u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u>, <u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u> and <u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u>.
    43604493</p>
    43614494
    4362 <p><h4>2.19.1.1.2 <a name="streamtable">Casters Table - optional</h4></p>
     4495<p><h4 id="streamtable">2.19.1.1.2 Casters Table - optional</h4></p>
    43634496<p>
    43644497It may be that you are not sure about your Ntrip Broadcaster's host and port number or you are interested in other broadcaster installations operated elsewhere. Hit 'Show' for a table of known broadcasters maintained at <u>www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u>. A window opens which allows selecting a broadcaster for stream retrieval, see figure below.
    43654498</p>
    4366 </p>
     4499
    43674500<p><img src="IMG/screenshot04.png"/></p>
    43684501
    4369 <p><u>Figure 38:</u> BNC's 'Select Broadcaster' table</p>
    4370 
    4371 <p><h4>2.19.1.1.3 <a name="streamuser">User and Password - mandatory for protected streams</h4></p>
     4502<p>Figure 38: BNC's 'Select Broadcaster' table</p>
     4503
     4504<p><h4 id="streamuser">2.19.1.1.3 User and Password - mandatory for protected streams</h4></p>
    43724505<p>
    43734506Streams on Ntrip Broadcasters may be protected. Enter a valid 'User' ID and 'Password' for access to protected streams. Accounts are usually provided per Ntrip Broadcaster through a registration procedure. Register through <u>http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</u> for access to protected streams from EUREF and IGS.
    43744507</p>
    43754508
    4376 <p><h4>2.19.1.1.4 <a name="gettable">Get Table</h4></p>
     4509<p><h4 id="gettable">2.19.1.1.4 Get Table</h4></p>
    43774510<p>
    43784511Use the 'Get Table' button to download the source-table from the Ntrip Broadcaster. Pay attention to data fields 'format' and 'format-details'. Keep in mind that BNC can only decode and convert streams that come in RTCM Version 2, RTCM Version 3, or RTNET format. For access to observations, Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Corrections in RTCM format, streams must contain a selection of appropriate message types as listed in the Annex, cf. data field 'format-details' for available message types and their repetition rates in brackets. Note that in order to produce RINEX Navigation files, RTCM Version 3 streams containing message types 1019 (GPS) and 1020 (GLONASS) and 1043 (SBAS) and 1044 (QZSS) and 1045, 1046 (Galileo) and 63 (BDS/BeiDou, tentative message number) are required. Select your streams line by line, use +Shift and +Ctrl when necessary. The figure below provides an example source-table.
    43794512</p>
     4513
    43804514<p>
    43814515The content of data field 'nmea' tells you whether a stream retrieval needs to be initiated by BNC through sending an NMEA-GGA message carrying approximate position coordinates (Virtual Reference Station, VRS).
    43824516</p>
     4517
    43834518<p>
    43844519Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish, you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process of retrieving streams from different casters.
    43854520</p>
     4521
    43864522<p><img src="IMG/screenshot05.png"/></p>
    4387 <p><u>Figure 39:</u> Broadcaster source-table shown by BNC</p>
    4388 
    4389 <p><h4>2.19.1.1.5 <a name="ntripv">Ntrip Version - mandatory</h4></p>
     4523<p>Figure 39: Broadcaster source-table shown by BNC</p>
     4524
     4525<p><h4 id="ntripv">2.19.1.1.5 Ntrip Version - mandatory</h4></p>
    43904526<p>
    43914527Some limitations and deficiencies of the Ntrip Version 1 stream transport protocol are solved in Ntrip Version 2. Improvements mainly concern a full HTTP compatibility in view of requirements coming from proxy servers. Version 2 is backwards compatible to Version 1. Options implemented in BNC are:
     
    43944530<p>
    43954531<table>
    4396 <tr></tr>
    4397 <tr><td><b>Option &nbsp;  &nbsp; </b></td><td><b>Meaning</b></td></tr>
    4398 <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; 1</td><td>Ntrip Version 1, TCP/IP</td></tr>
    4399 <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; 2</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in TCP/IP mode</td></tr>
    4400 <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; 2s</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in TCP/IP mode via SSL</td></tr>
    4401 <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; R</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in RTSP/RTP mode</td></tr>
    4402 <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; U</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in UDP mode</td></tr>
     4532  <tr></tr>
     4533  <tr><td><b>Option &nbsp;  &nbsp; </b></td><td><b>Meaning</b></td></tr>
     4534  <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; 1</td><td>Ntrip Version 1, TCP/IP</td></tr>
     4535  <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; 2</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in TCP/IP mode</td></tr>
     4536  <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; 2s</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in TCP/IP mode via SSL</td></tr>
     4537  <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; R</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in RTSP/RTP mode</td></tr>
     4538  <tr><td>&nbsp; &nbsp; U</td><td>Ntrip Version 2 in UDP mode</td></tr>
    44034539</table>
    44044540</p>
     
    44164552</p>
    44174553
    4418 <p><h4>2.19.1.1.6 <a name="castermap">Map - optional</h4></p>
     4554<p><h4 id="castermap">2.19.1.1.6 Map - optional</h4></p>
    44194555<p>
    44204556Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the caster's streams. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
     
    44224558
    44234559<p><img src="IMG/screenshot24.png"/></p>
    4424 <p><u>Figure 40:</u> Stream distribution map shown by BNC as derived from Ntrip Broadcaster source-table</p>
    4425 
    4426 <p><h4>2.19.1.2 <a name="streamip">Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</h4></p>
     4560<p>Figure 40: Stream distribution map shown by BNC as derived from Ntrip Broadcaster source-table</p>
     4561
     4562<p><h4 id="streamip">2.19.1.2 Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</h4></p>
    44274563<p>
    44284564Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from TCP/IP Port' allows to retrieve streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
    44294565<ul>
    4430 <li>Enter the IP address of the stream providing host.</li>
    4431 <li>Enter the IP port number of the stream providing host.</li>
    4432 <li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
    4433 <li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
    4434 <li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
    4435 <li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
     4566  <li>Enter the IP address of the stream providing host.</li>
     4567  <li>Enter the IP port number of the stream providing host.</li>
     4568  <li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
     4569  <li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
     4570  <li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
     4571  <li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
    44364572</ul>
    44374573</p>
     
    44394575Streams directly received from a TCP/IP port show up with an 'N' for 'No Ntrip' in the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
    44404576<p>
     4577
    44414578</p>
    44424579Note that this option works only if no proxy server is involved in the communication link.
    44434580</p>
    44444581
    4445 <p><h4>2.19.1.3 <a name="streamudp">Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</h4></p>
     4582<p><h4 id="streamudp">2.19.1.3 Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</h4></p>
    44464583<p>
    44474584Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from UDP Port' allows to pick up streams arriving directly at one of the local host's UDP ports without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
    44484585<ul>
    4449 <li>Enter the local port number where the UDP stream arrives.</li>
    4450 <li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
    4451 <li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
    4452 <li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
    4453 <li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
     4586  <li>Enter the local port number where the UDP stream arrives.</li>
     4587  <li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
     4588  <li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
     4589  <li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
     4590  <li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
    44544591</ul>
    44554592</p>
     
    44584595<p>
    44594596
    4460 <p><h4>2.19.1.4 <a name="streamser">Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</h4></p>
     4597<p><h4 id="streamser">2.19.1.4 Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</h4></p>
    44614598<p>
    44624599Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Serial Port' allows to retrieve streams from a GNSS receiver via serial port without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
    44634600<ul>
    4464 <li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
    4465 <li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
    4466 <li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
    4467 <li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
    4468 <li>Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the receiver. Valid port names are
     4601  <li>Specify a mountpoint. Recommended is a 4-character station ID. Example: FFMJ</li>
     4602  <li>Specify the stream format. Available options are 'RTCM_2', 'RTCM_3', 'RTNET', and 'ZERO'.</li>
     4603  <li>Enter the approximate latitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: 45.32.</li>
     4604  <li>Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing receiver in degrees. Example: -15.20.</li>
     4605  <li>Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the receiver. Valid port names are
    44694606<pre>
    44704607Windows:       COM1, COM2
     
    44774614</pre>
    44784615</li>
    4479 <li>Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial input. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.</li>
    4480 <li>Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial input. Note that often '8' data bits are used.</li>
    4481 <li>Select the 'Parity' for the serial input. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.</li>
    4482 <li>Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial input. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.</li>
    4483 <li>Select a 'Flow control' for the serial link. Select 'OFF' if you do not know better.</li>
    4484 </ul>
    4485 </p>
     4616  <li>Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial input. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.</li>
     4617  <li>Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial input. Note that often '8' data bits are used.</li>
     4618  <li>Select the 'Parity' for the serial input. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.</li>
     4619  <li>Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial input. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.</li>
     4620  <li>Select a 'Flow control' for the serial link. Select 'OFF' if you do not know better.</li>
     4621</ul>
     4622</p>
     4623
    44864624<p>
    44874625When selecting one of the serial communication options listed above, make sure that you pick those configured to the serially connected GNSS receiver.
     
    44964634</p>
    44974635<p><img src="IMG/screenshot15.png"/></p>
    4498 <p><u>Figure 41:</u> BNC configuration for pulling a stream via serial port</p>
    4499 
    4500 <p><h4>2.19.2 <a name="streamsdelete">Delete Stream</h4></p>
     4636<p>Figure 41: BNC configuration for pulling a stream via serial port</p>
     4637
     4638<p><h4 id="streamsdelete">2.19.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
    45014639<p>
    45024640Button 'Delete Stream' allows you to delete streams previously selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window.
    45034641</p>
    45044642
    4505 <p><h4>2.19.3 <a name="streamsmap">Map</h4></p>
     4643<p><h4 id="streamsmap">2.19.3 Map</h4></p>
    45064644<p>
    45074645Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the streams selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
    45084646</p>
    45094647
    4510 <p><h4>2.19.4 <a name="start">Start</h4></p>
     4648<p><h4 id="start">2.19.4 Start</h4></p>
    45114649<p>
    45124650Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX files which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless option 'Append files' is ticked.
    45134651</p>
    45144652
    4515 <p><h4>2.19.5 <a name="stop">Stop</h4></p>
     4653<p><h4 id="stop">2.19.5 Stop</h4></p>
    45164654<p>
    45174655Hit the 'Stop' button in order to stop BNC.
    45184656</p>
    45194657
    4520 <p><h4>2.19.6 <a name="contexthelp">Help? = Shift+F1</h4></p>
     4658<p><h4 id="contexthelp">2.19.6 Help? = Shift+F1</h4></p>
    45214659<p>
    45224660BNC comes with a <i>What's This</i> help system providing information about its functionality and usage. Short descriptions are available for any widget and program option. Focus to the relevant object and press Shift+F1 to request help information. A help text appears immediately; it disappears as soon as the user does something else. The dialogs on some operating systems may provide a '?' button that users can click; click the relevant widget to pop up the help text.
    45234661</p>
    45244662
    4525 <p><h4>2.20 <a name="cmd">Command Line Options</h4></p>
     4663<p><h4 id="cmd">2.20 Command Line Options</h4></p>
    45264664<p>
    45274665Command line options are available to run BNC in 'no window' mode or let it read previously recorded input offline from one or several files for debugging or post processing purposes. It is also possible to introduce a specific configuration filename instead of using the default filename 'BNC.bnc'. The self-explaining content of the configuration file can easily be edited.
    45284666</p>
     4667
    45294668<p>
    45304669In addition to reading processing options from the involved configuration file, BNC can optionally read any configuration option from command line. Running BNC with command line option 'help'
    45314670</p>
     4671
    45324672<p>
    45334673Example:<br><br>
    45344674&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; bnc --help (MS Windows: bnc.exe --help | more)
    45354675</p>
     4676
    45364677<p>
    45374678provides a list of all available command line options.
    45384679</p>
    45394680
    4540 <p><h4>2.20.1 <a name="cmdVersion">Version - optional</h4></p>
     4681<p><h4 id="cmdVersion">2.20.1 Version - optional</h4></p>
    45414682<p>
    45424683Command line option '--version' lets BNC print its version number.
    45434684</p>
     4685
    45444686<p>
    45454687Example:<br><br>
     
    45474689</p>
    45484690
    4549 <p><h4>2.20.2 <a name="cmdDisplay">Display - optional</h4></p>
     4691<p><h4 id="cmdDisplay">2.20.2 Display - optional</h4></p>
    45504692<p>
    45514693On systems which support graphics, command line option '--display' forces BNC to present the BNC window on the specified display.
    45524694</p>
     4695
    45534696<p>
    45544697Example:<br><br>
     
    45564699</p>
    45574700
    4558 <p><h4>2.20.3 <a name="nw">No Window Mode - optional</h4></p>
     4701<p><h4 id="nw">2.20.3 No Window Mode - optional</h4></p>
    45594702<p>
    45604703Apart from its regular windows mode, BNC can be started on all systems as a batch job with command line option '-nw'. BNC will then run in 'no window' mode, using processing options from its configuration file on disk. Terminate BNC using Windows Task Manager when running it in 'no window' mode on Windows systems.
    45614704</p>
     4705
    45624706<p>
    45634707Example:<br><br>
    45644708&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; bnc.exe --nw
    45654709</p>
     4710
    45664711<p>
    45674712It is obvious that BNC requires graphics support when started in interactive
     
    45904735</pre>
    45914736
    4592 <p><h4>2.20.4 <a name="post">File Mode - optional</h4></p>
     4737<p><h4 id="post">2.20.4 File Mode - optional</h4></p>
    45934738<p>
    45944739Although BNC is primarily a real-time online tool, for debugging purposes it can be run offline to read data from a file previously saved through option 'Raw output file' (Record &amp; Replay functionality). Enter the following command line option for that
    45954740</p>
     4741
    45964742<p>
    45974743&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; --file &lt;<u>inputFileName</u>&gt;
     
    46014747&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ./bnc --file /home/user/raw.output_110301
    46024748</p>
     4749
    46034750<p>
    46044751Note that when running BNC offline, it will use options for file saving, interval, sampling, PPP etc. from its configuration file.
    46054752</p>
     4753
    46064754<p>Note further that option '--file' forces BNC to apply the '-nw' option for running in 'no window' mode.
    46074755</p>
    46084756
    4609 <p><h4>2.20.5 <a name="conffile">Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
     4757<p><h4 id="conffile">2.20.5 Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
    46104758The default configuration filename is 'BNC.bnc'. You may change this name at startup time using command line option '--conf &lt;<u>confFileName</u>&gt;'. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. <u>confFileName</u> stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a filename. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started.
    46114759</p>
     4760
    46124761<p>
    46134762Example:<br><br>
    46144763&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ./bnc --conf MyConfig.bnc
    46154764</p>
     4765
    46164766<p>
    46174767This leads to a BNC job using configuration file 'MyConfig.bnc'. The configuration file will be saved in the current working directory.
    46184768</p>
    46194769
    4620 <p><h4>2.20.6 <a name="confopt">Configuration Options - optional</h4></p>
     4770<p><h4 id="confopt">2.20.6 Configuration Options - optional</h4></p>
    46214771<p>
    46224772BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the content of the configuration file remains unchanged. Note the following syntax for Command Line Interface (CLI) options:
    46234773</p>
     4774
    46244775<p>
    46254776&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; --key &lt;keyName&gt; &lt;keyValue&gt;
    46264777</p>
     4778
    46274779<p>
    46284780Parameter &lt;keyName&gt; stands for the key name of an option contained in the configuration file and &lt;keyValue&gt; stands for the value you want to assign to it. The following is a syntax example for a complete command line:
    46294781</p>
     4782
    46304783<p>
    46314784&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; bnc --nw --conf &lt;confFileName&gt --key &lt;keyName1&gt; &lt;keyValue1&gt; --key &lt;keyName2&gt; &lt;keyValue2&gt; ...
    46324785</p>
     4786
    46334787<p>
    46344788Configuration options which are part of the configuration files PPP section must be prefixed by 'PPP/'. As an example, option 'minObs' from the PPP section of the BNC configuration file would be specified as 'PPP/minObs' on a command line.
    46354789</p>
     4790
    46364791<p>
    46374792Values for configuration options can be introduced via command line exactly as they show up in the configuration file. However, any value containing one or more blank characters must be enclosed by quotation marks when specified on command line.
    46384793</p>
    46394794
    4640 <p><h3>3. <a name="annex">Annex</h3></p>
    4641 
    4642 <p><h4>3.1 <a name="rtcm">RTCM Standards</h4></p>
     4795<p><h3 id="annex">3. Annex</h3></p>
     4796
     4797<p><h4 id="rtcm">3.1 RTCM Standards</h4></p>
    46434798
    46444799<p>
     
    46484803</p>
    46494804
    4650 <p><h4>3.1.1 <a name="ntrip1">Ntrip Version 1</h4></p>
     4805<p><h4 id="ntrip1">3.1.1 Ntrip Version 1</h4></p>
    46514806
    46524807<p>
     
    46654820Ntrip is an open none-proprietary protocol. Major characteristics of Ntrip's dissemination technique are:
    46664821<ul>
    4667 <li>Based on the popular HTTP streaming standard; comparatively easy to implement when having limited client and server platform resources available;</li>
    4668 <li>Application not limited to one particular plain or coded stream content; ability to distribute any kind of GNSS data;</li>
    4669 <li>Potential to support mass usage; disseminating hundreds of streams simultaneously for thousands of users possible when applying modified Internet Radio broadcasting software;</li>
    4670 <li>Considering security needs; stream providers and users do not necessarily get into contact, streams often not blocked by firewalls or proxy servers protecting Local Area Networks;</li>
    4671 <li>Enables streaming over mobile IP networks because of using TCP/IP.</li>
     4822  <li>Based on the popular HTTP streaming standard; comparatively easy to implement when having limited client and server platform resources available;</li>
     4823  <li>Application not limited to one particular plain or coded stream content; ability to distribute any kind of GNSS data;</li>
     4824  <li>Potential to support mass usage; disseminating hundreds of streams simultaneously for thousands of users possible when applying modified Internet Radio broadcasting software;</li>
     4825  <li>Considering security needs; stream providers and users do not necessarily get into contact, streams often not blocked by firewalls or proxy servers protecting Local Area Networks;</li>
     4826  <li>Enables streaming over mobile IP networks because of using TCP/IP.</li>
    46724827</ul>
    46734828</p>
     
    46874842</p>
    46884843
    4689 <p><h4>3.1.2 <a name="ntrip2">Ntrip Version 2</h4></p>
     4844<p><h4 id="ntrip2">3.1.2 Ntrip Version 2</h4></p>
    46904845
    46914846<p>
     
    46944849
    46954850<ul>
    4696 <li>Cleared and fixed design problems and HTTP protocol violations;</li>
    4697 <li>Replaced nonstandard directives;</li>
    4698 <li>Chunked transfer encoding;</li>
    4699 <li>Improvements in header records;</li>
    4700 <li>Source-table filtering;</li>
    4701 <li>RTSP communication.</li>
     4851  <li>Cleared and fixed design problems and HTTP protocol violations;</li>
     4852  <li>Replaced nonstandard directives;</li>
     4853  <li>Chunked transfer encoding;</li>
     4854  <li>Improvements in header records;</li>
     4855  <li>Source-table filtering;</li>
     4856  <li>RTSP communication.</li>
    47024857</ul>
    47034858
     
    47054860</p>
    47064861
    4707 <p><h4>3.1.3 <a name="rtcm2">RTCM Version 2</h4></p>
     4862<p><h4 id="rtcm2">3.1.3 RTCM Version 2</h4></p>
    47084863<p>
    47094864Transmitting GNSS carrier phase data can be done through RTCM Version 2 messages. Please note that only RTCM Version 2.2 and 2.3 streams may include GLONASS data. Messages that may be of interest here are:
     
    47114866
    47124867<ul>
    4713 <li>
    4714 Type 1 message is the range correction message and is the primary message in code-phase differential positioning (DGPS). It is computed in the base receiver by computing the error in the range measurement for each tracked SV.
    4715 </li>
    4716 <li>
    4717 Type 2 message is automatically generated when a new set of satellite ephemeris is downloaded to the base receiver. It is the computed difference between the old ephemeris and the new ephemeris. Type 2 messages are used when the base station is transmitting Type 1 messages.
    4718 </li>
    4719 <li>
    4720 Type 3 and 22 messages are the base station position and the antenna offset. Type 3 and 22 are used in RTK processing to perform antenna reduction.
    4721 </li>
    4722 <li>
    4723 Type 6 message is a null frame filler message that is provided for data links that require continuous transmission of data, even if there are no corrections to send. As many Type 6 messages are sent as required to fill in the gap between two correction messages (type 1). Message 6 is not sent in burst mode.
    4724 </li>
    4725 <li>
    4726 Type 9 message serves the same purpose as Type 1, but does not require a complete satellite set. As a result, Type 9 messages require a more stable clock than a station transmitting Type 1 's, because the satellite corrections have different time references.
    4727 </li>
    4728 <li>
    4729 Type 16 message is simply a text message entered by the user that is transmitted from the base station to the rover. It is used with code-phase differential.
    4730 </li>
    4731 <li>
    4732 Type 18 and 20 messages are RTK uncorrected carrier phase data and carrier phase corrections.
    4733 </li>
    4734 <li>
    4735 Type 19 and 21 messages are the uncorrected pseudo-range measurements and pseudo-range corrections used in RTK.
    4736 </li>
    4737 <li>
    4738 Type 23 message provides the information on the antenna type used on the reference station.
    4739 </li>
    4740 <li>
    4741 Type 24 message carries the coordinates of the installed antenna's ARP in the GNSS coordinate system coordinates.
    4742 </li>
    4743 </ul>
    4744 
    4745 <p><h4>3.1.4 <a name="rtcm3">RTCM Version 3</h4></p>
     4868  <li>Type 1 message is the range correction message and is the primary message in code-phase differential positioning (DGPS). It is computed in the base receiver by computing the error in the range measurement for each tracked SV.</li>
     4869  <li>Type 2 message is automatically generated when a new set of satellite ephemeris is downloaded to the base receiver. It is the computed difference between the old ephemeris and the new ephemeris. Type 2 messages are used when the base station is transmitting Type 1 messages.</li>
     4870  <li>Type 3 and 22 messages are the base station position and the antenna offset. Type 3 and 22 are used in RTK processing to perform antenna reduction.</li>
     4871  <li>Type 6 message is a null frame filler message that is provided for data links that require continuous transmission of data, even if there are no corrections to send. As many Type 6 messages are sent as required to fill in the gap between two correction messages (type 1). Message 6 is not sent in burst mode.</li>
     4872  <li>Type 9 message serves the same purpose as Type 1, but does not require a complete satellite set. As a result, Type 9 messages require a more stable clock than a station transmitting Type 1 's, because the satellite corrections have different time references.</li>
     4873  <li>Type 16 message is simply a text message entered by the user that is transmitted from the base station to the rover. It is used with code-phase differential.</li>
     4874  <li>Type 18 and 20 messages are RTK uncorrected carrier phase data and carrier phase corrections.</li>
     4875  <li>Type 19 and 21 messages are the uncorrected pseudo-range measurements and pseudo-range corrections used in RTK.</li>
     4876  <li>Type 23 message provides the information on the antenna type used on the reference station.</li>
     4877  <li>Type 24 message carries the coordinates of the installed antenna's ARP in the GNSS coordinate system coordinates.</li>
     4878</ul>
     4879
     4880<p><h4 id="rtcm3">3.1.4 RTCM Version 3</h4></p>
    47464881<p>
    47474882RTCM Version 3 has been developed as a more efficient alternative to RTCM Version 2. Service providers and vendors have asked for a standard that would be more efficient, easy to use, and more easily adaptable to new situations. The main complaint was that the Version 2 parity scheme was wasteful of bandwidth. Another complaint was that the parity is not independent from word to word. Still another was that even with so many bits devoted to parity, the actual integrity of the message was not as high as it should be. Plus, 30-bit words are awkward to handle. The Version 3 standard is intended to correct these weaknesses.
    47484883</p>
     4884
    47494885<p>
    47504886RTCM Version 3 defines a number of message types. Messages that may be of interest here are:
    47514887<ul>
    4752 <li>Type 1001, GPS L1 code and phase.</li>
    4753 <li>Type 1002, GPS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
    4754 <li>Type 1003, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
    4755 <li>Type 1004, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
    4756 <li>Type 1005, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point.</li>
    4757 <li>Type 1006, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point and antenna height.</li>
    4758 <li>Type 1007, Antenna descriptor and ID.</li>
    4759 <li>Type 1008, Antenna serial number.</li>
    4760 <li>Type 1009, GLONASS L1 code and phase.</li>
    4761 <li>Type 1010, GLONASS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
    4762 <li>Type 1011, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
    4763 <li>Type 1012, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
    4764 <li>Type 1013, Modified Julian Date, leap second, configured message types and interval.</li>
    4765 <li>Type 1014 and 1017, Network RTK (MAK) messages.</li>
    4766 <li>Type 1019, GPS ephemeris.</li>
    4767 <li>Type 1020, GLONASS ephemeris.</li>
    4768 <li>Type 1043, SBAS ephemeris.</li>
    4769 <li>Type 1044, QZSS ephemeris.</li>
    4770 <li>Type 1045, Galileo F/NAV ephemeris.</li>
    4771 <li>Type 1046, Galileo I/NAV ephemeris.</li>
    4772 <li>Type   63, BeiDou ephemeris, tentative.</li>
    4773 <li>Type 4088 and 4095, Proprietary messages.
    4774 </li>
     4888  <li>Type 1001, GPS L1 code and phase.</li>
     4889  <li>Type 1002, GPS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
     4890  <li>Type 1003, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
     4891  <li>Type 1004, GPS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
     4892  <li>Type 1005, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point.</li>
     4893  <li>Type 1006, Station coordinates XYZ for antenna reference point and antenna height.</li>
     4894  <li>Type 1007, Antenna descriptor and ID.</li>
     4895  <li>Type 1008, Antenna serial number.</li>
     4896  <li>Type 1009, GLONASS L1 code and phase.</li>
     4897  <li>Type 1010, GLONASS L1 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
     4898  <li>Type 1011, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase.</li>
     4899  <li>Type 1012, GLONASS L1 and L2 code and phase and ambiguities and carrier-to-noise ratio.</li>
     4900  <li>Type 1013, Modified Julian Date, leap second, configured message types and interval.</li>
     4901  <li>Type 1014 and 1017, Network RTK (MAK) messages.</li>
     4902  <li>Type 1019, GPS ephemeris.</li>
     4903  <li>Type 1020, GLONASS ephemeris.</li>
     4904  <li>Type 1043, SBAS ephemeris.</li>
     4905  <li>Type 1044, QZSS ephemeris.</li>
     4906  <li>Type 1045, Galileo F/NAV ephemeris.</li>
     4907  <li>Type 1046, Galileo I/NAV ephemeris.</li>
     4908  <li>Type   63, BeiDou ephemeris, tentative.</li>
     4909  <li>Type 4088 and 4095, Proprietary messages.</li>
    47754910</ul>
    47764911</p>
     
    47794914The following are so-called 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages:
    47804915<ul>
    4781 <li>Type 1057, GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4782 <li>Type 1058, GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4783 <li>Type 1059, GPS code biases</li>
    4784 <li>Type 1060, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4785 <li>Type 1061, GPS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    4786 <li>Type 1062, High-rate GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
    4787 
    4788 <li>Type 1063, GLONASS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4789 <li>Type 1064, GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4790 <li>Type 1065, GLONASS code biases</li>
    4791 <li>Type 1066, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4792 <li>Type 1067, GLONASS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    4793 <li>Type 1068, High-rate GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
    4794 
    4795 <li>Type 1240, Galileo orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4796 <li>Type 1241, Galileo clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4797 <li>Type 1242, Galileo code biases</li>
    4798 <li>Type 1243, Combined orbit and clock corrections to Galileo Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4799 <li>Type 1244, Galileo User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    4800 <li>Type 1245, High-rate Galileo clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
    4801 
    4802 <li>Type 1246, QZSS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4803 <li>Type 1247, QZSS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4804 <li>Type 1248, QZSS code biases</li>
    4805 <li>Type 1249, Combined orbit and clock corrections to QZSS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4806 <li>Type 1250, QZSS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    4807 <li>Type 1251, High-rate QZSS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
    4808 
    4809 <li>Type 1252, SBAS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4810 <li>Type 1253, SBAS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4811 <li>Type 1254, SBAS code biases</li>
    4812 <li>Type 1255, Combined orbit and clock corrections to SBAS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4813 <li>Type 1256, SBAS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    4814 <li>Type 1257, High-rate SBAS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
    4815 
    4816 <li>Type 1258, BDS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4817 <li>Type 1259, BDS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4818 <li>Type 1260, BDS code biases</li>
    4819 <li>Type 1261, Combined orbit and clock corrections to BDS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
    4820 <li>Type 1262, BDS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
    4821 <li>Type 1263, High-rate BDS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
    4822 
    4823 <li>Type 1264 SSR Ionosphere VTEC Spherical Harmonics</li>
    4824 <li>Type 1265 SSR GPS Satellite Phase Bias</li>
    4825 <li>Type 1266 SSR Satellite GLONASS Phase Bias</li>
    4826 <li>Type 1267 SSR Satellite Galileo Phase Bias</li>
    4827 <li>Type 1268 SSR Satellite QZSS Phase Bias</li>
    4828 <li>Type 1269 SSR Satellite SBAS Phase Bias</li>
    4829 <li>Type 1270 SSR Satellite BDS Phase Bias</li>
     4916  <li>Type 1057, GPS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4917  <li>Type 1058, GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4918  <li>Type 1059, GPS code biases</li>
     4919  <li>Type 1060, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GPS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4920  <li>Type 1061, GPS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     4921  <li>Type 1062, High-rate GPS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
     4922
     4923  <li>Type 1063, GLONASS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4924  <li>Type 1064, GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4925  <li>Type 1065, GLONASS code biases</li>
     4926  <li>Type 1066, Combined orbit and clock corrections to GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4927  <li>Type 1067, GLONASS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     4928  <li>Type 1068, High-rate GLONASS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
     4929
     4930  <li>Type 1240, Galileo orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4931  <li>Type 1241, Galileo clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4932  <li>Type 1242, Galileo code biases</li>
     4933  <li>Type 1243, Combined orbit and clock corrections to Galileo Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4934  <li>Type 1244, Galileo User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     4935  <li>Type 1245, High-rate Galileo clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
     4936
     4937  <li>Type 1246, QZSS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4938  <li>Type 1247, QZSS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4939  <li>Type 1248, QZSS code biases</li>
     4940  <li>Type 1249, Combined orbit and clock corrections to QZSS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4941  <li>Type 1250, QZSS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     4942  <li>Type 1251, High-rate QZSS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
     4943
     4944  <li>Type 1252, SBAS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4945  <li>Type 1253, SBAS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4946  <li>Type 1254, SBAS code biases</li>
     4947  <li>Type 1255, Combined orbit and clock corrections to SBAS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4948  <li>Type 1256, SBAS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     4949  <li>Type 1257, High-rate SBAS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
     4950
     4951  <li>Type 1258, BDS orbit corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4952  <li>Type 1259, BDS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4953  <li>Type 1260, BDS code biases</li>
     4954  <li>Type 1261, Combined orbit and clock corrections to BDS Broadcast Ephemeris</li>
     4955  <li>Type 1262, BDS User Range Accuracy (URA)</li>
     4956  <li>Type 1263, High-rate BDS clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris<br><br></li>
     4957
     4958  <li>Type 1264 SSR Ionosphere VTEC Spherical Harmonics</li>
     4959  <li>Type 1265 SSR GPS Satellite Phase Bias</li>
     4960  <li>Type 1266 SSR Satellite GLONASS Phase Bias</li>
     4961  <li>Type 1267 SSR Satellite Galileo Phase Bias</li>
     4962  <li>Type 1268 SSR Satellite QZSS Phase Bias</li>
     4963  <li>Type 1269 SSR Satellite SBAS Phase Bias</li>
     4964  <li>Type 1270 SSR Satellite BDS Phase Bias</li>
    48304965</ul>
    48314966</p>
     
    48344969The following are so-called 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM):
    48354970<ul>
    4836 <li>Type 1071, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges</li>
    4837 <li>Type 1072, Compact GPS carrier phases</li>
    4838 <li>Type 1073, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
    4839 <li>Type 1074, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
    4840 <li>Type 1075, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
    4841 <li>Type 1076, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
    4842 <li>Type 1077, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    4843 <li>Type 1081, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges</li>
    4844 <li>Type 1082, Compact GLONASS carrier phases</li>
    4845 <li>Type 1083, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
    4846 <li>Type 1084, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
    4847 <li>Type 1085, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
    4848 <li>Type 1086, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
    4849 <li>Type 1087, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    4850 <li>Type 1091, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges</li>
    4851 <li>Type 1092, Compact Galileo carrier phases</li>
    4852 <li>Type 1093, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
    4853 <li>Type 1094, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
    4854 <li>Type 1095, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
    4855 <li>Type 1096, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
    4856 <li>Type 1097, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    4857 <li>Type 1121, Compact BeiDou pseudo-ranges</li>
    4858 <li>Type 1122, Compact BeiDou carrier phases</li>
    4859 <li>Type 1123, Compact BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
    4860 <li>Type 1124, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
    4861 <li>Type 1125, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
    4862 <li>Type 1126, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
    4863 <li>Type 1127, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    4864 <li>Type 1111, Compact QZSS pseudo-ranges</li>
    4865 <li>Type 1112, Compact QZSS carrier phases</li>
    4866 <li>Type 1113, Compact QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
    4867 <li>Type 1114, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
    4868 <li>Type 1115, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
    4869 <li>Type 1116, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
    4870 <li>Type 1117, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    4871 
     4971  <li>Type 1071, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges</li>
     4972  <li>Type 1072, Compact GPS carrier phases</li>
     4973  <li>Type 1073, Compact GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
     4974  <li>Type 1074, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
     4975  <li>Type 1075, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
     4976  <li>Type 1076, Full GPS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
     4977  <li>Type 1077, Full GPS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
     4978  <li>Type 1081, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges</li>
     4979  <li>Type 1082, Compact GLONASS carrier phases</li>
     4980  <li>Type 1083, Compact GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
     4981  <li>Type 1084, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
     4982  <li>Type 1085, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
     4983  <li>Type 1086, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
     4984  <li>Type 1087, Full GLONASS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
     4985  <li>Type 1091, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges</li>
     4986  <li>Type 1092, Compact Galileo carrier phases</li>
     4987  <li>Type 1093, Compact Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
     4988  <li>Type 1094, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
     4989  <li>Type 1095, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
     4990  <li>Type 1096, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
     4991  <li>Type 1097, Full Galileo pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
     4992  <li>Type 1121, Compact BeiDou pseudo-ranges</li>
     4993  <li>Type 1122, Compact BeiDou carrier phases</li>
     4994  <li>Type 1123, Compact BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
     4995  <li>Type 1124, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
     4996  <li>Type 1125, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
     4997  <li>Type 1126, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
     4998  <li>Type 1127, Full BeiDou pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
     4999  <li>Type 1111, Compact QZSS pseudo-ranges</li>
     5000  <li>Type 1112, Compact QZSS carrier phases</li>
     5001  <li>Type 1113, Compact QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
     5002  <li>Type 1114, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
     5003  <li>Type 1115, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
     5004  <li>Type 1116, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
     5005  <li>Type 1117, Full QZSS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    48725006</ul>
    48735007</p>
     
    48765010The following are proposed 'Multiple Signal Messages' (MSM) under discussion for standardization:
    48775011<ul>
    4878 <li>Type 1101, Compact SBAS pseudo-ranges</li>
    4879 <li>Type 1102, Compact SBAS carrier phases</li>
    4880 <li>Type 1103, Compact SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
    4881 <li>Type 1104, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
    4882 <li>Type 1105, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
    4883 <li>Type 1106, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
    4884 <li>Type 1107, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
    4885 </ul>
    4886 </p>
    4887 
    4888 <p><h4>3.2 <a name="confList">Command Line Help</h3></p>
     5012  <li>Type 1101, Compact SBAS pseudo-ranges</li>
     5013  <li>Type 1102, Compact SBAS carrier phases</li>
     5014  <li>Type 1103, Compact SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases</li>
     5015  <li>Type 1104, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength</li>
     5016  <li>Type 1105, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength</li>
     5017  <li>Type 1106, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges and carrier phases plus signal strength (high resolution)</li>
     5018  <li>Type 1107, Full SBAS pseudo-ranges, carrier phases, Doppler and signal strength (high resolution)<br><br></li>
     5019</ul>
     5020</p>
     5021
     5022<p><h4 id="confList">3.2 Command Line Help</h3></p>
    48895023
    48905024<p>
    48915025Command line option '--help' provides a complete list of all configuration parameters which can be specified via BNC's Command Line Interface (CLI). Note that command line options overrule configuration options specified in the configuration file. The following is the output produced when running BNC with command line option '--help':
    48925026</p>
     5027
    48935028<pre>
    48945029<b>Usage:</b>
     
    51295264                            CUT07,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,0.1,3e-6,7778"
    51305265</pre>
    5131 <p><h4>3.3 <a name="links">Further Reading</h3></p>
    5132 
     5266<p><h4 id="links">3.3 Further Reading</h3></p>
     5267
     5268<b>Links:</b><br>
    51335269<table>
    5134 <tr></tr>
    5135 <tr><td><b>Links</b></td></tr>
    5136 <tr><td>Ntrip &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/index</u></td></tr>
    5137 <tr><td>EUREF-IP Ntrip Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
    5138 <tr><td>IGS-IP Ntrip Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
    5139 <tr><td>IGS products Ntrip Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://products.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
    5140 <tr><td>IGS M-GEX Ntrip Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u></td></tr>
    5141 <tr><td>IGS Central Bureau Ntrip Broadcaster &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://rt.igs.org</u></td></tr>
    5142 <tr><td>IGS Real-time Service &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://rts.igs.org</u></td></tr>
    5143 <tr><td>Distribution of IGS-IP streams &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs.oma.be/real_time/</u></td></tr>
    5144 <tr><td>Completeness and latency of IGS-IP data &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.igs.oma.be/highrate/</u></td></tr>
    5145 <tr><td>Ntrip Broadcaster overview &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u></td></tr>
    5146 <tr><td>Ntrip Open Source software code &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org</u></td></tr>
    5147 <tr><td>EUREF-IP Project &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.epncb.oma.be/euref_IP</u></td></tr>
    5148 <tr><td>Real-time IGS Pilot Project &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtigs.net/pilot</u></td></tr>
    5149 <tr><td>Radio Technical Commission<br>for Maritime Services &nbsp;</td><td><u>http://www.rtcm.org</u>
     5270  <tr><td>Ntrip &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/index" target="_blank">http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/index</a></td></tr>
     5271  <tr><td>IGS Real-time Service &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://rts.igs.org" target="_blank">http://rts.igs.org</a></td></tr>
     5272  <tr><td>Distribution of IGS-IP streams &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://www.igs.oma.be/real_time/" target="_blank">http://www.igs.oma.be/real_time/</a></td></tr>
     5273  <tr><td>Completeness and latency of IGS-IP data &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://www.igs.oma.be/highrate/" target="_blank">http://www.igs.oma.be/highrate/</a></td></tr>
     5274  <tr><td>Ntrip Broadcaster overview &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home" target="_blank">http://www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</a></td></tr>
     5275  <tr><td>Ntrip Open Source software code &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org" target="_blank">http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org</a></td></tr>
     5276  <tr><td>EUREF-IP Project &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://www.epncb.oma.be/euref_IP" target="_blank">http://www.epncb.oma.be/euref_IP</a></td></tr>
     5277  <tr><td>Real-time IGS Pilot Project &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://www.rtigs.net/pilot" target="_blank">http://www.rtigs.net/pilot</a></td></tr>
     5278  <tr><td>Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services &nbsp;</td><td><a href="http://www.rtcm.org" target="_blank">http://www.rtcm.org</a></td></tr>
    51505279</table>
    5151 
    51525280<br>
     5281
     5282<b>Publications:</b><br>
     5283<table border="1">
     5284<tr><td>Caissy, M., L. Agrotis, G. Weber, M. Hernandez-Pajares and U. Hugentobler (2012)</td><td>The International GNSS Real-Time Service. GPS World, June 1, 2012.</td></tr>
     5285
     5286<tr><td>Estey, L. H. and C. M. Meertens (1999)</td><td>TEQC: The Multi-Purpose Toolkit for GPS/GLONASS Data. GPS Solutions, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 42-49, 1999.</td></tr>
     5287
     5288<tr><td>Huisman, L., P. Teunissen and C. Hu (2012)</td><td>GNSS Precise Point Positioning in Regional Reference Frames Using Real-time Broadcast Corrections. Journal of Applied Geodesy, Vol. 6, pp15-23, 2012.</td></tr>
     5289
     5290<tr><td>Mervart, L., Z. Lukes, C. Rocken and T. Iwabuchi (2008)</td><td>Precise Point Positioning With Ambiguity Resolution in Real-Time. ION GNSS 2008.</td></tr>
     5291
     5292<tr><td>RTCM SC-104 (2011)</td><td>Amendment 1 to RTCM Standard 10410.1 Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (Ntrip) - Version 2.0. RTCM Papter 139-2011-SC104-STD, 2011.</td></tr>
     5293
     5294<tr><td>Rupprecht, W. (2000)</td><td>DGPS-IP. <a href="http://www.wsrcc.com/wolfgang/gps/dgps-ip.html" target="_blank">http://www.wsrcc.com/wolfgang/gps/dgps-ip.html</a>, 2000.</td></tr>
     5295
     5296<tr><td>Weber, G., D. Dettmering and H. Gebhard (2005a)</td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP). In: Sanso F. (Ed.): A Window on the Future, Proceedings of the IAG General Assembly, Sapporo, Japan, 2003, Springer Verlag, Symposia Series, Vol. 128, p. 60-64, 2005.</td></tr>
     5297
     5298<tr><td>Weber, G., D. Dettmering, H. Gebhard and R. Kalafus (2005b)</td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (Ntrip), IP-Streaming for Real-Time GNSS Applications. ION GNSS 2005.</td></tr>
     5299
     5300<tr><td>Weber, G., and M. Honkala (2004)</td><td>The future is talking Ntrip. Newsletter, Trimble GmbH Raunheim, Germany, 2004.</td></tr>
     5301
     5302<tr><td>Weber, G. and L. Mervart (2009)</td><td>The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC), Report on EUREF Symposium 2007 in London. Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Band 42, Frankfurt, 2009.</td></tr>
     5303
     5304<tr><td>Weber, G. and L. Mervart (2010)</td><td>Real-time Combination of GNSS Orbit and Clock Correction Streams Using a Kalman Filter Approach. ION GNSS 2010.</td></tr>
     5305
     5306<tr><td>Weber, G, L. Mervart, Z. Lukes, C. Rocken and J. Dousa (2007)</td><td>Real-time Clock and Orbit Corrections for Improved Point Positioning via Ntrip. ION GNSS 2007.</td></tr>
     5307
     5308<tr><td>Weber, G., L. Mervart, A. St&uuml;rze, A. R&uuml;lke and D. St&ouml;cker (2016)</td><td>BKG Ntrip Client, Version 2.12. Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes f&uuml;r Kartographie und Geod&auml;sie, Vol. 49, Frankfurt am Main, 2016.</td><tr>
     5309
     5310</table>
     5311
     5312<p><h4 id="abbrev">3.4 Abbreviations</h3></p>
    51535313<table>
    5154 <tr><td><b>Publications</b></td></tr>
    5155 
    5156 <tr><td>Caissy, M., L. Agrotis, G. Weber, M. Hernandez-Pajares and U. Hugentobler (2012)</td><td>The International GNSS Real-Time Service. GPS World, June 1, 2012.</td></tr>
    5157 
    5158 <tr><td>Estey, L. H. and C. M. Meertens (1999)</td><td>TEQC: The Multi-Purpose Toolkit for GPS/GLONASS Data. GPS Solutions, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 42-49, 1999.</td></tr>
    5159 
    5160 <tr><td>Huisman, L., P. Teunissen and C. Hu (2012)</td><td>GNSS Precise Point Positioning in Regional Reference Frames Using Real-time Broadcast Corrections. Journal of Applied Geodesy, Vol. 6, pp15-23, 2012.</td></tr>
    5161 
    5162 <tr><td>Mervart, L., Z. Lukes, C. Rocken and T. Iwabuchi (2008)</td><td>Precise Point Positioning With Ambiguity Resolution in Real-Time. ION GNSS 2008.</td></tr>
    5163 
    5164 <tr><td>RTCM SC-104 (2011)</td><td>Amendment 1 to RTCM Standard 10410.1 Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (Ntrip) - Version 2.0. RTCM Papter 139-2011-SC104-STD, 2011.</td></tr>
    5165 
    5166 <tr><td>Rupprecht, W. (2000)</td><td>DGPS-IP. <u>http://www.wsrcc.com/wolfgang/gps/dgps-ip.html</u>, 2000.</td></tr>
    5167 
    5168 <tr><td>Weber, G., D. Dettmering and H. Gebhard (2005a)</td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP). In: Sanso F. (Ed.): A Window on the Future, Proceedings of the IAG General Assembly, Sapporo, Japan, 2003, Springer Verlag, Symposia Series, Vol. 128, p. 60-64, 2005.</td></tr>
    5169 
    5170 <tr><td>Weber, G., D. Dettmering, H. Gebhard and R. Kalafus (2005b)</td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (Ntrip), IP-Streaming for Real-Time GNSS Applications. ION GNSS 2005.</td></tr>
    5171 
    5172 <tr><td>Weber, G., and M. Honkala (2004)</td><td>The future is talking Ntrip. Newsletter, Trimble GmbH Raunheim, Germany, 2004.</td></tr>
    5173 
    5174 <tr><td>Weber, G. and L. Mervart (2009)</td><td>The BKG Ntrip Client (BNC), Report on EUREF Symposium 2007 in London. Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Band 42, Frankfurt, 2009.</td></tr>
    5175 
    5176 <tr><td>Weber, G. and L. Mervart (2010)</td><td>Real-time Combination of GNSS Orbit and Clock Correction Streams Using a Kalman Filter Approach. ION GNSS 2010.</td></tr>
    5177 
    5178 <tr><td>Weber, G, L. Mervart, Z. Lukes, C. Rocken and J. Dousa (2007)</td><td>Real-time Clock and Orbit Corrections for Improved Point Positioning via Ntrip. ION GNSS 2007.</td></tr>
    5179 
    5180 <tr><td>Weber, G., L. Mervart, A. St&uuml;rze, A. R&uuml;lke and D. St&ouml;cker (2016)</td><td>BKG Ntrip Client, Version 2.12. Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes f&uuml;r Kartographie und Geod&auml;sie, Vol. 49, Frankfurt am Main, 2016.</td><tr>
    5181 
     5314  <tr><td>AC</td><td>Analysis Center</td></tr>
     5315  <tr><td>AFREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Africa</td></tr>
     5316  <tr><td>ANTEX</td><td>Antenna Exchange Format</td></tr>
     5317  <tr><td>APC</td><td>Antenna Phase Center</td></tr>
     5318  <tr><td>APREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Asia and Pacific</td></tr>
     5319  <tr><td>ARP</td><td>Antenna Reference Point</td></tr>
     5320  <tr><td>BKG</td><td>Bundesamt f&uuml;r Kartographie und  Geod&auml;sie</td></tr>
     5321  <tr><td>BNC</td><td>BNK Ntrip Client</td></tr>
     5322  <tr><td>BSW</td><td>Bernese GNSS Software</td></tr>
     5323  <tr><td>CC</td><td>Combination Center</td></tr>
     5324  <tr><td>CLI</td><td>Command Line Interface</td></tr>
     5325  <tr><td>CoM</td><td>Center Of Mass</td></tr>
     5326  <tr><td>DGNSS</td><td>Differential GNSS</td></tr>
     5327  <tr><td>DGPS-IP</td><td>Differential GPS via Internet Protocol</td></tr>
     5328  <tr><td>DMG</td><td>Disk Image, File</td></tr>
     5329  <tr><td>DREF91</td><td>Geodetic Datum for Germany 1991</td></tr>
     5330  <tr><td>ECEF</td><td>Earth-Centred-Earth-Fixed</td></tr>
     5331  <tr><td>EDGE</td><td>Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution</td></tr>
     5332  <tr><td>ETRF2000</td><td>European Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000</td></tr>
     5333  <tr><td>EUREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe</td></tr>
     5334  <tr><td>EoE</td><td>End of Epoch</td></tr>
     5335  <tr><td>FKP</td><td>Fl&auml;chen-Korrektur-Parameter</td></tr>
     5336  <tr><td>FTP</td><td>File Transfer Protocol</td></tr>
     5337  <tr><td>GDA2020</td><td>Geodetic Datum Australia 2020</td></tr>
     5338  <tr><td>GM</td><td>Google Maps</td></tr>
     5339  <tr><td>GNSS</td><td>Global Navigation Satellite System</td></tr>
     5340  <tr><td>GNU</td><td>GNU's Not Unix</td></tr>
     5341  <tr><td>GPL</td><td>General Public License</td></tr>
     5342  <tr><td>GPRS</td><td>General Packet Radio Service</td></tr>
     5343  <tr><td>GPSWD</td><td>GPS Week and Day</td></tr>
     5344  <tr><td>GSM</td><td>Global System for Mobile Communications</td></tr>
     5345  <tr><td>GUI</td><td>Graphical User Interface</td></tr>
     5346  <tr><td>HP MSM</td><td>High Precision Multiple Signal Messages</td></tr>
     5347  <tr><td>HR URA</td><td>High Rate User Range Accuracy</td></tr>
     5348  <tr><td>HTTP</td><td>Hypertext Transfer Protocol</td></tr>
     5349  <tr><td>HTTPS</td><td>Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure</td></tr>
     5350  <tr><td>IAG</td><td>International Association of Geodesy</td></tr>
     5351  <tr><td>ICECAST</td><td>Streaming Media Server</td></tr>
     5352  <tr><td>IGS14</td><td>IGS Reference Frame 2014</td></tr>
     5353  <tr><td>IGS</td><td>International GNSS Service</td></tr>
     5354  <tr><td>IOD</td><td>Issue of Data</td></tr>
     5355  <tr><td>IP</td><td>Internet Protocol</td></tr>
     5356  <tr><td>ITRF2014</td><td>International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014</td></tr>
     5357  <tr><td>L3</td><td>Ionosphere-Free Linear Combination Of Phase Observations</td></tr>
     5358  <tr><td>LAN</td><td>Local Area Network</td></tr>
     5359  <tr><td>LC</td><td>Linea Combination</td></tr>
     5360  <tr><td>M-GEX</td><td>Multi GNSS-Experiment</td></tr>
     5361  <tr><td>MAC</td><td>Master Auxiliary Concept</td></tr>
     5362  <tr><td>MJD</td><td>Modified Julian Date</td></tr>
     5363  <tr><td>MSI</td><td>Microsoft Installer, File</td></tr>
     5364  <tr><td>MSM</td><td>Multiple Signal Messages</td></tr>
     5365  <tr><td>MW</td><td>Melbourne W&uuml;bbena Linear Combination</td></tr>
     5366  <tr><td>NAD83</td><td>North American Datum 1983</td></tr>
     5367  <tr><td>NAREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for North America</td></tr>
     5368  <tr><td>NMEA</td><td>National Marine Electronics Association Format</td></tr>
     5369  <tr><td>Ntrip</td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol</td></tr>
     5370  <tr><td>OSM</td><td>OpenStreetMap</td></tr>
     5371  <tr><td>OSR</td><td>Observation Space Representation</td></tr>
     5372  <tr><td>P3</td><td>Ionosphere-Free Linear Combination Of Code Observations</td></tr>
     5373  <tr><td>PDOP</td><td>Positional Dilution Of Precision</td></tr>
     5374  <tr><td>PNG</td><td>Portable Network Graphics</td></tr>
     5375  <tr><td>PPP</td><td>Precise Point Positioning</td></tr>
     5376  <tr><td>Qt</td><td>Cross-Platform Application Framework</td></tr>
     5377  <tr><td>REQC</td><td>RINEX Editing and Quality Checking</td></tr>
     5378  <tr><td>RINEX</td><td>Receiver Independent Exchange Format</td></tr>
     5379  <tr><td>RTCM SC-104</td><td>Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104</td></tr>
     5380  <tr><td>RTK</td><td>Real Time Kinematic</td></tr>
     5381  <tr><td>RTKPLOT</td><td>View and Plot Positioning Solutions Software, Part of RTKLIB</td></tr>
     5382  <tr><td>RTNET</td><td>Real-Time Network Format</td></tr>
     5383  <tr><td>RTP</td><td>Real-Time Transport Protocol</td></tr>
     5384  <tr><td>RTSP</td><td>Real-Time Streaming Protocol</td></tr>
     5385  <tr><td>SBAS</td><td>Space Based Augmentation System</td></tr>
     5386  <tr><td>SINEX TRO</td><td>Troposphere Solution Independent Exchange Format</td></tr>
     5387  <tr><td>SINEX</td><td>Solution Independent Exchange Format</td></tr>
     5388  <tr><td>SIRGAS2000</td><td>Geodetic Datum for Latin America and Caribbean 2000</td></tr>
     5389  <tr><td>SIRGAS</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Latin America and Caribbean</td></tr>
     5390  <tr><td>SP3</td><td>Standard Product # 3</td></tr>
     5391  <tr><td>SPP</td><td>Single Point Positioning</td></tr>
     5392  <tr><td>SSL</td><td>Secure Sockets Layer</td></tr>
     5393  <tr><td>SSR</td><td>State Space Representation</td></tr>
     5394  <tr><td>SVN</td><td>Subversion, Revision Control System</td></tr>
     5395  <tr><td>TCP</td><td>Transmission Control Protocol</td></tr>
     5396  <tr><td>TEQC</td><td>Translation, Editing and Quality Checking</td></tr>
     5397  <tr><td>TLS</td><td>Transport Layer Security</td></tr>
     5398  <tr><td>UDP</td><td>User Datagram Protocol</td></tr>
     5399  <tr><td>UMTS</td><td>Universal Mobile Telecommunications System</td></tr>
     5400  <tr><td>URA</td><td>User Range Accuracy</td></tr>
     5401  <tr><td>VRS</td><td>Virtual Reference Station</td></tr>
     5402  <tr><td>VTEC</td><td>Vertical Total Electron Content</td></tr>
    51825403</table>
    51835404
    5184 <p><h4>3.4 <a name="abbrev">Abbreviations</h3></p>
    5185 <table>
    5186 
    5187 <tr><td>AC</td><td>Analysis Center</td></tr>
    5188 <tr><td>AFREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Africa</td></tr>
    5189 <tr><td>ANTEX</td><td>Antenna Exchange Format</td></tr>
    5190 <tr><td>APC</td><td>Antenna Phase Center</td></tr>
    5191 <tr><td>APREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Asia and Pacific</td></tr>
    5192 <tr><td>ARP</td><td>Antenna Reference Point</td></tr>
    5193 <tr><td>BKG</td><td>Bundesamt f&uuml;r Kartographie und  Geod&auml;sie</td></tr>
    5194 <tr><td>BNC</td><td>BNK Ntrip Client</td></tr>
    5195 <tr><td>BSW</td><td>Bernese GNSS Software</td></tr>
    5196 <tr><td>CC</td><td>Combination Center</td></tr>
    5197 <tr><td>CLI</td><td>Command Line Interface</td></tr>
    5198 <tr><td>CoM</td><td>Center Of Mass</td></tr>
    5199 <tr><td>DGNSS</td><td>Differential GNSS</td></tr>
    5200 <tr><td>DGPS-IP</td><td>Differential GPS via Internet Protocol</td></tr>
    5201 <tr><td>DMG</td><td>Disk Image, File</td></tr>
    5202 <tr><td>DREF91</td><td>Geodetic Datum for Germany 1991</td></tr>
    5203 <tr><td>ECEF</td><td>Earth-Centred-Earth-Fixed</td></tr>
    5204 <tr><td>EDGE</td><td>Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution</td></tr>
    5205 <tr><td>ETRF2000</td><td>European Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000</td></tr>
    5206 <tr><td>EUREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe</td></tr>
    5207 <tr><td>EoE</td><td>End of Epoch</td></tr>
    5208 <tr><td>FKP</td><td>Fl&auml;chen-Korrektur-Parameter</td></tr>
    5209 <tr><td>FTP</td><td>File Transfer Protocol</td></tr>
    5210 <tr><td>GDA2020</td><td>Geodetic Datum Australia 2020</td></tr>
    5211 <tr><td>GM</td><td>Google Maps</td></tr>
    5212 <tr><td>GNSS</td><td>Global Navigation Satellite System</td></tr>
    5213 <tr><td>GNU</td><td>GNU's Not Unix</td></tr>
    5214 <tr><td>GPL</td><td>General Public License</td></tr>
    5215 <tr><td>GPRS</td><td>General Packet Radio Service</td></tr>
    5216 <tr><td>GPSWD</td><td>GPS Week and Day</td></tr>
    5217 <tr><td>GSM</td><td>Global System for Mobile Communications</td></tr>
    5218 <tr><td>GUI</td><td>Graphical User Interface</td></tr>
    5219 <tr><td>HP MSM</td><td>High Precision Multiple Signal Messages</td></tr>
    5220 <tr><td>HR URA</td><td>High Rate User Range Accuracy</td></tr>
    5221 <tr><td>HTTP</td><td>Hypertext Transfer Protocol</td></tr>
    5222 <tr><td>HTTPS</td><td>Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure</td></tr>
    5223 <tr><td>IAG</td><td>International Association of Geodesy</td></tr>
    5224 <tr><td>ICECAST</td><td>Streaming Media Server</td></tr>
    5225 <tr><td>IGS14</td><td>IGS Reference Frame 2014</td></tr>
    5226 <tr><td>IGS</td><td>International GNSS Service</td></tr>
    5227 <tr><td>IOD</td><td>Issue of Data</td></tr>
    5228 <tr><td>IP</td><td>Internet Protocol</td></tr>
    5229 <tr><td>ITRF2014</td><td>International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014</td></tr>
    5230 <tr><td>L3</td><td>Ionosphere-Free Linear Combination Of Phase Observations</td></tr>
    5231 <tr><td>LAN</td><td>Local Area Network</td></tr>
    5232 <tr><td>LC</td><td>Linea Combination</td></tr>
    5233 <tr><td>M-GEX</td><td>Multi GNSS-Experiment</td></tr>
    5234 <tr><td>MAC</td><td>Master Auxiliary Concept</td></tr>
    5235 <tr><td>MJD</td><td>Modified Julian Date</td></tr>
    5236 <tr><td>MSI</td><td>Microsoft Installer, File</td></tr>
    5237 <tr><td>MSM</td><td>Multiple Signal Messages</td></tr>
    5238 <tr><td>MW</td><td>Melbourne W&uuml;bbena Linear Combination</td></tr>
    5239 <tr><td>NAD83</td><td>North American Datum 1983</td></tr>
    5240 <tr><td>NAREF</td><td>IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for North America</td></tr>
    5241 <tr><td>NMEA</td><td>National Marine Electronics Association Format</td></tr>
    5242 <tr><td>Ntrip</td><td>Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol</td></tr>
    5243 <tr><td>OSM</td><td>OpenStreetMap</td></tr>
    5244 <tr><td>OSR</td><td>Observation Space Representation</td></tr>
    5245 <tr><td>P3</td><td>Ionosphere-Free Linear Combination Of Code Observations</td></tr>
    5246 <tr><td>PDOP</td><td>Positional Dilution Of Precision</td></tr>
    5247 <tr><td>PNG</td><td>Portable Network Graphics</td></tr>
    5248 <tr><td>PPP</td><td>Precise Point Positioning</td></tr>
    5249 <tr><td>Qt</td><td>Cross-Platform Application Framework</td></tr>
    5250 <tr><td>REQC</td><td>RINEX Editing and Quality Checking</td></tr>
    5251 <tr><td>RINEX</td><td>Receiver Independent Exchange Format</td></tr>
    5252 <tr><td>RTCM SC-104</td><td>Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104</td></tr>
    5253 <tr><td>RTK</td><td>Real Time Kinematic</td></tr>
    5254 <tr><td>RTKPLOT</td><td>View and Plot Positioning Solutions Software, Part of RTKLIB</td></tr>
    5255 <tr><td>RTNET</td><td>Real-Time Network Format</td></tr>
    5256 <tr><td>RTP</td><td>Real-Time Transport Protocol</td></tr>
    5257 <tr><td>RTSP</td><td>Real-Time Streaming Protocol</td></tr>
    5258 <tr><td>SBAS</td><td>Space Based Augmentation System</td></tr>
    5259 <tr><td>SINEX TRO</td><td>Troposphere Solution Independent Exchange Format</td></tr>
    5260 <tr><td>SINEX</td><td>Solution Independent Exchange Format</td></tr>
    5261