Changeset 8042 in ntrip


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Sep 27, 2016, 10:48:23 AM (13 months ago)
Author:
stuerze
Message:

documentation is now adapted regarding epehemris upload; it is possible now for more than one stream and can be defined for individial or all satellite systems with the paramerter 'system'

File:
1 edited

Legend:

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  • trunk/BNC/docs/sphinx/source/chapter5.rst

    r8039 r8042  
    11.. index:: BNC software settings
    22
    3 .. 
     3..
    44   for latex
    5    
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    77.. |CWPX_?| replace:: CWPX\_\?
    88.. |R:PCX_?| replace:: R:PCX\_\?
     
    1010
    1111..
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    13    
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    1414   .. |G:CWPX_?| replace:: `G:CWPX_?`
    1515   .. |CWPX_?| replace:: `CWPX_?`
     
    1919BNC software settings
    2020*********************
    21 The general documentation approach is to create a separate chapter for each processing option in a sequence which follows the layout of BNC's Graphical User Interface (GUI). The advantage is that searching for help by means of the document's Table of Contents (TOC) is quite convenient. 
    22 
    23 The following chapters describe how to set BNC program options. They explain the 'Top Menu Bar', the 'Settings Canvas' with the processing options, the content of the 'Streams Canvas' and 'Logging Canvas', and the 'Bottom Menu Bar'. 
     21The general documentation approach is to create a separate chapter for each processing option in a sequence which follows the layout of BNC's Graphical User Interface (GUI). The advantage is that searching for help by means of the document's Table of Contents (TOC) is quite convenient.
     22
     23The following chapters describe how to set BNC program options. They explain the 'Top Menu Bar', the 'Settings Canvas' with the processing options, the content of the 'Streams Canvas' and 'Logging Canvas', and the 'Bottom Menu Bar'.
    2424
    2525.. index:: Top Menu Bar
     
    2828============
    2929
    30 The top menu bar allows selecting a font for the BNC windows, save configured options, or quit the program execution. It also provides access to the program's documentation. 
    31  
     30The top menu bar allows selecting a font for the BNC windows, save configured options, or quit the program execution. It also provides access to the program's documentation.
     31
    3232File
    3333----
    34 The 'File' button lets you 
    35 
    36 * Select an appropriate font. Use smaller font size if the BNC main window exceeds the size of your screen. 
    37 * Reread and save selected options in configuration file. When using 'Reread \& Save Configuration' while BNC is already processing data, some configuration options become immediately effective on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads while all of them are saved on disk. See section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of on-the-fly changeable configuration options. 
    38 * Quit the BNC program. 
     34The 'File' button lets you
     35
     36* Select an appropriate font. Use smaller font size if the BNC main window exceeds the size of your screen.
     37* Reread and save selected options in configuration file. When using 'Reread \& Save Configuration' while BNC is already processing data, some configuration options become immediately effective on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads while all of them are saved on disk. See section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of on-the-fly changeable configuration options.
     38* Quit the BNC program.
    3939
    4040Help
    4141----
    42 The 'Help' button provides access to 
    43 
    44 * Help contents. You may keep the 'Help Contents' window open while configuring BNC. 
    45 * A 'Flow Chart' showing BNC linked to a real-time GNSS network engine such as RTNET. 
    46 * General information about BNC. Close the 'About BNC' window to continue working with BNC. 
     42The 'Help' button provides access to
     43
     44* Help contents. You may keep the 'Help Contents' window open while configuring BNC.
     45* A 'Flow Chart' showing BNC linked to a real-time GNSS network engine such as RTNET.
     46* General information about BNC. Close the 'About BNC' window to continue working with BNC.
    4747
    4848.. index:: Network
     
    5151=======
    5252
    53 You may need to specify a proxy when running BNC in a protected network. You may also like to use the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols for secure Ntrip communication over the Internet. 
     53You may need to specify a proxy when running BNC in a protected network. You may also like to use the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols for secure Ntrip communication over the Internet.
    5454
    5555.. index:: Proxy
     
    6060If you are running BNC within a protected Local Area Network (LAN), you might need to use a proxy server to access the Internet. Enter your proxy server IP and port number in case one is operated in front of BNC. If you do not know the IP and port of your proxy server, check the proxy server settings in your Internet browser or ask your network administrator.
    6161
    62 Note that IP streaming is often not allowed in a LAN. In this case you need to ask your network administrator for an appropriate modification of the local security policy or for the installation of a TCP relay to the Ntrip Broadcaster you need to access. If this is not possible, you might need to run BNC outside your LAN on a host that has unobstructed connection to the Internet. 
     62Note that IP streaming is often not allowed in a LAN. In this case you need to ask your network administrator for an appropriate modification of the local security policy or for the installation of a TCP relay to the Ntrip Broadcaster you need to access. If this is not possible, you might need to run BNC outside your LAN on a host that has unobstructed connection to the Internet.
    6363
    6464.. index:: SSL
     
    6666SSL - Transport Layer Security
    6767------------------------------
    68 Communication with an Ntrip Broadcaster over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) as well as the download of RINEX skeleton files when available from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Specify the path to a directory where you save certificates on your system. You may like to check out http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/Certificates for a list of known Ntrip Server certificates. You may also just try communication via SSL to check out whether this is supported by the involved Ntrip Broadcaster. 
     68Communication with an Ntrip Broadcaster over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) as well as the download of RINEX skeleton files when available from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Specify the path to a directory where you save certificates on your system. You may like to check out http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/Certificates for a list of known Ntrip Server certificates. You may also just try communication via SSL to check out whether this is supported by the involved Ntrip Broadcaster.
    6969
    7070SSL communication may involve queries coming from the Ntrip Broadcaster or from a HTTPS website hosting RINEX skeletons. Such a query could show up under BNC's 'Log' tab especially when self-signed SSL certificates are used. Example::
    71  
     71
    7272   SSL Error
    7373   Server Certificate Issued by:
     
    8080   No certificates could be verified
    8181
    82    Queries should not be received by a client when a server uses official SSL certificates. 
    83 
    84 Tick 'Ignore SSL authorization errors' if you generally trust the server and do not want to be bothered with this. Note that SSL communication is usually done over port 443 :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_7>`. 
     82   Queries should not be received by a client when a server uses official SSL certificates.
     83
     84Tick 'Ignore SSL authorization errors' if you generally trust the server and do not want to be bothered with this. Note that SSL communication is usually done over port 443 :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_7>`.
    8585
    8686.. _fig_7:
     
    108108------------------
    109109
    110 Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '\_YYMMDD' for the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the Ntrip Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file. 
     110Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '\_YYMMDD' for the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the Ntrip Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file.
    111111
    112112The following is an example for the content of a logfile written by BNC when operated in Single Point Positioning (SPP) mode:
     
    135135Append Files - optional
    136136-----------------------
    137 When BNC is started, new files are created by default and existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or a BNC crash. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC. 
     137When BNC is started, new files are created by default and existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or a BNC crash. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
    138138
    139139Reread Configuration - optional
    140140-------------------------------
    141 When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option ``-nw``), some configuration options can nevertheless be changed on-the-fly without interrupting the running process. For that, you force the program to reread parts of its configuration in pre-defined intervals from disk. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' to let BNC reread on-the-fly changeable configuration options every full minute, hour, or day. This lets in-between edited options become effective without interrupting uninvolved threads. 
    142 
    143 Note that following configuration options saved on disk can be changed/edited on-the-fly while BNC is already processing data: 
     141When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option ``-nw``), some configuration options can nevertheless be changed on-the-fly without interrupting the running process. For that, you force the program to reread parts of its configuration in pre-defined intervals from disk. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' to let BNC reread on-the-fly changeable configuration options every full minute, hour, or day. This lets in-between edited options become effective without interrupting uninvolved threads.
     142
     143Note that following configuration options saved on disk can be changed/edited on-the-fly while BNC is already processing data:
    144144
    145145* 'mountPoints' to change the selection of streams to be processed, see section 'Streams Canvas';
     
    153153---------------------
    154154
    155 You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required e.g. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory ``/etc/init.d`` (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems). 
    156 
    157 See BNC's command line option ``-nw`` for an auto-start of BNC in 'no window' mode. 
     155You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required e.g. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory ``/etc/init.d`` (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     156
     157See BNC's command line option ``-nw`` for an auto-start of BNC in 'no window' mode.
    158158
    159159.. index:: Raw output file
     
    162162--------------------------
    163163
    164 BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes (Record & Replay functionality) and is not meant for post processing. 
     164BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes (Record & Replay functionality) and is not meant for post processing.
    165165
    166166Data will be saved in blocks in the received format separated by ASCII time stamps like (example):
    167167
    168168.. code-block:: console
    169  
     169
    170170   2010-08-03T18:05:28 RTCM3EPH RTCM_3 67
    171171
    172 This example block header tells you that 67 bytes were saved in the data block following this time stamp. The information in this block is encoded in RTCM Version 3 format, comes from mountpoint RTCM3EPH and was received at 18:05:28 UTC on 2010-08-03. BNC adds its own time stamps in order to allow the reconstruction of a recorded real-time situation. 
    173 
    174 The default value for 'Raw output file' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save all raw data into one single daily file. 
     172This example block header tells you that 67 bytes were saved in the data block following this time stamp. The information in this block is encoded in RTCM Version 3 format, comes from mountpoint RTCM3EPH and was received at 18:05:28 UTC on 2010-08-03. BNC adds its own time stamps in order to allow the reconstruction of a recorded real-time situation.
     173
     174The default value for 'Raw output file' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save all raw data into one single daily file.
    175175
    176176.. index:: RINEX observations
     
    179179==================
    180180
    181 Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS, and/or BDS (BeiDou). In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000' or left blank. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system. 
     181Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS, and/or BDS (BeiDou). In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000' or left blank. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system.
    182182
    183183It is important to understand that converting RTCM streams to RINEX files requires a priori information on observation types for specifying a complete RINEX header. Regarding the RINEX Version 2 file header, BNC simply introduces all observation types defined in the Version 2 standard and later reports '0.000' for observations which are not received. However, following this approach is not possible for RINEX Version 3 files from RTCM Version 3 MSM streams because of the huge number of observation types, which might in principle show up. The solution implemented in BNC is to start with RINEX Version 3 observation type records from skeleton files (see section 'Skeleton Extension' and 'Skeleton Mandatory') and switch to a default selection of observation types when such file is not available or does not contain the required information. The following is the default selection of observation types specified for a RINEX Version 3 file:
     
    194194   S    9 C1C L1C S1C C5I L5I S5I C5Q L5Q S5Q                  SYS / # / OBS TYPES
    195195
    196 Please note that RTCM Version 3 messages 1084 for GLONASS observations do not contain the GLONASS channel numbers. These observation messages can only be converted to RINEX when you add messages which include the channel numbers. This could be done by means of an additional stream carrying 1087 GLONASS observation messages or an additional stream carrying 1020 GLONASS ephemeris messages. You could also consider setting up a stream which contains both, the 1084 and the 1020 messages. 
    197 
    198 The screenshot below shows an example setup of BNC when converting streams to RINEX. Streams are coming from various Ntrip Broadcasters as well as from a serial communication link. Specifying a decoder string 'ZERO' would mean to not convert the affected stream but save its content as received. The 'SSL Error' recorded in the 'Log' tab is caused by the fact that observation stream downloads from IGS and MGEX Broadcasters initiate the download of RINEX skeleton files from a HTTPS (TLS/SSL) website and BNC has been configured in this example to ignore SSL errors as shown in the preceding 'Network' panel screenshot :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_8>`. 
     196Please note that RTCM Version 3 messages 1084 for GLONASS observations do not contain the GLONASS channel numbers. These observation messages can only be converted to RINEX when you add messages which include the channel numbers. This could be done by means of an additional stream carrying 1087 GLONASS observation messages or an additional stream carrying 1020 GLONASS ephemeris messages. You could also consider setting up a stream which contains both, the 1084 and the 1020 messages.
     197
     198The screenshot below shows an example setup of BNC when converting streams to RINEX. Streams are coming from various Ntrip Broadcasters as well as from a serial communication link. Specifying a decoder string 'ZERO' would mean to not convert the affected stream but save its content as received. The 'SSL Error' recorded in the 'Log' tab is caused by the fact that observation stream downloads from IGS and MGEX Broadcasters initiate the download of RINEX skeleton files from a HTTPS (TLS/SSL) website and BNC has been configured in this example to ignore SSL errors as shown in the preceding 'Network' panel screenshot :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_8>`.
    199199
    200200.. _fig_8:
     
    214214   WETT{ddd}{h}.{yy}O
    215215
    216 where 'ddd' is the day of year, 'h' is a letter which corresponds to an hour long UTC time block and 'yy' is the year. 
     216where 'ddd' is the day of year, 'h' is a letter which corresponds to an hour long UTC time block and 'yy' is the year.
    217217
    218218If there is more than one stream with identical 4-character Station ID (same first 4 characters for their mountpoints), the mountpoint strings are split into two sub-strings and both become part of the RINEX filename. For example, when simultaneously retrieving data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and FRANCE, their hourly RINEX Version 2 Observation files are named as::
     
    231231   FRAN{ddd}{h}{mm}.{yy}O
    232232
    233 where 'mm' is the starting minute within the hour. 
     233where 'mm' is the starting minute within the hour.
    234234
    235235In case of RINEX Version 3 filenames, the conventions are summarized in :numref:`Table %s <tab_RINEX_FN_CONV>`.
    236236
    237 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.35\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|p{0.35\textwidth}| 
     237.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.35\textwidth}|p{0.22\textwidth}|p{0.35\textwidth}|
    238238
    239239.. _tab_RINEX_FN_CONV:
     
    257257   ALGO00CAN_R_20121601000_01H_01S_MO.rnx
    258258
    259 Note that filename details are produced from the stream's mountpoint as well as corresponding BNC settings and meta data from the Ntrip Broadcaster source-table. 
     259Note that filename details are produced from the stream's mountpoint as well as corresponding BNC settings and meta data from the Ntrip Broadcaster source-table.
    260260
    261261.. index:: RINEX observation directory
     
    264264--------------------
    265265
    266 Here you can specify the path to where the RINEX Observation files will be stored. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Observation files. Default value for 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Observation files will be written. 
     266Here you can specify the path to where the RINEX Observation files will be stored. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Observation files. Default value for 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Observation files will be written.
    267267
    268268.. index:: RINEX observation file interval
     
    271271-----------------------------------------------
    272272
    273 Select the length of the RINEX Observation file to be generated. The default value is 15 minutes. 
     273Select the length of the RINEX Observation file to be generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
    274274
    275275.. index:: RINEX observation file sampling
     
    278278------------------------------------------
    279279
    280 Select the RINEX Observation sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all received epochs into RINEX. This is the default value. 
    281  
     280Select the RINEX Observation sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all received epochs into RINEX. This is the default value.
     281
    282282.. index:: RINEX header skeleton files
    283283
     
    285285-----------------------------
    286286
    287 Whenever BNC starts to generate RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called fully machine-readable public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived from sitelogs. An HTTP or HTTPS link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table. See http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for EPN station Brussels. Note that the download of RINEX skeleton files from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Clarify 'SSL' options offered through panel 'Network' for details. 
    288 
    289 Sometimes public RINEX header skeleton files are not available, their content is not up to date, or you need to put additional/optional records in the RINEX header. For that, BNC allows using personal skeleton files that contain the header records you would like to include. You can derive a personal RINEX header skeleton file from the information given in an up to date sitelog. A file in the RINEX Observations 'Directory' with a 'Skeleton extension' suffix is interpreted by BNC as a personal RINEX header skeleton file for the corresponding stream. 
     287Whenever BNC starts to generate RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called fully machine-readable public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived from sitelogs. An HTTP or HTTPS link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table. See http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for EPN station Brussels. Note that the download of RINEX skeleton files from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Clarify 'SSL' options offered through panel 'Network' for details.
     288
     289Sometimes public RINEX header skeleton files are not available, their content is not up to date, or you need to put additional/optional records in the RINEX header. For that, BNC allows using personal skeleton files that contain the header records you would like to include. You can derive a personal RINEX header skeleton file from the information given in an up to date sitelog. A file in the RINEX Observations 'Directory' with a 'Skeleton extension' suffix is interpreted by BNC as a personal RINEX header skeleton file for the corresponding stream.
    290290
    291291When producing RINEX Observation files from mountpoints (examples) 'BRUS0', 'FRANKFURT', and 'WETTZELL', the following skeleton filenames would be accepted:
     
    297297   wett.skl
    298298
    299 if 'Skeleton extension' is set to 'skl'. 
    300 
    301 Note the following regulations regarding personal RINEX header skeleton files: 
     299if 'Skeleton extension' is set to 'skl'.
     300
     301Note the following regulations regarding personal RINEX header skeleton files:
    302302
    303303* If such a file exists in the 'RINEX directory', the corresponding public RINEX header skeleton file is ignored. The RINEX header is generated solely from the content of the personal skeleton.
     
    334334  .. code-block:: none
    335335
    336      #/ TYPES OF OBSERV (only RINEX Version 2, will be ignored when in Version 3 files) 
     336     #/ TYPES OF OBSERV (only RINEX Version 2, will be ignored when in Version 3 files)
    337337
    338338* BNC will include these lines in the final RINEX file header together with an additional
    339339
    340340  .. code-block:: console
    341    
     341
    342342     COMMENT
    343343
    344344  line describing the source of the stream.
    345  
     345
    346346* They should finally contain an empty last header record of type:
    347347
    348348  .. code-block:: console
    349    
     349
    350350     END OF HEADER
    351351
     
    362362                       OBSERVATION DATA    M (MIXED)           RINEX VERSION / TYPE
    363363                                                               PGM / RUN BY / DATE
    364    CUT0                                                        MARKER NAME         
    365    59945M001                                                   MARKER NUMBER       
    366    5023K67889          TRIMBLE NETR9       5.01                REC # / TYPE / VERS 
    367    4928353386          TRM59800.00     SCIS                    ANT # / TYPE       
    368     -2364337.2699  4870285.5624 -3360809.8398                  APPROX POSITION XYZ 
     364   CUT0                                                        MARKER NAME
     365   59945M001                                                   MARKER NUMBER
     366   5023K67889          TRIMBLE NETR9       5.01                REC # / TYPE / VERS
     367   4928353386          TRM59800.00     SCIS                    ANT # / TYPE
     368    -2364337.2699  4870285.5624 -3360809.8398                  APPROX POSITION XYZ
    369369           0.0000        0.0000        0.0000                  ANTENNA: DELTA H/E/N
    370    gnss@curtin.edu.au  CUT                                     OBSERVER / AGENCY   
     370   gnss@curtin.edu.au  CUT                                     OBSERVER / AGENCY
    371371   C   10 C1I L1I D1I S1I C6I L6I S6I C7I L7I S7I              SYS / # / OBS TYPES
    372372   E   13 C1X L1X D1X S1X C5X L5X S5X C7X L7X S7X C8X L8X S8X  SYS / # / OBS TYPES
     
    376376   R   13 C1C L1C D1C S1C C1P L1P S1P C2C L2C S2C C2P L2P S2P  SYS / # / OBS TYPES
    377377   S    7 C1C L1C D1C S1C C5I L5I S5I                          SYS / # / OBS TYPES
    378    PORTIONS OF THIS HEADER GENERATED BY THE IGS CB FROM        COMMENT             
    379    SITELOG cut0_20150507.log                                   COMMENT             
     378   PORTIONS OF THIS HEADER GENERATED BY THE IGS CB FROM        COMMENT
     379   SITELOG cut0_20150507.log                                   COMMENT
    380380                                                               END OF HEADER
    381381
     
    386386-----------------------------
    387387
    388 Tick check box 'Skeleton mandatory' in case you want that RINEX files are only produced when skeleton files are available for BNC. If no skeleton file is available for a particular source, then no RINEX observation file will be produced from the affected stream. 
    389 
    390 Note that a skeleton file contains RINEX header information such as receiver and antenna types. In case of stream conversion to RINEX Version 3, a skeleton file should also contain information on potentially available observation types. A missing skeleton file will force BNC to only save a default set of RINEX 3 observation types. 
     388Tick check box 'Skeleton mandatory' in case you want that RINEX files are only produced when skeleton files are available for BNC. If no skeleton file is available for a particular source, then no RINEX observation file will be produced from the affected stream.
     389
     390Note that a skeleton file contains RINEX header information such as receiver and antenna types. In case of stream conversion to RINEX Version 3, a skeleton file should also contain information on potentially available observation types. A missing skeleton file will force BNC to only save a default set of RINEX 3 observation types.
    391391
    392392Script - optional
    393393-----------------
    394394
    395 Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path to such script/batch file. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (\%1 on Windows systems, \$1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems). 
    396 
    397 The triggering event for calling the script or batch file is the end of a RINEX Observation file 'Interval'. If that is overridden by a stream outage, the triggering event is the stream reconnection. 
    398 
    399 As an alternative to initiating file uploads through BNC, you may like to call an upload script or batch file through your crontable or Task Scheduler (independent from BNC) once every one or two minutes after the end of each RINEX file 'Interval'. 
     395Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path to such script/batch file. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (\%1 on Windows systems, \$1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     396
     397The triggering event for calling the script or batch file is the end of a RINEX Observation file 'Interval'. If that is overridden by a stream outage, the triggering event is the stream reconnection.
     398
     399As an alternative to initiating file uploads through BNC, you may like to call an upload script or batch file through your crontable or Task Scheduler (independent from BNC) once every one or two minutes after the end of each RINEX file 'Interval'.
    400400
    401401Version 2 - optional
    402402--------------------
    403403
    404 GNSS observation data are generally hold available within BNC according to attributes as defined in RINEX Version 3. These attributes describe the tracking mode or channel when generating the observation signals. Capital letters specifying signal generation attributes are A, B, C, D, I, L, M, N, P, Q, S, W, X, Y, and Z, see RINEX Version 3 documentation. Although RINEX Version 3 with its signal generation attributes is the internal default processing format for BNC, there are two applications where the program is explicitly required to produce data files in RINEX Version 2 format: 
     404GNSS observation data are generally hold available within BNC according to attributes as defined in RINEX Version 3. These attributes describe the tracking mode or channel when generating the observation signals. Capital letters specifying signal generation attributes are A, B, C, D, I, L, M, N, P, Q, S, W, X, Y, and Z, see RINEX Version 3 documentation. Although RINEX Version 3 with its signal generation attributes is the internal default processing format for BNC, there are two applications where the program is explicitly required to produce data files in RINEX Version 2 format:
    405405
    406406#. When saving the content of incoming observation streams in RINEX Version 2 files as described in this section.
    407407#. When editing or concatenating RINEX 3 files to save them in Version 2 format, see section on 'RINEX Editing & QC'.
    408408
    409 As the Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes, BNC is forced to somehow map RINEX Version 3 to RINEX Version 2 although this cannot be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Signal priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2. 
     409As the Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes, BNC is forced to somehow map RINEX Version 3 to RINEX Version 2 although this cannot be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Signal priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2.
    410410
    411411Signal priorities can be specified as equal for all systems, as system specific or as system and frequency specific. For example:
     
    424424* If no signal with 'C', 'W', 'P', 'X', or '_' generation attribute exists then the question mark '?' tells BNC to present the first of any other appearing signal as RINEX Version 2 observation.
    425425
    426 You may like to specify your own 'Signal priority' string(s) for producing RINEX Version 2 files. If you neither convert observation streams to RINEX Version 2 nor concatenate RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 files, then the 'Version 2' option is meaningless. 
    427  
     426You may like to specify your own 'Signal priority' string(s) for producing RINEX Version 2 files. If you neither convert observation streams to RINEX Version 2 nor concatenate RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 files, then the 'Version 2' option is meaningless.
     427
    428428Version 3 - optional
    429429--------------------
    430430
    431 The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select RINEX 'Version 3' if you would like to save RTCM Version 3 observation streams in RINEX Version 3.03 format. Note that it is possible to force an RTCM Version 2 stream to be saved in RINEX Version 3 file format. However, this is not recommended because such stream cannot be precisely mapped to RINEX Version 3 as the required information on tracking modes (observation attributes) is not part of RTCM Version 2. 
    432  
     431The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select RINEX 'Version 3' if you would like to save RTCM Version 3 observation streams in RINEX Version 3.03 format. Note that it is possible to force an RTCM Version 2 stream to be saved in RINEX Version 3 file format. However, this is not recommended because such stream cannot be precisely mapped to RINEX Version 3 as the required information on tracking modes (observation attributes) is not part of RTCM Version 2.
     432
    433433Version 3 Filenames - optional
    434434------------------------------
    435435
    436 Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard. Default is an empty check box, meaning to still use filenames following the RINEX Version 2 standard although the file content is saved in RINEX Version 3 format. 
     436Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard. Default is an empty check box, meaning to still use filenames following the RINEX Version 2 standard although the file content is saved in RINEX Version 3 format.
    437437
    438438.. index:: RINEX ephemeris
     
    441441===============
    442442
    443 Broadcast Ephemeris can be saved in RINEX Navigation files when received e.g. via RTCM Version 3 message types 1019 (GPS) or 1020 (GLONASS) or 1044 (QZSS) or 1043 (SBAS) or 1045 and 1046 (Galileo) or 63 (BDS/BeiDou, tentative message number). The filename convention follows the details given in section 'RINEX Filenames' except that the first four characters are 'BRDC'. For RINEX Version 2 Navigation files the last character is 'N' or 'G' for GPS or GLONASS ephemeris in two separate files. Regarding RINEX Version 3 you will find all ephemeris data for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS, and BDS gathered in one Navigation file. 
    444 
    445 The following is an example for a RINEX Version 3 Navigation filename. The file contains one day's data. 'MN' stands for 'Multi Constellation Navigation' data. 
     443Broadcast Ephemeris can be saved in RINEX Navigation files when received e.g. via RTCM Version 3 message types 1019 (GPS) or 1020 (GLONASS) or 1044 (QZSS) or 1043 (SBAS) or 1045 and 1046 (Galileo) or 63 (BDS/BeiDou, tentative message number). The filename convention follows the details given in section 'RINEX Filenames' except that the first four characters are 'BRDC'. For RINEX Version 2 Navigation files the last character is 'N' or 'G' for GPS or GLONASS ephemeris in two separate files. Regarding RINEX Version 3 you will find all ephemeris data for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS, and BDS gathered in one Navigation file.
     444
     445The following is an example for a RINEX Version 3 Navigation filename. The file contains one day's data. 'MN' stands for 'Multi Constellation Navigation' data.
    446446
    447447.. code-block:: console
     
    449449   BRDC00DEU_S_20121600000_01D_MN.rnx
    450450
    451 Note that streams dedicated to carry Broadcast Ephemeris messages in RTCM Version 3 format in high repetition rates are listed on http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris. Note further that BNC will ignore incorrect or outdated Broadcast Ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile. 
    452  
     451Note that streams dedicated to carry Broadcast Ephemeris messages in RTCM Version 3 format in high repetition rates are listed on http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris. Note further that BNC will ignore incorrect or outdated Broadcast Ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
     452
    453453Directory - optional
    454454--------------------
    455455
    456 Specify a path for saving Broadcast Ephemeris data in RINEX Navigation files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Navigation files. Default value for Ephemeris 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Navigation files will be created. 
     456Specify a path for saving Broadcast Ephemeris data in RINEX Navigation files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Navigation files. Default value for Ephemeris 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Navigation files will be created.
    457457
    458458Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set
    459459------------------------------------------
    460460
    461 Select the length of RINEX Navigation files. The default value is '1 day'. 
     461Select the length of RINEX Navigation files. The default value is '1 day'.
    462462
    463463Port - optional
    464464---------------
    465465
    466 BNC can output Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII ephemeris output via IP port is generated. 
    467 
    468 The source code for BNC comes with an example Perl script ``test_tcpip_client.pl`` that allows you to read BNC's ephemeris ASCII output from the IP port. 
     466BNC can output Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII ephemeris output via IP port is generated.
     467
     468The source code for BNC comes with an example Perl script ``test_tcpip_client.pl`` that allows you to read BNC's ephemeris ASCII output from the IP port.
    469469
    470470Version - optional
    471471------------------
    472472
    473 Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris data in RINEX Version 3.03 format. Note that this does not concern the Broadcast Ephemeris output through IP port, which is always in RINEX Version 3.03 format. 
     473Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris data in RINEX Version 3.03 format. Note that this does not concern the Broadcast Ephemeris output through IP port, which is always in RINEX Version 3.03 format.
    474474
    475475Version 3 Filenames - optional
    476476------------------------------
    477477
    478 Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard. Default is an empty check box, meaning to still use filenames following the RINEX Version 2 standard although the file content is saved in RINEX Version 3 format :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_9>`. 
     478Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard. Default is an empty check box, meaning to still use filenames following the RINEX Version 2 standard although the file content is saved in RINEX Version 3 format :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_9>`.
    479479
    480480.. _fig_9:
     
    485485
    486486.. index:: RINEX editing and quality check
    487    
     487
    488488RINEX Editing & QC
    489489==================
    490490
    491 Besides stream conversion from RTCM to RINEX, BNC allows editing RINEX files or concatenate their content. RINEX Observation and Navigation files can be handled. BNC can also carry out a RINEX file Quality Check. In summary and besides Stream **T**\ ranslation, this functionality in BNC covers 
     491Besides stream conversion from RTCM to RINEX, BNC allows editing RINEX files or concatenate their content. RINEX Observation and Navigation files can be handled. BNC can also carry out a RINEX file Quality Check. In summary and besides Stream **T**\ ranslation, this functionality in BNC covers
    492492
    493493* File **E**\ diting and concatenation
    494494* File **Q**\ uality **C**\ heck
    495  
     495
    496496  * Multipath analysis sky plots
    497497  * Signal-to-noise ratio sky plots
     
    500500  * PDOP plots
    501501
    502 and hence follows UNAVCO's famous teqc program (see :cite:`estey1999a`). The remarkable thing about BNC in this context is that it supports RINEX Version 3 under GNU General Public License with full GUI support and graphics output. 
    503  
     502and hence follows UNAVCO's famous teqc program (see :cite:`estey1999a`). The remarkable thing about BNC in this context is that it supports RINEX Version 3 under GNU General Public License with full GUI support and graphics output.
     503
    504504Action - optional
    505505-----------------
    506506
    507 Select an action. Options are 'Edit/Concatenate' and 'Analyze'. 
     507Select an action. Options are 'Edit/Concatenate' and 'Analyze'.
    508508
    509509* Select 'Edit/Concatenate' if you want to edit RINEX file content according to options specified under 'Set Edit Options' or if you want to concatenate several RINEX files.
     
    513513-----------------------
    514514
    515 Specify full path to input RINEX Observation file(s), and specify full path to input RINEX Navigation file(s). When specifying several input files, BNC will concatenate their contents. In case of RINEX Observation input files with different observation type header records, BNC will output only one set of adjusted observation type records in the RINEX header which fits to the whole file content. Note that you may specify several RINEX Version 2 Navigation files for GPS and GLONASS. 
     515Specify full path to input RINEX Observation file(s), and specify full path to input RINEX Navigation file(s). When specifying several input files, BNC will concatenate their contents. In case of RINEX Observation input files with different observation type header records, BNC will output only one set of adjusted observation type records in the RINEX header which fits to the whole file content. Note that you may specify several RINEX Version 2 Navigation files for GPS and GLONASS.
    516516
    517517Output Files - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'
    518518----------------------------------------------------------------
    519519
    520 If 'Edit/Concatenate' is selected, specifying the full path to output RINEX Observation file(s) and specifying the full path to output RINEX Navigation file(s) is optional. Default are empty option fields, meaning that no RINEX files will be saved on disk. 
     520If 'Edit/Concatenate' is selected, specifying the full path to output RINEX Observation file(s) and specifying the full path to output RINEX Navigation file(s) is optional. Default are empty option fields, meaning that no RINEX files will be saved on disk.
    521521
    522522Logfile - optional
    523523------------------
    524524
    525 Specify the name of a logfile to save information on RINEX file Editing/Concatenation or Analysis. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no logfile will be saved. Note that logfiles from analyzing RINEX files may become quite large. Hence, BNC provides an option 'Summary only' to limit logfile content to some essential information in case 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'. The following is an example for a RINEX quality check analysis logfile: 
     525Specify the name of a logfile to save information on RINEX file Editing/Concatenation or Analysis. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no logfile will be saved. Note that logfiles from analyzing RINEX files may become quite large. Hence, BNC provides an option 'Summary only' to limit logfile content to some essential information in case 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'. The following is an example for a RINEX quality check analysis logfile:
    526526
    527527.. code-block:: console
     
    734734  ...
    735735
    736 Note that in addition to cycle slips recorded in the RINEX 'file', cycle slips identified by BNC are reported as 'found'. 
    737  
     736Note that in addition to cycle slips recorded in the RINEX 'file', cycle slips identified by BNC are reported as 'found'.
     737
    738738Plots for Signals - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'
    739739-------------------------------------------------------------
     
    757757--------------------------------------------------------------
    758758
    759 If 'Analyze' :numref:`(see Fig. %s) <fig_12>` is selected, specifying the path to a directory where plot files will be saved is optional. Filenames will be composed from the RINEX input filename(s) plus suffix 'PNG' to indicate the plot file format in use. Default is an empty option field, meaning that plots will not be saved on disk. 
     759If 'Analyze' :numref:`(see Fig. %s) <fig_12>` is selected, specifying the path to a directory where plot files will be saved is optional. Filenames will be composed from the RINEX input filename(s) plus suffix 'PNG' to indicate the plot file format in use. Default is an empty option field, meaning that plots will not be saved on disk.
    760760
    761761Set Edit Options - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'
    762762---------------------------------------------------------------------
    763763
    764 Once the 'Edit/Concatenate' action is selected, you have to 'Set Edit Options' :numref:`(see Fig. %s) <fig_10>`. BNC lets you specify the RINEX version, a signal priority list when mapping RINEX Version 3 to Version 2, the sampling interval, begin and end of file, operator, observation types, comment lines, and marker, antenna, receiver details. Note that some of the specifications for editing and concatenation :numref:`(see Fig. %s) <fig_11>` are only meaningful for RINEX Observation files but not for RINEX Navigation files. 
    765 
    766 A note on converting RINEX Version 3 to RINEX Version 2 and vice versa: 
     764Once the 'Edit/Concatenate' action is selected, you have to 'Set Edit Options' :numref:`(see Fig. %s) <fig_10>`. BNC lets you specify the RINEX version, a signal priority list when mapping RINEX Version 3 to Version 2, the sampling interval, begin and end of file, operator, observation types, comment lines, and marker, antenna, receiver details. Note that some of the specifications for editing and concatenation :numref:`(see Fig. %s) <fig_11>` are only meaningful for RINEX Observation files but not for RINEX Navigation files.
     765
     766A note on converting RINEX Version 3 to RINEX Version 2 and vice versa:
    767767
    768768* The RINEX Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes. Therefore, when converting RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 Observation files, BNC is forced to somehow map signals with attributes to signals without attributes although this cannot be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2, see details in section 'RINEX Observations/Version 2'. Signal priorities can be specified as equal for all systems, as system specific or as system and frequency specific. For example:
     
    770770  * 'CWPX_?' (General signal priorities valid for all GNSS)
    771771  * 'C:IQX I:ABCX' (System specific signal priorities for BDS and IRNSS)
    772   * 'G:12&PWCSLXYN G:5&IQX R:12&PC R:3&IQX' (System and frequency specific signal priorities) 
     772  * 'G:12&PWCSLXYN G:5&IQX R:12&PC R:3&IQX' (System and frequency specific signal priorities)
    773773
    774774  The default 'Signal priority' list is defined as follows: 'G:12&PWCSLXYN G:5&IQX R:12&PC R:3&IQX E:16&BCX E:578&IQX J:1&SLXCZ J:26&SLX J:5&IQX C:IQX I:ABCX S:1&C S:5&IQX'
     
    776776* When converting RINEX Version 2 to Version 3 Observation files, the tracking mode or channel information in the (last character out of the 3-character) observation code is left blank if unknown. This is a compromise, knowing that it is not in accordance with the RINEX Version 3 documentation.
    777777
    778 Optionally you may specify a 'RUN BY' string to be included in the emerging new RINEX file header. Default is an empty option field, meaning the operator's ID is automatically used as 'RUN BY' string. 
    779 
    780 You can specify a list of observation codes in field 'Use Obs. Types' to limit the output file content to specific observation codes. GNSS system characters in that list are followed by a colon and a 2- or 3-character observation code. A 2-character observation code would mean that all available tracking modes of the affected observation type and frequency will be accepted as part of the RINEX output file. Observation codes are separated by a blank character. Default is an empty option field, meaning that any input observation code will become part of the RINEX output file. 
    781 
    782 Specifying comment line text to be added to the emerging new RINEX file header is another option. Any introduction of a newline through '\\n' in this enforces the beginning of a further comment line. Comment lines will be added to the header immediately after the 'PGM / RUN BY / DATE' record. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no additional comment line will be added to the RINEX header. 
    783 
    784 If you specify a 'New' but no 'Old' marker/antenna/receiver name, the corresponding data field in the emerging new RINEX Observation file will be filled accordingly. If you in addition specify an 'Old' marker/antenna/receiver name, the corresponding data field in the emerging new RINEX Observation file will only be filled accordingly where 'Old' specifications match existing file content. 
     778Optionally you may specify a 'RUN BY' string to be included in the emerging new RINEX file header. Default is an empty option field, meaning the operator's ID is automatically used as 'RUN BY' string.
     779
     780You can specify a list of observation codes in field 'Use Obs. Types' to limit the output file content to specific observation codes. GNSS system characters in that list are followed by a colon and a 2- or 3-character observation code. A 2-character observation code would mean that all available tracking modes of the affected observation type and frequency will be accepted as part of the RINEX output file. Observation codes are separated by a blank character. Default is an empty option field, meaning that any input observation code will become part of the RINEX output file.
     781
     782Specifying comment line text to be added to the emerging new RINEX file header is another option. Any introduction of a newline through '\\n' in this enforces the beginning of a further comment line. Comment lines will be added to the header immediately after the 'PGM / RUN BY / DATE' record. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no additional comment line will be added to the RINEX header.
     783
     784If you specify a 'New' but no 'Old' marker/antenna/receiver name, the corresponding data field in the emerging new RINEX Observation file will be filled accordingly. If you in addition specify an 'Old' marker/antenna/receiver name, the corresponding data field in the emerging new RINEX Observation file will only be filled accordingly where 'Old' specifications match existing file content.
    785785
    786786.. _fig_13:
     
    821821
    822822.. only:: latex
    823    
     823
    824824   .. raw:: latex
    825  
     825
    826826     \clearpage
    827  
     827
    828828.. index:: SP3 comparison
    829829
     
    831831----------------------------------
    832832
    833 BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the content of the configuration file remains unchanged, see section on 'Command Line Options'. Note the following syntax for Command Line Interface (CLI) options: 
     833BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the content of the configuration file remains unchanged, see section on 'Command Line Options'. Note the following syntax for Command Line Interface (CLI) options:
    834834
    835835.. code-block:: console
     
    843843   ./bnc --nw --conf rnx.conf --key reqcAction Edit/Concatenate --key reqcObsFile "tlse119b00.12o,tlse119b15.12o,tlse119b30.12o,tlse119b45.12o" --key reqcOutObsFile tlse119b.12o --key reqcRnxVersion 3 --key reqcSampling 30
    844844
    845 You may use asterisk '*' and/or question mark '?' wildcard characters as shown with the following globbing command line option to specify a selection of files in the working directory: 
     845You may use asterisk '*' and/or question mark '?' wildcard characters as shown with the following globbing command line option to specify a selection of files in the working directory:
    846846
    847847.. code-block:: console
     
    861861     /home/user/bnc --conf /dev/null --key reqcAction Analyze --key reqcObsFile CUT02070.12O --key reqcNavFile BRDC2070.12P --key reqcOutLogFile CUT0.txt --key reqcPlotDir /home/user --nw
    862862
    863 The following Linux command line produces the same RINEX QC plots in interactive autoStart mode: 
     863The following Linux command line produces the same RINEX QC plots in interactive autoStart mode:
    864864
    865865.. code-block:: console
     
    867867   /home/user/bnc --conf /dev/null --key reqcAction Analyze --key reqcObsFile CUT02070.12O --key reqcNavFile BRDC2070.12P --key reqcOutLogFile CUT0.txt --key startTab 4 --key autoStart 2
    868868
    869 :numref:`Table %s <tab_RINEX_ED_QC_OPT>` gives a list of available key names for 'RINEX Editing & QC' (short: REQC, pronounced 'rek') options and their meaning, cf. section 'Configuration Examples'. 
    870 
    871 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     869:numref:`Table %s <tab_RINEX_ED_QC_OPT>` gives a list of available key names for 'RINEX Editing & QC' (short: REQC, pronounced 'rek') options and their meaning, cf. section 'Configuration Examples'.
     870
     871.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    872872
    873873.. _tab_RINEX_ED_QC_OPT:
     
    915915==============
    916916
    917 BNC allows to compare the contents of two files with GNSS orbit and clock data in SP3 format :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_16>`. SP3 ASCII files basically contain a list of records over a certain period of time. Each record carries a time tag, the XYZ position of the satellite's Center of Mass at that time and the corresponding satellite clock value. Both SP3 files may contain some records for different epochs. If so, then BNC only compares records for identical epochs. BNC accepts that a specific GNSS system or a specific satellite is only available from one of the SP3 files. Note that BNC does not interpolate orbits when comparing SP3 files. 
     917BNC allows to compare the contents of two files with GNSS orbit and clock data in SP3 format :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_16>`. SP3 ASCII files basically contain a list of records over a certain period of time. Each record carries a time tag, the XYZ position of the satellite's Center of Mass at that time and the corresponding satellite clock value. Both SP3 files may contain some records for different epochs. If so, then BNC only compares records for identical epochs. BNC accepts that a specific GNSS system or a specific satellite is only available from one of the SP3 files. Note that BNC does not interpolate orbits when comparing SP3 files.
    918918
    919919.. _fig_16:
     
    923923   Example for comparing two SP3 files with satellite orbit and clock data using BNC
    924924
    925 To compare satellite clocks provided by the two files, BNC first converts coordinate differences dX,dY,dZ into along track, out-of-plane, and radial components. It then corrects the clock differences for the radial components of coordinate differences. RMS values of clock differences are finally calculated after introducing at first one offset 'per epoch for all satellites' and secondly one offset 'per satellite for all epochs'. 
    926  
     925To compare satellite clocks provided by the two files, BNC first converts coordinate differences dX,dY,dZ into along track, out-of-plane, and radial components. It then corrects the clock differences for the radial components of coordinate differences. RMS values of clock differences are finally calculated after introducing at first one offset 'per epoch for all satellites' and secondly one offset 'per satellite for all epochs'.
     926
    927927Input SP3 Files - optional
    928928--------------------------
    929929
    930 Specify the full paths of two SP3 files, separate them by comma. 
     930Specify the full paths of two SP3 files, separate them by comma.
    931931
    932932Exclude Satellites - optional
     
    941941* G04,G31,R (excluding GPS satellites with PRN 4 and 31 as well as all GLONASS satellites)
    942942
    943 Default is an empty option field, meaning that no satellite will be excluded from the comparison. 
    944  
     943Default is an empty option field, meaning that no satellite will be excluded from the comparison.
     944
    945945Logfile - mandatory if 'Input SP3 Files' is set
    946946-----------------------------------------------
    947947
    948 Specify a logfile name to save results of the SP3 file comparison. 
     948Specify a logfile name to save results of the SP3 file comparison.
    949949
    950950The following is an example for a SP3 Comparison logfile:
     
    995995The first part of this output uses the abbreviations in :numref:`Table %s <tab_LOG_ABB_1>`.
    996996
    997 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     997.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    998998
    999999.. _tab_LOG_ABB_1:
     
    10151015The second part following string 'RMS' provides a summary of the comparison using the abbreviations in :numref:`Table %s <tab_LOG_ABB_2>`.
    10161016
    1017 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     1017.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    10181018
    10191019.. _tab_LOG_ABB_2:
     
    10351035
    10361036.. index:: Broadcast corrections
    1037  
     1037
    10381038Broadcast Corrections
    10391039=====================
    10401040
    1041 Differential GNSS and RTK operation using RTCM streams is currently based on corrections and/or raw measurements from single or multiple reference stations. This approach to differential positioning uses 'observation space' information. The representation with the RTCM standard can be called 'Observation Space Representation' (OSR). 
    1042 
    1043 An alternative to the observation space approach is the so-called 'state space' approach. The principle here is to provide information on individual error sources. It can be called 'State Space Representation' (SSR). For a rover position, state space information concerning precise satellite clocks, orbits, ionosphere, troposphere et cetera can be converted into observation space and used to correct the rover observables for more accurate positioning. Alternatively, the state information can be used directly in the rover's processing or adjustment model. 
    1044 
    1045 RTCM is currently developing Version 3 messages to transport SSR corrections in real-time. They refer to satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC). SSR messages adopted or recently proposed concern: 
     1041Differential GNSS and RTK operation using RTCM streams is currently based on corrections and/or raw measurements from single or multiple reference stations. This approach to differential positioning uses 'observation space' information. The representation with the RTCM standard can be called 'Observation Space Representation' (OSR).
     1042
     1043An alternative to the observation space approach is the so-called 'state space' approach. The principle here is to provide information on individual error sources. It can be called 'State Space Representation' (SSR). For a rover position, state space information concerning precise satellite clocks, orbits, ionosphere, troposphere et cetera can be converted into observation space and used to correct the rover observables for more accurate positioning. Alternatively, the state information can be used directly in the rover's processing or adjustment model.
     1044
     1045RTCM is currently developing Version 3 messages to transport SSR corrections in real-time. They refer to satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC). SSR messages adopted or recently proposed concern:
    10461046
    10471047SSR, Step I:
     
    10601060* Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC)
    10611061
    1062 RTCM Version 3 streams carrying these messages may be used e.g. to support real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) applications. 
    1063 
    1064 When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as 
     1062RTCM Version 3 streams carrying these messages may be used e.g. to support real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) applications.
     1063
     1064When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as
    10651065
    10661066.. math::
     
    10681068     dt =  -2 (R * V) / c^2
    10691069
    1070 where :math:`R*V` is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and :math:`c` is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006. 
    1071 
    1072 Orbit corrections are provided in along-track, out-of-plane and radial components. These components are defined in the Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed reference frame of the Broadcast Ephemeris. For an observer in this frame, the along-track component is aligned in both direction and sign with the velocity vector, the out-of-plane component is perpendicular to the plane defined by the satellite position and velocity vectors, and the radial direction is perpendicular to the along track and out-of-plane ones. The three components form a right-handed orthogonal system. 
    1073 
    1074 After applying corrections, the satellite position and clock is referred to the 'ionospheric free' phase center of the antenna which is compatible with the broadcast orbit reference. 
    1075 
    1076 The orbit and clock corrections do not include local effects like Ocean Loading, Solid Earth Tides or tropospheric delays. However, accurate single frequency applications can be corrected for global ionospheric effects using so-call VTEC messages for global ionospheric state parameters. 
    1077 
    1078 While we have a plain ASCII standard for saving Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Navigation files, we do not have an equivalent standard for corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris. Hence, BNC saves Broadcast Correction files following its own format definition. The filename convention for Broadcast Correction files follows the convention for RINEX Version 2 files except for the last character of the filename suffix which is set to 'C'. 
     1070where :math:`R*V` is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and :math:`c` is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006.
     1071
     1072Orbit corrections are provided in along-track, out-of-plane and radial components. These components are defined in the Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed reference frame of the Broadcast Ephemeris. For an observer in this frame, the along-track component is aligned in both direction and sign with the velocity vector, the out-of-plane component is perpendicular to the plane defined by the satellite position and velocity vectors, and the radial direction is perpendicular to the along track and out-of-plane ones. The three components form a right-handed orthogonal system.
     1073
     1074After applying corrections, the satellite position and clock is referred to the 'ionospheric free' phase center of the antenna which is compatible with the broadcast orbit reference.
     1075
     1076The orbit and clock corrections do not include local effects like Ocean Loading, Solid Earth Tides or tropospheric delays. However, accurate single frequency applications can be corrected for global ionospheric effects using so-call VTEC messages for global ionospheric state parameters.
     1077
     1078While we have a plain ASCII standard for saving Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Navigation files, we do not have an equivalent standard for corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris. Hence, BNC saves Broadcast Correction files following its own format definition. The filename convention for Broadcast Correction files follows the convention for RINEX Version 2 files except for the last character of the filename suffix which is set to 'C'.
    10791079
    10801080Broadcast Correction file format
    10811081--------------------------------
    10821082
    1083 BNC's Broadcast Correction files contain blocks of records in plain ASCII format. Each block covers information about one specific topic and starts with an 'Epoch Record'. The leading 'Epoch Record' of each block in a Broadcast Correction file contains 11 parameters. Example: 
     1083BNC's Broadcast Correction files contain blocks of records in plain ASCII format. Each block covers information about one specific topic and starts with an 'Epoch Record'. The leading 'Epoch Record' of each block in a Broadcast Correction file contains 11 parameters. Example:
    10841084
    10851085.. code-block:: console
     
    109810988. Second, GPS time
    109910999. SSR message update interval indicator:
    1100  
     1100
    11011101  * 0 = 1 sec
    11021102  * 1 = 2 sec
     
    1119111911. Mountpoint, source/stream indicator
    11201120
    1121 Each of the following 'satellite records' in such a block carries information for one specific satellite. Undefined parameters in the 'satellite records' could be set to zero '0.000'. 
     1121Each of the following 'satellite records' in such a block carries information for one specific satellite. Undefined parameters in the 'satellite records' could be set to zero '0.000'.
    11221122
    11231123Example for block 'ORBIT' carrying orbit corrections
     
    12201220
    12211221 0 − phase biases valid for non-dispersive signal only
    1222  
    1223  1 − phase biases maintain consistency between non-dispersive and all original dispersive phase signals 
     1222
     1223 1 − phase biases maintain consistency between non-dispersive and all original dispersive phase signals
    12241224
    12251225* MW consistency indicator
     
    12271227 0 − code and phase biases are independently derived
    12281228
    1229  1 − consistency between code and phase biases is maintained for the MW combinations 
     1229 1 − consistency between code and phase biases is maintained for the MW combinations
    12301230
    12311231Following records provide satellite specific information:
     
    12351235* Yaw rate [:math:`^{\circ}/s`]
    12361236* Number of phase biases in this record, succeeded by phase specific information:
    1237  
     1237
    12381238  * Signal and tracking mode indicator
    12391239  * Phase bias [m]
     
    12781278---------------------------
    12791279
    1280 Specify a directory for saving Broadcast Corrections in files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Broadcast Correction files. Default value for Broadcast Correction 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction files will be created. 
     1280Specify a directory for saving Broadcast Corrections in files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Broadcast Correction files. Default value for Broadcast Correction 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction files will be created.
    12811281
    12821282Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set
    12831283-------------------------------------------------
    12841284
    1285 Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is '1 day'. 
     1285Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is '1 day'.
    12861286
    12871287Port - optional
    12881288---------------
    12891289
    1290 BNC can output epoch by epoch synchronized Broadcast Corrections in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction output via IP port is generated. 
    1291 
    1292 The output format is similar to the format used for saving Broadcast Corrections in a file. 
     1290BNC can output epoch by epoch synchronized Broadcast Corrections in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction output via IP port is generated.
     1291
     1292The output format is similar to the format used for saving Broadcast Corrections in a file.
    12931293
    12941294The following is an example output for the stream from mountpoint CLK93:
     
    13411341  > VTEC 2015 06 19 16 41 00.0 6 1 CLK93
    13421342   1  6  6   450000.0
    1343      16.7450     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1344       4.9300     8.1600     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1345      -4.4900     0.2550     1.0950     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1346      -2.2450    -1.9500    -0.7950    -0.4700     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1347       1.0250    -0.9000    -0.0900     0.1050     0.1450     0.0000     0.0000 
    1348       1.5500     0.9750    -0.8150     0.3600     0.0350    -0.0900     0.0000 
    1349      -0.4050     0.8300     0.0800    -0.0650     0.2200     0.0150    -0.1600 
    1350       0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1351       0.0000    -0.1250     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1352       0.0000     1.0050    -0.7750     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1353       0.0000    -0.2300     0.7150     0.7550     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000 
    1354       0.0000    -0.4100    -0.1250     0.2400     0.2700     0.0000     0.0000 
    1355       0.0000     0.0850    -0.3400    -0.0500    -0.2200    -0.0750     0.0000 
    1356       0.0000     0.2000    -0.2850    -0.0150    -0.0250     0.0900     0.0650 
    1357 
    1358 The source code for BNC comes with an example Perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows to read BNC's Broadcast Corrections from the IP port for verification. 
     1343     16.7450     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1344      4.9300     8.1600     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1345     -4.4900     0.2550     1.0950     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1346     -2.2450    -1.9500    -0.7950    -0.4700     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1347      1.0250    -0.9000    -0.0900     0.1050     0.1450     0.0000     0.0000
     1348      1.5500     0.9750    -0.8150     0.3600     0.0350    -0.0900     0.0000
     1349     -0.4050     0.8300     0.0800    -0.0650     0.2200     0.0150    -0.1600
     1350      0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1351      0.0000    -0.1250     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1352      0.0000     1.0050    -0.7750     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1353      0.0000    -0.2300     0.7150     0.7550     0.0000     0.0000     0.0000
     1354      0.0000    -0.4100    -0.1250     0.2400     0.2700     0.0000     0.0000
     1355      0.0000     0.0850    -0.3400    -0.0500    -0.2200    -0.0750     0.0000
     1356      0.0000     0.2000    -0.2850    -0.0150    -0.0250     0.0900     0.0650
     1357
     1358The source code for BNC comes with an example Perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows to read BNC's Broadcast Corrections from the IP port for verification.
    13591359
    13601360.. _fig_17:
     
    13691369===========
    13701370
    1371 BNC can produce synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a file. The output is always in the same plain ASCII format and sorted per incoming stream. 
    1372 
    1373 Each epoch in the synchronized output begins with a line containing the GPS Week Number and the seconds within the GPS Week. Following lines begin with the mountpoint string of the stream which provides the observations followed by a satellite number. Specifications for satellite number, code, phase, Doppler and signal strength data follow definitions presented in the RINEX Version 3 documentation. In case of phase observations, a 'Lock Time Indicator' is added. The end of an epoch is indicated by an empty line. 
    1374 
    1375 A valid 'Lock Time Indicator' is only presented for observations from RTCM Version 3 streams. The parameter provides a measure of the amount of time that has elapsed during which the receiver has maintained continuous lock on that satellite signal. If a cycle slip occurs during the previous measurement cycle, the lock indicator will be reset to Zero. In case of observations from RTCM Version 2 streams, the 'Lock Time Indicator' is always set to '-1'. 
    1376 
    1377 :numref:`Table %s <tab_FEED_ENGINE>` describes the format of BNC's synchronized output of GNSS observations which consists of 'Epoch Records' and 'Observation Records'. Each Epoch Record is followed by one or more Observation Records. The Observation Record is repeated for each satellite having been observed in the current epoch. The length of an Observation Record is given by the number of observation types for this satellite. 
    1378 
    1379 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.32\textwidth}|p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.3\textwidth}| 
     1371BNC can produce synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a file. The output is always in the same plain ASCII format and sorted per incoming stream.
     1372
     1373Each epoch in the synchronized output begins with a line containing the GPS Week Number and the seconds within the GPS Week. Following lines begin with the mountpoint string of the stream which provides the observations followed by a satellite number. Specifications for satellite number, code, phase, Doppler and signal strength data follow definitions presented in the RINEX Version 3 documentation. In case of phase observations, a 'Lock Time Indicator' is added. The end of an epoch is indicated by an empty line.
     1374
     1375A valid 'Lock Time Indicator' is only presented for observations from RTCM Version 3 streams. The parameter provides a measure of the amount of time that has elapsed during which the receiver has maintained continuous lock on that satellite signal. If a cycle slip occurs during the previous measurement cycle, the lock indicator will be reset to Zero. In case of observations from RTCM Version 2 streams, the 'Lock Time Indicator' is always set to '-1'.
     1376
     1377:numref:`Table %s <tab_FEED_ENGINE>` describes the format of BNC's synchronized output of GNSS observations which consists of 'Epoch Records' and 'Observation Records'. Each Epoch Record is followed by one or more Observation Records. The Observation Record is repeated for each satellite having been observed in the current epoch. The length of an Observation Record is given by the number of observation types for this satellite.
     1378
     1379.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.32\textwidth}|p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.3\textwidth}|
    13801380
    13811381.. _tab_FEED_ENGINE:
     
    13941394  Satellite Number          G01             1X,A3
    13951395
    1396   *Pseudo-Range Data* 
     1396  *Pseudo-Range Data*
    13971397  Observation Code          C1C             1X,A3
    13981398  Pseudo-Range Observation  25394034.112    1X,F14.3
     
    14511451  ...
    14521452
    1453 The source code for BNC comes with a Perl script named 'test\_tcpip\_client.pl' that allows to read BNC's (synchronized or unsynchronized) ASCII observation output from the IP port and print it on standard output for verification. 
    1454 
    1455 Note that any socket connection of an application to BNC's synchronized or unsynchronized observation ports is recorded in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window together with a connection counter, resulting in log records like 'New client connection on sync/usync port: # 1'. 
    1456 
    1457 The following figure shows the screenshot of a BNC configuration where a number of streams is pulled from different Ntrip Broadcasters to feed a GNSS engine via IP port output. 
     1453The source code for BNC comes with a Perl script named 'test\_tcpip\_client.pl' that allows to read BNC's (synchronized or unsynchronized) ASCII observation output from the IP port and print it on standard output for verification.
     1454
     1455Note that any socket connection of an application to BNC's synchronized or unsynchronized observation ports is recorded in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window together with a connection counter, resulting in log records like 'New client connection on sync/usync port: # 1'.
     1456
     1457The following figure shows the screenshot of a BNC configuration where a number of streams is pulled from different Ntrip Broadcasters to feed a GNSS engine via IP port output.
    14581458
    14591459.. _fig_18:
     
    14711471----------------------------------------------------
    14721472
    1473 When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting for synchronized observations epoch by epoch, BNC drops whatever is received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds. A value of 3 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming streams and the delay acceptable for your real-time GNSS product. Default value for 'Wait for full obs epoch' is 5 seconds. 
    1474 
    1475 Note that 'Wait for full obs epoch' does not affect the RINEX Observation file content. Observations received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds will still be included in the RINEX Observation files. 
     1473When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting for synchronized observations epoch by epoch, BNC drops whatever is received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds. A value of 3 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming streams and the delay acceptable for your real-time GNSS product. Default value for 'Wait for full obs epoch' is 5 seconds.
     1474
     1475Note that 'Wait for full obs epoch' does not affect the RINEX Observation file content. Observations received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds will still be included in the RINEX Observation files.
    14761476
    14771477Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set
    14781478-----------------------------------------------
    14791479
    1480 Select a synchronized observation output sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to send/store all received epochs. This is the default value. 
     1480Select a synchronized observation output sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to send/store all received epochs. This is the default value.
    14811481
    14821482File - optional
    14831483---------------
    14841484
    1485 Specify the full path to a 'File' where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format. The default value is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII output file is created. 
    1486 
    1487 Beware that the size of this file can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming streams. To prevent it from becoming too large, the name of the file can be changed on-the-fly. This option is primarily meant for test and evaluation. 
     1485Specify the full path to a 'File' where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format. The default value is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII output file is created.
     1486
     1487Beware that the size of this file can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming streams. To prevent it from becoming too large, the name of the file can be changed on-the-fly. This option is primarily meant for test and evaluation.
    14881488
    14891489Port (unsynchronized) - optional
    14901490--------------------------------
    14911491
    1492 BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Nevertheless, the output is produced block-wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated. 
    1493 
    1494 The following is an example for unsynchronized IP port output which presents observations from GPS and GLONASS as collected through stream WTZR0. The format for synchronized and unsynchronized output of observations is very much the same. However, unsynchronized output does not have 'Epoch Records' and 'Observation Records'. Instead each record contains the 'GPS Week Number' and 'GPS Second of Week' time tag between the mountpoint string and the satellite number, see :numref:`Table %s <tab_FEED_ENGINE>` for format details. 
     1492BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Nevertheless, the output is produced block-wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated.
     1493
     1494The following is an example for unsynchronized IP port output which presents observations from GPS and GLONASS as collected through stream WTZR0. The format for synchronized and unsynchronized output of observations is very much the same. However, unsynchronized output does not have 'Epoch Records' and 'Observation Records'. Instead each record contains the 'GPS Week Number' and 'GPS Second of Week' time tag between the mountpoint string and the satellite number, see :numref:`Table %s <tab_FEED_ENGINE>` for format details.
    14951495
    14961496.. code-block:: console
     
    15061506
    15071507.. index:: Serial output
    1508  
     1508
    15091509Serial output
    15101510=============
    15111511
    1512 You may use BNC to feed a serially connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that, an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. Depending on the stream content, the receiver may use it for Differential GNSS, Precise Point Positioning or any other purpose supported by its firmware. Note that receiving a VRS stream requires the receiver sending NMEA sentences (option 'NMEA' set to 'Manual' or 'Auto') to the Ntrip Broadcaster. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_19>` shows the data flow when pulling a VRS stream or a physical (non-VRS) stream. 
     1512You may use BNC to feed a serially connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that, an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. Depending on the stream content, the receiver may use it for Differential GNSS, Precise Point Positioning or any other purpose supported by its firmware. Note that receiving a VRS stream requires the receiver sending NMEA sentences (option 'NMEA' set to 'Manual' or 'Auto') to the Ntrip Broadcaster. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_19>` shows the data flow when pulling a VRS stream or a physical (non-VRS) stream.
    15131513
    15141514.. _fig_19:
     
    15181518   Flowcharts, BNC forwarding a stream to a serially connected receiver; sending NMEA sentences is mandatory for VRS streams
    15191519
    1520 :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_20>` shows the screenshot of an example situation where BNC pulls a VRS stream from an Ntrip Broadcaster to feed a serially connected RTK rover. 
     1520:numref:`Fig. %s <fig_20>` shows the screenshot of an example situation where BNC pulls a VRS stream from an Ntrip Broadcaster to feed a serially connected RTK rover.
    15211521
    15221522.. _fig_20:
     
    15251525
    15261526   BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serially connected RTK rover
    1527  
     1527
    15281528Mountpoint - optional
    15291529---------------------
    15301530
    1531 Enter a 'Mountpoint' to forward its corresponding stream to a serially connected GNSS receiver. When selecting one of the serial communication options listed below, make sure that you pick those configured to the serially connected receiver. 
     1531Enter a 'Mountpoint' to forward its corresponding stream to a serially connected GNSS receiver. When selecting one of the serial communication options listed below, make sure that you pick those configured to the serially connected receiver.
    15321532
    15331533Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
     
    15361536Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the serially connected receiver. Valid port names are summarized in :numref:`Table %s <tab_PORT_NAMES>`.
    15371537
    1538 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     1538.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    15391539
    15401540.. _tab_PORT_NAMES:
     
    15531553  ================= ======================
    15541554
    1555 Note that you must plug a serial cable in the port defined here before you start BNC. 
    1556  
     1555Note that you must plug a serial cable in the port defined here before you start BNC.
     1556
    15571557Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
    15581558--------------------------------------------
    15591559
    1560 Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial output link. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended. 
    1561  
     1560Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial output link. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.
     1561
    15621562Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
    15631563-----------------------------------------------
    15641564
    1565 Select a 'Flow control' for the serial output link. Note that your selection must equal the flow control configured to the serially connected device. Select 'OFF' if you do not know better. 
     1565Select a 'Flow control' for the serial output link. Note that your selection must equal the flow control configured to the serially connected device. Select 'OFF' if you do not know better.
    15661566
    15671567Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
    15681568-----------------------------------------
    15691569
    1570 Select the 'Parity' for the serial output link. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'. 
     1570Select the 'Parity' for the serial output link. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.
    15711571
    15721572Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
    15731573--------------------------------------------
    15741574
    1575 Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '8' data bits are used. 
     1575Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '8' data bits are used.
    15761576
    15771577Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
    15781578--------------------------------------------
    15791579
    1580 Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '1' stop bit is used. 
     1580Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.
    15811581
    15821582NMEA - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set
    15831583---------------------------------------
    15841584
    1585 The 'NMEA' option supports the so-called 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) concept which requires the receiver to send approximate position information to the Ntrip Broadcaster. Select 'no' if you do not want BNC to forward or upload any NMEA sentence to the Ntrip broadcaster in support of VRS. 
    1586 
    1587 Select 'Auto' to automatically forward NMEA sentences of type GGA from your serially connected receiver to the Ntrip broadcaster and/or save them in a file. 
    1588 
    1589 Select 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' if you want BNC to produce and upload GPGGA or GNGGA NMEA sentences to the Ntrip broadcaster because your serially connected receiver does not generate them. A Talker ID 'GP' proceeding the GGA string stands for GPS solutions while a Talker ID 'GN' stands for multi-constellation solutions. 
    1590 
    1591 Note that selecting 'Auto' or 'Manual' works only for VRS streams which show up under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window with 'nmea' stream attribute set to 'yes'. This attribute is either extracted from the Ntrip broadcaster's source-table or introduced by the user through editing the BNC configuration file. 
     1585The 'NMEA' option supports the so-called 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) concept which requires the receiver to send approximate position information to the Ntrip Broadcaster. Select 'no' if you do not want BNC to forward or upload any NMEA sentence to the Ntrip broadcaster in support of VRS.
     1586
     1587Select 'Auto' to automatically forward NMEA sentences of type GGA from your serially connected receiver to the Ntrip broadcaster and/or save them in a file.
     1588
     1589Select 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' if you want BNC to produce and upload GPGGA or GNGGA NMEA sentences to the Ntrip broadcaster because your serially connected receiver does not generate them. A Talker ID 'GP' proceeding the GGA string stands for GPS solutions while a Talker ID 'GN' stands for multi-constellation solutions.
     1590
     1591Note that selecting 'Auto' or 'Manual' works only for VRS streams which show up under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window with 'nmea' stream attribute set to 'yes'. This attribute is either extracted from the Ntrip broadcaster's source-table or introduced by the user through editing the BNC configuration file.
    15921592
    15931593File - optional if 'NMEA' is set to 'Auto'
    15941594------------------------------------------
    15951595
    1596 Specify the full path to a file where NMEA sentences coming from your serially connected receiver are saved. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no NMEA sentences will be saved on disk. 
     1596Specify the full path to a file where NMEA sentences coming from your serially connected receiver are saved. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no NMEA sentences will be saved on disk.
    15971597
    15981598Height - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'
    15991599-----------------------------------------------
    16001600
    1601 Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meters for the reference station introduced through 'Mountpoint'. Together with the latitude and longitude from the Ntrip broadcaster source-table, the height information is used to build GGA sentences to be sent to the Ntrip broadcaster. 
    1602 
    1603 For adjusting latitude and longitude values of a VRS stream given in the 'Streams' canvas, you can double click the latitude/longitude data fields, specify appropriate values and then hit Enter. 
    1604 
    1605 This option is only relevant when option 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' respectively. 
     1601Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meters for the reference station introduced through 'Mountpoint'. Together with the latitude and longitude from the Ntrip broadcaster source-table, the height information is used to build GGA sentences to be sent to the Ntrip broadcaster.
     1602
     1603For adjusting latitude and longitude values of a VRS stream given in the 'Streams' canvas, you can double click the latitude/longitude data fields, specify appropriate values and then hit Enter.
     1604
     1605This option is only relevant when option 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' respectively.
    16061606
    16071607Sampling - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'
    16081608-------------------------------------------------
    16091609
    1610 Select a sampling interval in seconds for manual generation and upload of NMEA GGA sentences. 
    1611 
    1612 A sampling rate of '0' means that a GGA sentence will be sent only once to initialize the requested VRS stream. Note that some VRS systems need GGA sentences at regular intervals. 
     1610Select a sampling interval in seconds for manual generation and upload of NMEA GGA sentences.
     1611
     1612A sampling rate of '0' means that a GGA sentence will be sent only once to initialize the requested VRS stream. Note that some VRS systems need GGA sentences at regular intervals.
    16131613
    16141614.. index:: Stream outages, Stream corruption
     
    16171617=======
    16181618
    1619 At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows: 
    1620 
    1621 Stream outages: BNC considers a connection to be broken when there are no incoming data detected for more than 20 seconds. When this occurs, BNC will try to reconnect at a decreasing rate. It will first try to reconnect with 1 second delay and again in 2 seconds if the previous attempt failed. If the attempt is still unsuccessful, it will try to reconnect within 4 seconds after the previous attempt and so on. The waiting time doubles each time with a maximum of 256 seconds. 
    1622 
    1623 Stream corruption: Not all chunks of bits transferred to BNC's internal decoder may return valid observations. Sometimes several chunks might be needed before the next observation can be properly decoded. BNC buffers all outputs (both valid and invalid) from the decoder for a short time span (size derived from the expected 'Observation rate') to then determine whether a stream is valid or corrupted. 
    1624 
    1625 Outage and corruption events are reported in the 'Log' tab. They can also be passed on as parameters to a shell script or batch file to generate an advisory note to BNC's operator or affected stream providers. This functionality lets users utilize BNC as a real-time performance monitor and alarm system for a network of GNSS reference stations, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_20b>` for an example setup. 
     1619At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
     1620
     1621Stream outages: BNC considers a connection to be broken when there are no incoming data detected for more than 20 seconds. When this occurs, BNC will try to reconnect at a decreasing rate. It will first try to reconnect with 1 second delay and again in 2 seconds if the previous attempt failed. If the attempt is still unsuccessful, it will try to reconnect within 4 seconds after the previous attempt and so on. The waiting time doubles each time with a maximum of 256 seconds.
     1622
     1623Stream corruption: Not all chunks of bits transferred to BNC's internal decoder may return valid observations. Sometimes several chunks might be needed before the next observation can be properly decoded. BNC buffers all outputs (both valid and invalid) from the decoder for a short time span (size derived from the expected 'Observation rate') to then determine whether a stream is valid or corrupted.
     1624
     1625Outage and corruption events are reported in the 'Log' tab. They can also be passed on as parameters to a shell script or batch file to generate an advisory note to BNC's operator or affected stream providers. This functionality lets users utilize BNC as a real-time performance monitor and alarm system for a network of GNSS reference stations, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_20b>` for an example setup.
    16261626
    16271627.. _fig_20b:
     
    16361636BNC can collect all returns (success or failure) coming from a decoder within a certain short time span to then decide whether a stream has an outage or its content is corrupted. This procedure needs a rough a priori estimate of the expected observation rate of the incoming streams.
    16371637
    1638 An empty option field (default) means that you do not want explicit information from BNC about stream outages and incoming streams that cannot be decoded. 
     1638An empty option field (default) means that you do not want explicit information from BNC about stream outages and incoming streams that cannot be decoded.
    16391639
    16401640Failure Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set
    16411641----------------------------------------------------------
    16421642
    1643 Event 'Begin_Failure' will be reported if no data is received continuously for longer than the 'Failure threshold' time. Similarly, event 'Begin_Corrupted' will be reported when corrupted data is detected by the decoder continuously for longer than this 'Failure threshold' time. The default value is set to 15 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports. 
    1644 
    1645 Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Failure threshold' will force BNC to report any stream failure immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'. 
     1643Event 'Begin_Failure' will be reported if no data is received continuously for longer than the 'Failure threshold' time. Similarly, event 'Begin_Corrupted' will be reported when corrupted data is detected by the decoder continuously for longer than this 'Failure threshold' time. The default value is set to 15 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports.
     1644
     1645Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Failure threshold' will force BNC to report any stream failure immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'.
    16461646
    16471647Recovery Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set
    16481648-----------------------------------------------------------
    16491649
    1650 Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports. 
    1651 
    1652 Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Recovery threshold' will force BNC to report any stream recovery immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'. 
     1650Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports.
     1651
     1652Note that specifying a value of zero '0' for the 'Recovery threshold' will force BNC to report any stream recovery immediately. Note also that for using this function you need to specify the 'Observation rate'.
    16531653
    16541654Script - optional if 'Observation rate' is set
    16551655----------------------------------------------
    16561656
    1657 As mentioned before, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the described events is reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information. 
    1658 
    1659 Leave the 'Script' field empty if you do not wish to use this option. An invalid path will also disable this option. 
     1657As mentioned before, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the described events is reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information.
     1658
     1659Leave the 'Script' field empty if you do not wish to use this option. An invalid path will also disable this option.
    16601660
    16611661Examples for command line parameter strings passed on to the advisory 'Script' are:
     
    16661666  FFMJ0 End_Outage 08-02-21 11:36:02 Begin was 08-02-21 09:25:59
    16671667
    1668 Sample script for Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems: 
     1668Sample script for Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems:
    16691669
    16701670.. code-block:: none
     
    16801680  mail -s "NABU: $1" email@address < mail.txt
    16811681
    1682 Note the sleep command in this script, which causes the system to wait for a random period of up to 60 seconds before sending the email. This should avoid overloading your mail server in case of a simultaneous failure of many streams. 
     1682Note the sleep command in this script, which causes the system to wait for a random period of up to 60 seconds before sending the email. This should avoid overloading your mail server in case of a simultaneous failure of many streams.
    16831683
    16841684Miscellaneous
    16851685=============
    16861686
    1687 This section describes several miscellaneous options which can be applied to a single stream (mountpoint) or to all configured streams. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_21>` shows RTCM message numbers and observation types contained in stream 'CUT07' and the message latencies recorded every 2 seconds. 
     1687This section describes several miscellaneous options which can be applied to a single stream (mountpoint) or to all configured streams. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_21>` shows RTCM message numbers and observation types contained in stream 'CUT07' and the message latencies recorded every 2 seconds.
    16881688
    16891689.. _fig_21:
     
    16921692
    16931693   RTCM message numbers, latencies and observation types logged by BNC
    1694  
     1694
    16951695Mountpoint - optional
    16961696---------------------
    16971697
    1698 Specify a mountpoint to apply one or several of the 'Miscellaneous' options to the corresponding stream. Enter 'ALL' if you want to apply these options to all configured streams. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to apply any of these options. 
     1698Specify a mountpoint to apply one or several of the 'Miscellaneous' options to the corresponding stream. Enter 'ALL' if you want to apply these options to all configured streams. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to apply any of these options.
    16991699
    17001700Log Latency - optional
    17011701----------------------
    17021702
    1703 BNC can average latencies per stream over a certain period of GPS time, the 'Log latency' interval. Mean latencies are calculated from the individual latencies of one (first incoming) observation or Broadcast Correction per second. The mean latencies are then saved in BNC's logfile. Note that computing correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. Note further that visualized latencies from the 'Latency' tab on the bottom of the main window represent individual latencies and not the mean latencies for the logfile. 
     1703BNC can average latencies per stream over a certain period of GPS time, the 'Log latency' interval. Mean latencies are calculated from the individual latencies of one (first incoming) observation or Broadcast Correction per second. The mean latencies are then saved in BNC's logfile. Note that computing correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. Note further that visualized latencies from the 'Latency' tab on the bottom of the main window represent individual latencies and not the mean latencies for the logfile.
    17041704
    17051705.. index:: Latency monitoring
     
    17081708^^^^^^^
    17091709
    1710 Latency is defined in BNC by 
     1710Latency is defined in BNC by
    17111711
    17121712.. math::
     
    17141714     l = t_{UTC} - t_{GPS} + t_{leap}
    17151715
    1716 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     1716.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    17171717
    17181718with latency :math:`l`, UTC time provided by BNC's host :math:`t_{UTC}`, GPS time of currently processed epoch :math:`t_{GPS}` and Leap seconds between UTC and GPS time :math:`t_{leap}`.
     
    17231723^^^^^^^^^^
    17241724
    1725 BNC counts the number of GPS seconds covered by at least one observation. It also estimates an observation rate (independent from the a priori specified 'Observation rate') from all observations received throughout the first full 'Log latency' interval. Based on this rate, BNC estimates the number of data gaps when appearing in subsequent intervals. 
    1726 
    1727 Latencies of observations or corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and statistical information can be recorded in the 'Log' tab at the end of each 'Log latency' interval. A typical output from a 1 hour 'Log latency' interval would be: 
     1725BNC counts the number of GPS seconds covered by at least one observation. It also estimates an observation rate (independent from the a priori specified 'Observation rate') from all observations received throughout the first full 'Log latency' interval. Based on this rate, BNC estimates the number of data gaps when appearing in subsequent intervals.
     1726
     1727Latencies of observations or corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and statistical information can be recorded in the 'Log' tab at the end of each 'Log latency' interval. A typical output from a 1 hour 'Log latency' interval would be:
    17281728
    17291729.. code-block:: console
     
    17311731  08-03-17 15:59:47 BRUS0: Mean latency 1.47 sec, min 0.66, max 3.02, rms 0.35, 3585 epochs, 15 gaps
    17321732
    1733 Select a 'Log latency' interval to activate this function or select the empty option field if you do not want BNC to log latencies and statistical information. 
    1734  
     1733Select a 'Log latency' interval to activate this function or select the empty option field if you do not want BNC to log latencies and statistical information.
     1734
    17351735Scan RTCM - optional
    17361736--------------------
    17371737
    1738 When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types and observation types. As reliable information concerning stream content should be available e.g. for Ntrip Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a priori for the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'inspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. Stöcker. 
    1739 
    1740 Tick 'Scan RTCM' to scan RTCM Version 2 or 3 streams and log all contained 
     1738When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types and observation types. As reliable information concerning stream content should be available e.g. for Ntrip Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a priori for the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'inspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. Stöcker.
     1739
     1740Tick 'Scan RTCM' to scan RTCM Version 2 or 3 streams and log all contained
    17411741
    17421742* Numbers of incoming message types
     
    17461746* Antenna descriptor.
    17471747
    1748 In case of RTCM Version 3 streams the output includes 
    1749  
     1748In case of RTCM Version 3 streams the output includes
     1749
    17501750* RINEX Version 3 Observation types
    17511751
    1752 Note that in RTCM Version 2 message types 18 and 19 carry only the observables of one frequency. Hence it needs two type 18 and 19 messages per epoch to transport observations from dual frequency receivers. 
    1753 
    1754 Please note further that RTCM Version 3 message types 1084 for GLONASS do not contain GLONASS channel numbers. Observations from these messages can only be decoded when you include 1020 GLONASS ephemeris messages to your stream which contain the channels. You could also consider adding a second stream carrying 1087 GLONASS observation messages or 1020 GLONASS ephemeris messages as both contain the GLONASS channel numbers. 
    1755 
    1756 Logged time stamps refer to message reception time and allow understanding repetition rates. Enter 'ALL' if you want to log this information from all configured streams. Beware that the size of the logfile can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming RTCM streams. 
    1757 
    1758 This option is primarily meant for test and evaluation. Use it to figure out what exactly is produced by a specific GNSS receiver's configuration. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to print message type numbers and antenna information carried in RTCM streams. 
     1752Note that in RTCM Version 2 message types 18 and 19 carry only the observables of one frequency. Hence it needs two type 18 and 19 messages per epoch to transport observations from dual frequency receivers.
     1753
     1754Please note further that RTCM Version 3 message types 1084 for GLONASS do not contain GLONASS channel numbers. Observations from these messages can only be decoded when you include 1020 GLONASS ephemeris messages to your stream which contain the channels. You could also consider adding a second stream carrying 1087 GLONASS observation messages or 1020 GLONASS ephemeris messages as both contain the GLONASS channel numbers.
     1755
     1756Logged time stamps refer to message reception time and allow understanding repetition rates. Enter 'ALL' if you want to log this information from all configured streams. Beware that the size of the logfile can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming RTCM streams.
     1757
     1758This option is primarily meant for test and evaluation. Use it to figure out what exactly is produced by a specific GNSS receiver's configuration. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to print message type numbers and antenna information carried in RTCM streams.
    17591759
    17601760Port - optional
    17611761---------------
    17621762
    1763 BNC can output streams related to the above specified 'Mountpoint' through a TCP/IP port of your local host. Enter a port number to activate this function. The stream content remains untouched. BNC does not decode or reformat the data for this output. Be careful when keyword 'ALL' is specified as 'Mountpoint' for involving all incoming streams together because the affiliation of data to certain streams gets lost in the output. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to apply the TCP/IP port output option. 
     1763BNC can output streams related to the above specified 'Mountpoint' through a TCP/IP port of your local host. Enter a port number to activate this function. The stream content remains untouched. BNC does not decode or reformat the data for this output. Be careful when keyword 'ALL' is specified as 'Mountpoint' for involving all incoming streams together because the affiliation of data to certain streams gets lost in the output. An empty option field (default) means that you do not want BNC to apply the TCP/IP port output option.
    17641764
    17651765.. index:: PPP client
     
    17681768==========
    17691769
    1770 BNC can derive coordinates for rover positions following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses code or code plus phase data from one or more GNSS systems in ionosphere-free linear combinations P3, L3, or P3&L3. Besides pulling streams of observations from a dual frequency GNSS receiver, this 
     1770BNC can derive coordinates for rover positions following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses code or code plus phase data from one or more GNSS systems in ionosphere-free linear combinations P3, L3, or P3&L3. Besides pulling streams of observations from a dual frequency GNSS receiver, this
    17711771
    17721772* Requires pulling in addition a stream carrying satellite orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages. Note that for BNC these Broadcast Corrections need to be referred to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such messages are listed on (http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits) :cite:`caissy2012a`. Stream 'CLK11' on Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.
    17731773* May require pulling a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris available as RTCM Version 3 message types 1019, 1020, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046 and 63 (tentative). This becomes a must only when the stream coming from the receiver does not contain Broadcast Ephemeris or provides them only at very low repetition rate. Streams providing such messages are listed on http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.
    17741774
    1775 Note that Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect or outdated ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile. 
     1775Note that Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect or outdated ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
    17761776
    17771777When using the PPP option, it is important to understand which effects are corrected by BNC:
     
    17841784* Rotational deformation due to polar motion (Polar Tides) is not corrected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.
    17851785
    1786 The provider of an orbit/clock correction stream may switch with his service at any time from a duty to a backup server installation. This shall be noted in the SSR stream through a change of the Issue Of Data (IOD SSR) parameter. The PPP option in BNC will immediately reset all ambiguities in such a situation. 
     1786The provider of an orbit/clock correction stream may switch with his service at any time from a duty to a backup server installation. This shall be noted in the SSR stream through a change of the Issue Of Data (IOD SSR) parameter. The PPP option in BNC will immediately reset all ambiguities in such a situation.
    17871787
    17881788PPP options are specified in BNC through the following four panels:
     
    17981798-------------------------
    17991799
    1800 This panel provides options for specifying the input and output streams and files required by BNC for real-time or post processing PPP, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_22>` for an example screenshot. 
     1800This panel provides options for specifying the input and output streams and files required by BNC for real-time or post processing PPP, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_22>` for an example screenshot.
    18011801
    18021802.. _fig_22:
     
    18051805
    18061806   Real-time Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1
    1807  
     1807
    18081808Data Source - optional
    18091809^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18101810
    1811 Choose between input from 'Real-time Streams' or 'RINEX Files' for PPP with BNC in real-time or post processing mode. 
     1811Choose between input from 'Real-time Streams' or 'RINEX Files' for PPP with BNC in real-time or post processing mode.
    18121812
    18131813Real-time Streams
     
    18191819"""""""""""
    18201820
    1821 This input mode allows to specify RINEX Observation, RINEX Navigation and Broadcast Correction files. BNC accepts RINEX Version 2 as well as RINEX Version 3 Observation or Navigation file formats. Files carrying Broadcast Corrections must have the format produced by BNC through the 'Broadcast Corrections' panel. Specifying only a RINEX Observation and a RINEX Navigation file and no Broadcast Correction file leads BNC to a 'Single Point Positioning' (SPP) solution. 
     1821This input mode allows to specify RINEX Observation, RINEX Navigation and Broadcast Correction files. BNC accepts RINEX Version 2 as well as RINEX Version 3 Observation or Navigation file formats. Files carrying Broadcast Corrections must have the format produced by BNC through the 'Broadcast Corrections' panel. Specifying only a RINEX Observation and a RINEX Navigation file and no Broadcast Correction file leads BNC to a 'Single Point Positioning' (SPP) solution.
    18221822
    18231823Debugging
    18241824"""""""""
    18251825
    1826 Note that for debugging purposes, BNC's real-time PPP functionality can also be used offline. Apply the 'File Mode' 'Command Line' option for that to read a file containing synchronized observations, orbit and clock correctors, and Broadcast Ephemeris. Example: 
     1826Note that for debugging purposes, BNC's real-time PPP functionality can also be used offline. Apply the 'File Mode' 'Command Line' option for that to read a file containing synchronized observations, orbit and clock correctors, and Broadcast Ephemeris. Example:
    18271827
    18281828.. code-block:: bat
     
    18301830  bnc.exe --conf c:\temp\PPP.bnc --file c:\temp\RAW
    18311831
    1832 Such a file (here: 'RAW') must be saved beforehand using BNC's 'Raw output file' option.   
     1832Such a file (here: 'RAW') must be saved beforehand using BNC's 'Raw output file' option.
    18331833
    18341834RINEX Observation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'
    18351835^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18361836
    1837 Specify a RINEX Observation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3. 
     1837Specify a RINEX Observation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3.
    18381838
    18391839RINEX Navigation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'
    18401840^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18411841
    1842 Specify a RINEX Navigation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3. 
     1842Specify a RINEX Navigation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3.
    18431843
    18441844Corrections Stream - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'Real-Time Streams'
    18451845^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18461846
    1847 Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections stream' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to correct your satellite ephemeris accordingly. Note that the stream's orbit and clock corrections must refer to the satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such corrections are made available e.g. through the International GNSS Service (IGS) and listed on http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits. The stream format must be RTCM Version 3 containing so-called SSR messages. Streams 'IGS03' and 'CLK11' supporting GPS plus GLONASS are examples. If you do not specify a 'Corrections stream', BNC will fall back from a PPP solution to a Single Point Positioning (SPP) solution. 
     1847Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections stream' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to correct your satellite ephemeris accordingly. Note that the stream's orbit and clock corrections must refer to the satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such corrections are made available e.g. through the International GNSS Service (IGS) and listed on http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits. The stream format must be RTCM Version 3 containing so-called SSR messages. Streams 'IGS03' and 'CLK11' supporting GPS plus GLONASS are examples. If you do not specify a 'Corrections stream', BNC will fall back from a PPP solution to a Single Point Positioning (SPP) solution.
    18481848
    18491849Corrections File - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'
    18501850^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18511851
    1852 Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections file' as saved beforehand using BNC. The file content is basically the ASCII representation of a RTCM Version 3 Broadcast Correction (SSR) stream. If you do not specify a 'Correction file', BNC will fall back from a PPP solution to a Single Point Positioning (SPP) solution. 
     1852Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections file' as saved beforehand using BNC. The file content is basically the ASCII representation of a RTCM Version 3 Broadcast Correction (SSR) stream. If you do not specify a 'Correction file', BNC will fall back from a PPP solution to a Single Point Positioning (SPP) solution.
    18531853
    18541854ANTEX File - optional
    18551855^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18561856
    1857 IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations in PPP for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations. Note that for applying such corrections you need to specify the receiver's antenna name and radome in BNC's 'Coordinates file'. 
    1858 
    1859 Default value for 'ANTEX file' is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want to correct observations for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations. 
     1857IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations in PPP for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations. Note that for applying such corrections you need to specify the receiver's antenna name and radome in BNC's 'Coordinates file'.
     1858
     1859Default value for 'ANTEX file' is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want to correct observations for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations.
    18601860
    18611861Coordinates File - optional
    18621862^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    18631863
    1864 Enter the full path to an ASCII file which specifies all observation streams or files from stationary or mobile receivers you possibly may want to process. Specifying a 'Coordinates file' is optional. If it exists, it should contain one record per stream or file with the following parameters separated by blank characters: 
     1864Enter the full path to an ASCII file which specifies all observation streams or files from stationary or mobile receivers you possibly may want to process. Specifying a 'Coordinates file' is optional. If it exists, it should contain one record per stream or file with the following parameters separated by blank characters:
    18651865
    18661866* Input data source, to be specified either through
    18671867
    1868   * the 'Mountpoint' of an RTCM stream (when in real-time PPP mode), or 
     1868  * the 'Mountpoint' of an RTCM stream (when in real-time PPP mode), or
    18691869  * the first four characters of the RINEX observations file (when in post processing PPP mode).
    1870  
     1870
    18711871  Having at least this first parameter in each record is mandatory.
    18721872
     
    18761876Receiver's antenna name as defined in your ANTEX file (see below); Observations will be corrected for the Antenna Phase Center (APC) offsets and variations, which may result in a reduction of a few centimeters at max; the specified name must consist of 20 characters; add trailing blanks if the antenna name has less than 20 characters; examples:
    18771877
    1878 .. code-block:: console 
     1878.. code-block:: console
    18791879
    18801880  'JPSREGANT_SD_E      ' (no radome)
    18811881  'LEIAT504        NONE' (no radome)
    18821882  'LEIAR25.R3      LEIT' (radome is LEIT)
    1883  
     1883
    18841884Leave antenna name blank if you do not want to correct observations for APC offsets and variations or if you do not know the antenna name.
    1885 * Receiver type following the naming convention for IGS equipment as defined in https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr\_ant.tab. Specifying the receiver type is only required when saving SINEX Troposphere files. In those files it becomes part of the 'SITE/RECEIVER' specifications, see section 'SNX TRO Directory'. 
    1886 
    1887 Records in the 'Coordinates' file with exclamation mark '!' in the first column or blank records will be understood as comment lines and ignored. 
    1888 
    1889 The following is the content of an example 'Coordinates file'. Here each record describes the mountpoint of a stream available from the global IGS real-time reference station network. A priori coordinates are followed by North/East/Up eccentricity components of the ARP followed by the antenna name, radome and the receiver name in use. 
     1885* Receiver type following the naming convention for IGS equipment as defined in https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr\_ant.tab. Specifying the receiver type is only required when saving SINEX Troposphere files. In those files it becomes part of the 'SITE/RECEIVER' specifications, see section 'SNX TRO Directory'.
     1886
     1887Records in the 'Coordinates' file with exclamation mark '!' in the first column or blank records will be understood as comment lines and ignored.
     1888
     1889The following is the content of an example 'Coordinates file'. Here each record describes the mountpoint of a stream available from the global IGS real-time reference station network. A priori coordinates are followed by North/East/Up eccentricity components of the ARP followed by the antenna name, radome and the receiver name in use.
    18901890
    18911891.. code-block:: console
     
    19251925  YELL7 -1224452.8796 -2689216.1863  5633638.2832  0.0000  0.0000  0.1000 AOAD/M_T        NONE JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA
    19261926
    1927 Note again that the only mandatory parameters in this file are the 'Station' parameters in the first column, each standing for an observation stream's mountpoint or the 4-character station ID of a RINEX filename. The following shows further valid examples for records of a 'Coordinates file'. 
     1927Note again that the only mandatory parameters in this file are the 'Station' parameters in the first column, each standing for an observation stream's mountpoint or the 4-character station ID of a RINEX filename. The following shows further valid examples for records of a 'Coordinates file'.
    19281928
    19291929.. code-block:: console
     
    19401940
    19411941In this file
    1942  
     1942
    19431943* Record 'WTZR0' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate, antenna eccentricity, antenna and radome type and receiver type.
    19441944* Record 'CUT07' describes a stream from a stationary receiver with known a priori marker coordinate, antenna eccentricity and antenna and radome type. The receiver type is unknown.
     
    19471947* The 4-character station ID 'WARN' indicates that a RINEX observations file for post processing PPP is available for station 'WARN' but an a priori marker coordinate as well as antenna eccentricity, name and radome are unknown.
    19481948* Record 'SASS1' stands for a mountpoint where the stream comes from a mobile rover receiver. Hence an a priori coordinate is unknown although antenna eccentricity, name and radome and receiver type are known.
    1949  
     1949
    19501950Version 3 Filenames - optional
    19511951^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
     
    19531953Tick 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames for PPP logfiles, NMEA files and SINEX Troposphere files to follow the RINEX Version 3 standard, see section 'RINEX Filenames' for details. Default is an empty check box, meaning to create filenames following the RINEX Version 2 standard. The file content is not affected by this option. It only concerns the filename notation. :numref:`Table %s <tab_RINEX2_FILENAMES>` and :numref:`Table %s <tab_RINEX3_FILENAMES>` give filename examples for RINEX version 2 and 3, respectively.
    19541954
    1955 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     1955.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    19561956
    19571957.. _tab_RINEX2_FILENAMES:
     
    19661966  ================ ========================================
    19671967
    1968 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.46\textwidth}|p{0.46\textwidth}| 
    1969  
     1968.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.46\textwidth}|p{0.46\textwidth}|
     1969
    19701970.. _tab_RINEX3_FILENAMES:
    19711971.. table:: File name examples vor RINEX version 3.
     
    19801980
    19811981.. index:: PPP client logfile
    1982  
     1982
    19831983Logfile Directory - optional
    19841984^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
     
    20982098
    20992099  Given per satellite with cIF/lIF for ionosphere-free linear combination of code/phase observations,
    2100 * CLK: Receiver clock errors in [m], 
    2101 * TRP: A priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m], 
    2102 * OFFGLO: Time offset between GPS time and GLONASS time in [m], 
    2103 * OFFGAL: Time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m], 
    2104 * OFFBDS: Time offset between GPS time and BDS time in [m], 
     2100* CLK: Receiver clock errors in [m],
     2101* TRP: A priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
     2102* OFFGLO: Time offset between GPS time and GLONASS time in [m],
     2103* OFFGAL: Time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m],
     2104* OFFBDS: Time offset between GPS time and BDS time in [m],
    21052105* AMB: L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities'
    21062106
    2107   Given per satellite with 'nEpo' = number of epochs since last ambiguity reset, 
     2107  Given per satellite with 'nEpo' = number of epochs since last ambiguity reset,
    21082108* MOUNTPOINT: Here 'CUT07' with XYZ position in [m] and dN/dE/dU in [m] for North, East, and Up displacements compared to a priori marker coordinates.
    21092109
    2110 Estimated parameters are presented together with their formal errors as derived from the implemented filter. The PPP algorithm includes outlier and cycle slip detection. 
    2111 
    2112 Default value for 'Logfile directory' is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want to save daily PPP logfiles on disk. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create PPP logfiles. 
     2110Estimated parameters are presented together with their formal errors as derived from the implemented filter. The PPP algorithm includes outlier and cycle slip detection.
     2111
     2112Default value for 'Logfile directory' is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want to save daily PPP logfiles on disk. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create PPP logfiles.
    21132113
    21142114.. index:: PPP client NMEA output
     
    21172117^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    21182118
    2119 You can specify a 'NMEA directory' to save daily NMEA files with Point Positioning results recorded as NMEA sentences. Such sentences are usually generated about once per second with pairs of 
     2119You can specify a 'NMEA directory' to save daily NMEA files with Point Positioning results recorded as NMEA sentences. Such sentences are usually generated about once per second with pairs of
    21202120
    21212121* GPGGA sentences which mainly carry the estimated latitude, longitude, and height values, plus
     
    21462146  ...
    21472147
    2148 The default value for 'NMEA directory' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save NMEA sentences into files. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create NMEA files. Note that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from http://www.rtklib.com and compatible with the 'NMEA Directory' and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option. 
     2148The default value for 'NMEA directory' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save NMEA sentences into files. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create NMEA files. Note that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from http://www.rtklib.com and compatible with the 'NMEA Directory' and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
    21492149
    21502150SNX TRO Directory - optional
     
    21572157     T(z) = T_{apr}(z) + dT / cos(z)
    21582158
    2159 where :math:`T_{apr}` is the a priori tropospheric delay derived from Saastamoinen model. 
    2160 
    2161 You can specify a 'SNX TRO Directory' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk, see https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt for a documentation of the file format. Note that receiver type information for these files must be provided through the coordinates file described in section 'Coordinates file'. The following is an example for a troposphere file content: 
     2159where :math:`T_{apr}` is the a priori tropospheric delay derived from Saastamoinen model.
     2160
     2161You can specify a 'SNX TRO Directory' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk, see https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt for a documentation of the file format. Note that receiver type information for these files must be provided through the coordinates file described in section 'Coordinates file'. The following is an example for a troposphere file content:
    21622162
    21632163.. code-block:: none
    21642164
    2165   %=TRO 2.00 BKG 16:053:42824 BKG 16:053:42824 16:053:43199 P 00376 0  T 
     2165  %=TRO 2.00 BKG 16:053:42824 BKG 16:053:42824 16:053:43199 P 00376 0  T
    21662166  +FILE/REFERENCE
    21672167   DESCRIPTION        BNC generated SINEX TRO file
     
    22182218  %=ENDTROP
    22192219
    2220 The default value for 'SNX TRO Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save SINEX Troposphere files. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create SINEX Troposphere files. 
     2220The default value for 'SNX TRO Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save SINEX Troposphere files. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create SINEX Troposphere files.
    22212221
    22222222SNX TRO Interval - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set
    22232223^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22242224
    2225 Select the length of SINEX Troposphere files. Default 'Interval' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk is '1 day'. 
     2225Select the length of SINEX Troposphere files. Default 'Interval' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk is '1 day'.
    22262226
    22272227SNX TRO Sampling - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set
    22282228^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22292229
    2230 Select a 'Sampling' rate in seconds for saving troposphere parameters. Default 'Sampling' rate is '0', meaning that all troposphere estimates will be saved on disk. 
     2230Select a 'Sampling' rate in seconds for saving troposphere parameters. Default 'Sampling' rate is '0', meaning that all troposphere estimates will be saved on disk.
    22312231
    22322232SNX TRO Analysis Center - Mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set
    22332233^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22342234
    2235 Specify a 3-character abbreviation describing you as the generating Analysis Center (AC) in your SINEX troposphere files. String 'BKG' is an example. 
     2235Specify a 3-character abbreviation describing you as the generating Analysis Center (AC) in your SINEX troposphere files. String 'BKG' is an example.
    22362236
    22372237SNX TRO Solution ID - Mandatory if 'SINEX TRO Directory' is set
    22382238^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22392239
    2240 Specify a 4-character solution ID to allow a distingtion between different solutions per AC. String '0001' is an example. 
     2240Specify a 4-character solution ID to allow a distingtion between different solutions per AC. String '0001' is an example.
    22412241
    22422242.. index:: PPP client station selection
     
    22452245---------------------------
    22462246
    2247 This panel allows to enter parameters specific to each PPP process or thread. Individual sigmas for a priori coordinates and a noise for coordinate variations over time can be introduced. Furthermore, a sigma for model-based troposphere estimates and the corresponding noise for troposphere variations can be specified. Finally, local IP server ports can be defined for output of NMEA streams carrying PPP results. 
    2248 
    2249 BNC offers to create a table with one line per PPP process or thread to specify station-specific parameters. Hit the 'Add Station' button to create the table or add a new line to it. To remove a line from the table, highlight it by clicking it and hit the 'Delete Station' button. You can also remove multiple lines simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift or +Ctrl. BNC will simultaneously produce PPP solutions for all stations listed in the 'Station' column of this table, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_23>` for an example screenshot. 
     2247This panel allows to enter parameters specific to each PPP process or thread. Individual sigmas for a priori coordinates and a noise for coordinate variations over time can be introduced. Furthermore, a sigma for model-based troposphere estimates and the corresponding noise for troposphere variations can be specified. Finally, local IP server ports can be defined for output of NMEA streams carrying PPP results.
     2248
     2249BNC offers to create a table with one line per PPP process or thread to specify station-specific parameters. Hit the 'Add Station' button to create the table or add a new line to it. To remove a line from the table, highlight it by clicking it and hit the 'Delete Station' button. You can also remove multiple lines simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift or +Ctrl. BNC will simultaneously produce PPP solutions for all stations listed in the 'Station' column of this table, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_23>` for an example screenshot.
    22502250
    22512251.. _fig_23:
     
    22582258^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22592259
    2260 Hit the 'Add Station' button, double click on the 'Station' field, then specify an observation's mountpoint from the 'Streams' section or introduce the 4-character Station ID of your RINEX observation file and hit Enter. BNC will only produce PPP solutions for stations listed in this table. 
     2260Hit the 'Add Station' button, double click on the 'Station' field, then specify an observation's mountpoint from the 'Streams' section or introduce the 4-character Station ID of your RINEX observation file and hit Enter. BNC will only produce PPP solutions for stations listed in this table.
    22612261
    22622262Sigma North/East/Up - mandatory
    22632263^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22642264
    2265 Enter sigmas in meters for the initial coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (e.g. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with a well-known position in so-called Quick-Start mode. 
     2265Enter sigmas in meters for the initial coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (e.g. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with a well-known position in so-called Quick-Start mode.
    22662266
    22672267Noise North/East/Up - mandatory
    22682268^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22692269
    2270 Enter a white 'Noise' in meters for estimated coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be appropriate when considering possible sudden movements of a rover. 
     2270Enter a white 'Noise' in meters for estimated coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be appropriate when considering possible sudden movements of a rover.
    22712271
    22722272Tropo Sigma - mandatory
    22732273^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22742274
    2275 Enter a sigma in meters for the a priori model based tropospheric delay estimation. A value of 0.1 (default) may be an appropriate choice. 
     2275Enter a sigma in meters for the a priori model based tropospheric delay estimation. A value of 0.1 (default) may be an appropriate choice.
    22762276
    22772277Tropo Noise - mandatory
    22782278^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22792279
    2280 Enter a white 'Noise' in meters per second to describe the expected variation of the tropospheric effect. Supposing 1Hz observation data, a value of 3e-6 (default) would mean that the tropospheric effect may vary for 3600 * 3e-6 = 0.01 meters per hour. 
     2280Enter a white 'Noise' in meters per second to describe the expected variation of the tropospheric effect. Supposing 1Hz observation data, a value of 3e-6 (default) would mean that the tropospheric effect may vary for 3600 * 3e-6 = 0.01 meters per hour.
    22812281
    22822282NMEA Port - optional
    22832283^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    22842284
    2285 Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA sentences. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA sentences via IP port. Note that NMEA file output and NMEA IP port output are the same. 
    2286 
    2287 Note also that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from http://www.rtklib.com and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option. 
    2288 
    2289 Furthermore, NASA's 'World Wind' software (see http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download) can be used for real-time visualization of positions provided through BNC's NMEA IP output port. You need the 'GPS Tracker' plug-in available from http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker for that. The 'Word Wind' map resolution is not meant for showing centimeter level details. 
     2285Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA sentences. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA sentences via IP port. Note that NMEA file output and NMEA IP port output are the same.
     2286
     2287Note also that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from http://www.rtklib.com and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
     2288
     2289Furthermore, NASA's 'World Wind' software (see http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/NASA_World_Wind_Download) can be used for real-time visualization of positions provided through BNC's NMEA IP output port. You need the 'GPS Tracker' plug-in available from http://worldwindcentral.com/wiki/GPS_Tracker for that. The 'Word Wind' map resolution is not meant for showing centimeter level details.
    22902290
    22912291.. index:: PPP client processing options
     
    22942294---------------------------
    22952295
    2296 BNC allows using various Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. You can introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for a priori coordinates and troposphere estimates. You could also carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold. The intention of this panel is to specify general processing options to be applied to all PPP threads in one BNC job, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_24>` for an example setup. 
     2296BNC allows using various Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. You can introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for a priori coordinates and troposphere estimates. You could also carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold. The intention of this panel is to specify general processing options to be applied to all PPP threads in one BNC job, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_24>` for an example setup.
    22972297
    22982298.. _fig_24:
     
    23032303
    23042304.. index:: PPP client linear combinations
    2305    
     2305
    23062306Linear Combinations - mandatory
    23072307^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23082308
    2309 Specify on which ionosphere-free Linear Combinations (LCs) of observations you want to base ambiguity resolutions :cite:`mervart2008a`. This implicitly defines the kind of GNSS observations you want to use. The specification is to be done per GNSS system ('GPS LCs', 'GLONASS LCs', 'Galileo LCs', 'BDS LCs'). 
     2309Specify on which ionosphere-free Linear Combinations (LCs) of observations you want to base ambiguity resolutions :cite:`mervart2008a`. This implicitly defines the kind of GNSS observations you want to use. The specification is to be done per GNSS system ('GPS LCs', 'GLONASS LCs', 'Galileo LCs', 'BDS LCs').
    23102310
    23112311* Selecting 'P3' means that you request BNC to use code data and the so-called P3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code observations.
    2312 * 'P3\&L3' means that you request BNC to use both, code and phase data and the so-called P3 and L3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code and phase observations. 
    2313 
    2314 Note that most geodetic GPS receivers support the observation of both, code and phase data. Hence, specifying 'P3\&L3' would be a good choice for GPS when processing data from such a receiver. If multi-GNSS data processing is your intention, make sure your receiver supports GLONASS and/or Galileo and/or BDS observations besides GPS. Note also that the Broadcast Correction stream or file, which is required for PPP, also supports all the systems you have in mind. 
    2315 
    2316 Specifying 'no' means that you do not at all want BNC to use observations from the affected GNSS system. 
     2312* 'P3\&L3' means that you request BNC to use both, code and phase data and the so-called P3 and L3 ionosphere-free linear combinations of code and phase observations.
     2313
     2314Note that most geodetic GPS receivers support the observation of both, code and phase data. Hence, specifying 'P3\&L3' would be a good choice for GPS when processing data from such a receiver. If multi-GNSS data processing is your intention, make sure your receiver supports GLONASS and/or Galileo and/or BDS observations besides GPS. Note also that the Broadcast Correction stream or file, which is required for PPP, also supports all the systems you have in mind.
     2315
     2316Specifying 'no' means that you do not at all want BNC to use observations from the affected GNSS system.
    23172317
    23182318.. index:: PPP client code observations
     
    23212321^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23222322
    2323 Enter a 'Sigma C1' for C1 code observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of C1 code observations to a PPP solution based on a combination of code and phase data. '2.0' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice. Specify a maximum for residuals 'Max Res C1' for C1 code observations in a PPP solution. '3.0' meters may be an appropriate choice for that. If the maximum is exceeded, contributions from the corresponding observation will be ignored in the PPP solution. 
     2323Enter a 'Sigma C1' for C1 code observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of C1 code observations to a PPP solution based on a combination of code and phase data. '2.0' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice. Specify a maximum for residuals 'Max Res C1' for C1 code observations in a PPP solution. '3.0' meters may be an appropriate choice for that. If the maximum is exceeded, contributions from the corresponding observation will be ignored in the PPP solution.
    23242324
    23252325.. index:: PPP client phase observations
     
    23282328^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23292329
    2330 Enter a 'Sigma L1' for L1 phase observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of L1 phase observations to a PPP solutions based on a combination of code and phase data. '0.01' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice. Specify a maximum for residuals 'Max Res L1' for L1 phase observations in a PPP solution. '0.03' meters may be an appropriate choice for that. If the maximum is exceeded, contributions from the corresponding observation will be ignored in the PPP solution. 
     2330Enter a 'Sigma L1' for L1 phase observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of L1 phase observations to a PPP solutions based on a combination of code and phase data. '0.01' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice. Specify a maximum for residuals 'Max Res L1' for L1 phase observations in a PPP solution. '0.03' meters may be an appropriate choice for that. If the maximum is exceeded, contributions from the corresponding observation will be ignored in the PPP solution.
    23312331
    23322332As the convergence characteristic of a PPP solution can be influenced by the ratio of sigmas for code and phase, you may like to introduce sigmas which differ from the default values:
     
    23402340^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23412341
    2342 BNC allows elevation dependent weighting when processing GNSS observations. A weight function 
     2342BNC allows elevation dependent weighting when processing GNSS observations. A weight function
    23432343
    23442344.. math::
     
    23512351* Tick 'Ele Wgt Phase' if you want Elevation Dependent Weighting for phase observations.
    23522352
    2353 Default is using the plain weight function 'P = 1' for code and phase observations. 
     2353Default is using the plain weight function 'P = 1' for code and phase observations.
    23542354
    23552355Minimum Number of Observations - mandatory
    23562356^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23572357
    2358 Select the minimum number of observations you want to use per epoch. The minimum for parameter 'Min # of Obs' is 4. This is also the default. 
     2358Select the minimum number of observations you want to use per epoch. The minimum for parameter 'Min # of Obs' is 4. This is also the default.
    23592359
    23602360Minimum Elevation - mandatory
    23612361^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23622362
    2363 Select a minimum for satellite elevation angles. Selecting '10 deg' for option 'Min Elevation' may be an appropriate choice. Default is '0 deg', meaning that any observation will be used regardless of the involved satellite elevation angle. 
     2363Select a minimum for satellite elevation angles. Selecting '10 deg' for option 'Min Elevation' may be an appropriate choice. Default is '0 deg', meaning that any observation will be used regardless of the involved satellite elevation angle.
    23642364
    23652365.. index:: PPP client wait for clock corrections
     
    23682368^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23692369
    2370 Specifying 'no' for option 'Wait for clock corr.' means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. A non-zero value means that epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed until satellite clock corrections not older than 'Wait for clock corr.' seconds are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections (e.g. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate. 
    2371 
    2372 Using observations in sync with the corrections can avoid a possible high frequency noise of PPP solutions. Such noise could result from processing observations regardless of how late after a clock correction they were received. Note that applying the 'Wait for clock corr.' option significantly reduces the PPP computation effort for BNC. 
    2373 
    2374 Default is an empty option field, meaning that you want BNC to process observations immediately after their arrival through applying the latest received clock correction. 
     2370Specifying 'no' for option 'Wait for clock corr.' means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. A non-zero value means that epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed until satellite clock corrections not older than 'Wait for clock corr.' seconds are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections (e.g. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate.
     2371
     2372Using observations in sync with the corrections can avoid a possible high frequency noise of PPP solutions. Such noise could result from processing observations regardless of how late after a clock correction they were received. Note that applying the 'Wait for clock corr.' option significantly reduces the PPP computation effort for BNC.
     2373
     2374Default is an empty option field, meaning that you want BNC to process observations immediately after their arrival through applying the latest received clock correction.
    23752375
    23762376Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates file'
    23772377^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    23782378
    2379 Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to a known position, see option 'Coordinates file'. Constraining a priori coordinates is done in BNC through setting their white 'Noise' temporarily to zero. 
    2380 
    2381 This so-called Quick-Start option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the known position throughout the defined period. A value of '60' seconds is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Seeding'. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to start in Quick-Start mode. 
    2382 
    2383 You may need to create your own reference coordinate beforehand through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the 'Seeding' option. Do not forget to introduce realistic North/East/Up sigmas under panel 'PPP (2)' corresponding to the coordinate's precision. 
    2384 
    2385 'Seeding' has also a function for bridging gaps in PPP solutions from failures caused e.g. by longer lasting outages. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed the limit of 60 seconds (maximum solution gap, hard-wired), the algorithm fixes the latest derived coordinate for a period of 'Seeding' seconds. This option avoids time-consuming reconvergences and makes especially sense for stationary operated receivers where convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the receiver position is known. 
    2386 
    2387 
    2388 :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_25>` provides the screenshot of an example PPP session with BNC showing the beginning of a time series plot when seeding is set to 30 seconds.. 
     2379Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to a known position, see option 'Coordinates file'. Constraining a priori coordinates is done in BNC through setting their white 'Noise' temporarily to zero.
     2380
     2381This so-called Quick-Start option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the known position throughout the defined period. A value of '60' seconds is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Seeding'. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to start in Quick-Start mode.
     2382
     2383You may need to create your own reference coordinate beforehand through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the 'Seeding' option. Do not forget to introduce realistic North/East/Up sigmas under panel 'PPP (2)' corresponding to the coordinate's precision.
     2384
     2385'Seeding' has also a function for bridging gaps in PPP solutions from failures caused e.g. by longer lasting outages. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed the limit of 60 seconds (maximum solution gap, hard-wired), the algorithm fixes the latest derived coordinate for a period of 'Seeding' seconds. This option avoids time-consuming reconvergences and makes especially sense for stationary operated receivers where convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the receiver position is known.
     2386
     2387
     2388:numref:`Fig. %s <fig_25>` provides the screenshot of an example PPP session with BNC showing the beginning of a time series plot when seeding is set to 30 seconds..
    23892389
    23902390.. _fig_25:
     
    23952395
    23962396.. index:: PPP client plots
    2397    
     2397
    23982398PPP (4): Plots
    23992399--------------
    24002400
    2401 This panel presents options for visualizing PPP results as a time series plot or as a track map with PPP tracks on top of OSM or Google maps. 
     2401This panel presents options for visualizing PPP results as a time series plot or as a track map with PPP tracks on top of OSM or Google maps.
    24022402
    24032403PPP Plot - optional
    24042404^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24052405
    2406 PPP time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) displacements will be plotted under the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' is specified. Values will be referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified, see 'Coordinates file'). The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes. Note that a PPP dicplacements time series makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver. 
     2406PPP time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) displacements will be plotted under the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' is specified. Values will be referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified, see 'Coordinates file'). The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes. Note that a PPP dicplacements time series makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver.
    24072407
    24082408Audio Response - optional
    24092409^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24102410
    2411 For natural hazard prediction and monitoring landslides, it may be appropriate to generate audio alerts. For that you can specify an 'Audio response' threshold in meters. A beep is produced by BNC whenever a horizontal PPP coordinate component differs by more than the threshold value from the specified marker coordinate. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to produce acoustic warnings. 
     2411For natural hazard prediction and monitoring landslides, it may be appropriate to generate audio alerts. For that you can specify an 'Audio response' threshold in meters. A beep is produced by BNC whenever a horizontal PPP coordinate component differs by more than the threshold value from the specified marker coordinate. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to produce acoustic warnings.
    24122412
    24132413Track Map - optional
    24142414^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24152415
    2416 You may like to track your rover position using Google Maps or OpenStreetMap as a background map. Track maps (example :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_26>`) can be produced with BNC in 'Real-time Streams' mode or in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode with data coming from files. 
     2416You may like to track your rover position using Google Maps or OpenStreetMap as a background map. Track maps (example :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_26>`) can be produced with BNC in 'Real-time Streams' mode or in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode with data coming from files.
    24172417
    24182418.. _fig_26:
     
    24252425^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24262426
    2427 Select either 'Google' or 'OSM' as the background map for your rover positions :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_27>`. 
     2427Select either 'Google' or 'OSM' as the background map for your rover positions :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_27>`.
    24282428
    24292429.. _fig_27:
     
    24362436^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24372437
    2438 PPP tracks are presented on maps through plotting one colored dot per observation epoch. 
     2438PPP tracks are presented on maps through plotting one colored dot per observation epoch.
    24392439
    24402440Size - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'
    24412441^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24422442
    2443 Specify the size of dots showing the rover position. A dot size of '3' may be appropriate. The maximum possible dot size is '10'. An empty option field or a size of '0' would mean that you do not want BNC to show the rover's track on the map. 
     2443Specify the size of dots showing the rover position. A dot size of '3' may be appropriate. The maximum possible dot size is '10'. An empty option field or a size of '0' would mean that you do not want BNC to show the rover's track on the map.
    24442444
    24452445Color - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'
    24462446^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24472447
    2448 Select the color of dots showing the rover track. 
     2448Select the color of dots showing the rover track.
    24492449
    24502450Post Processing Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'
    24512451^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    24522452
    2453 With BNC in PPP 'RINEX File' post processing mode, you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations. 
     2453With BNC in PPP 'RINEX File' post processing mode, you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations.
    24542454
    24552455.. index:: Correction combination
     
    24582458===================
    24592459
    2460 BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined by BNC while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference imposes the potential to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach. 
    2461 
    2462 In the Kalman Filter approach, satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction, which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters affected by white noise. 
    2463 
    2464 The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints. In case of a change of the 'SSR Provider ID', 'SSR Solution ID', or 'IOD SSR' (see section 'Upload Corrections'), the satellite clock offsets belonging to the corresponding analysis center are reset in the adjustment. 
    2465 
    2466 Removing the AC-dependent biases as well as possible is a major issue with clock combinations. Since they vary in time, it can be tricky to do this. Otherwise, there will be artificial jumps in the combined clock stream if one or more AC contributions drop out for certain epochs. Here the Kalman Filter approach is expected to do better than the Single-Epoch approach. 
    2467 
    2468 In view of IGS real-time products, the 'Combine Corrections' functionality has been integrated in BNC :cite:`mervart2011a` because: 
     2460BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined by BNC while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference imposes the potential to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach.
     2461
     2462In the Kalman Filter approach, satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction, which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters affected by white noise.
     2463
     2464The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints. In case of a change of the 'SSR Provider ID', 'SSR Solution ID', or 'IOD SSR' (see section 'Upload Corrections'), the satellite clock offsets belonging to the corresponding analysis center are reset in the adjustment.
     2465
     2466Removing the AC-dependent biases as well as possible is a major issue with clock combinations. Since they vary in time, it can be tricky to do this. Otherwise, there will be artificial jumps in the combined clock stream if one or more AC contributions drop out for certain epochs. Here the Kalman Filter approach is expected to do better than the Single-Epoch approach.
     2467
     2468In view of IGS real-time products, the 'Combine Corrections' functionality has been integrated in BNC :cite:`mervart2011a` because:
    24692469
    24702470* The software with its Graphic User Interface and range of supported Operating Systems represents a perfect platform to process many Broadcast Correction streams in parallel;
     
    24772477* It provides the means to output SP3 and Clock RINEX files containing precise orbit and clock information for further processing using other tools than BNC.
    24782478
    2479 Note that the combination process requires real-time access to Broadcast Ephemeris. Therefore, in addition to the orbit and clock correction streams BNC must pull a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 messages. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster products.igs-ip.net is an example for that. Note further that BNC will ignore incorrect or outdated Broadcast Ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile. 
    2480 
    2481 A combination is carried out following a specified sampling interval. BNC waits for incoming Broadcast Corrections for the period of one such interval. Corrections received later than that will be ignored. If incoming streams have different rates, only epochs that correspond to the sampling interval are used. 
    2482 
    2483 With respect to IGS, it is important to understand that a major effect in the combination of GNSS orbit and clock correction streams is the selection of ACs to include. It is likely that a combination product could be improved in accuracy by using only the best two or three ACs. However, with only a few ACs to depend on, the reliability of the combination product could suffer and the risk of total failures increases. So there is an important tradeoff here that must be considered when selecting streams for a combination. The major strength of a combination product is its reliability and stable median performance which can be much better than that of any single AC product. 
    2484 
    2485 This comment applies in situations where we have a limited number of solutions to combine and their quality varies significantly. The situation may be different when the total number of ACs is larger and the range of AC variation is smaller. In that case, a standard full combination is probably the best. 
     2479Note that the combination process requires real-time access to Broadcast Ephemeris. Therefore, in addition to the orbit and clock correction streams BNC must pull a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 messages. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster products.igs-ip.net is an example for that. Note further that BNC will ignore incorrect or outdated Broadcast Ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
     2480
     2481A combination is carried out following a specified sampling interval. BNC waits for incoming Broadcast Corrections for the period of one such interval. Corrections received later than that will be ignored. If incoming streams have different rates, only epochs that correspond to the sampling interval are used.
     2482
     2483With respect to IGS, it is important to understand that a major effect in the combination of GNSS orbit and clock correction streams is the selection of ACs to include. It is likely that a combination product could be improved in accuracy by using only the best two or three ACs. However, with only a few ACs to depend on, the reliability of the combination product could suffer and the risk of total failures increases. So there is an important tradeoff here that must be considered when selecting streams for a combination. The major strength of a combination product is its reliability and stable median performance which can be much better than that of any single AC product.
     2484
     2485This comment applies in situations where we have a limited number of solutions to combine and their quality varies significantly. The situation may be different when the total number of ACs is larger and the range of AC variation is smaller. In that case, a standard full combination is probably the best.
    24862486
    24872487The following recursive algorithm is used to detect orbit outliers in the Kalman Filter combination when Broadcast Corrections are provided by several ACs:
    2488  
     2488
    248924891. We do not produce a combination for a certain satellite if only one AC provides corrections for it.
    249024902. A mean satellite position is calculated as the average of positions from all ACs.
     
    249424946. If that is greater than a threshold, then corrections of the affiliated AC are ignored for the affected epoch and the outlier detection restarts with 1.
    24952495
    2496 The screenshot in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_28>` shows an example setup of BNC when combining Broadcast Correction streams CLK11, CLK21, CLK91, and CLK80. 
     2496The screenshot in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_28>` shows an example setup of BNC when combining Broadcast Correction streams CLK11, CLK21, CLK91, and CLK80.
    24972497
    24982498.. _fig_28:
     
    25022502   BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams
    25032503
    2504 Note that BNC can produce an internal PPP solution from combined Broadcast Corrections. For that you have to specify the keyword 'INTERNAL' as 'Corrections stream' in the PPP (1) panel. The example in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_29>` combines correction streams IGS01 and IGS02 and simultaneously carries out a PPP solution with observations from stream FFMJ1 to allow monitoring the quality of the combination product in the space domain. 
     2504Note that BNC can produce an internal PPP solution from combined Broadcast Corrections. For that you have to specify the keyword 'INTERNAL' as 'Corrections stream' in the PPP (1) panel. The example in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_29>` combines correction streams IGS01 and IGS02 and simultaneously carries out a PPP solution with observations from stream FFMJ1 to allow monitoring the quality of the combination product in the space domain.
    25052505
    25062506.. _fig_29:
     
    25132513------------------------------------
    25142514
    2515 Hit the 'Add Row' button, double click on the 'Mountpoint' field, enter a Broadcast Correction mountpoint from the 'Streams' section and hit Enter. Then double click on the 'AC Name' field to enter your choice of an abbreviation for the Analysis Center (AC) providing the Antenna Phase Center (APC) related correction stream. Finally, double click on the 'Weight' field to enter a weight to be applied to this stream in the combination. 
     2515Hit the 'Add Row' button, double click on the 'Mountpoint' field, enter a Broadcast Correction mountpoint from the 'Streams' section and hit Enter. Then double click on the 'AC Name' field to enter your choice of an abbreviation for the Analysis Center (AC) providing the Antenna Phase Center (APC) related correction stream. Finally, double click on the 'Weight' field to enter a weight to be applied to this stream in the combination.
    25162516
    25172517The sequence of entries in the 'Combine Corrections' table is not of importance. Note that the orbit information in the final combination stream is just copied from one of the incoming streams. The stream used for providing the orbits may vary over time: if the orbit-providing stream has an outage then BNC switches to the next remaining stream for getting hold of the orbit information.
    25182518
    2519 It is possible to specify only one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream in the 'Combine Corrections' table. Instead of combining corrections from several sources, BNC will then merge the single corrections stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to allow saving results in SP3 and/or Clock RINEX format when specified accordingly under the 'Upload Corrections' panel. Note that in such a BNC application you must not pull more than one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream even if a second stream would provide the same corrections from a backup caster. 
    2520 
    2521 Default is an empty 'Combine Corrections' table, meaning that you do not want BNC to combine orbit and clock correction streams. 
     2519It is possible to specify only one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream in the 'Combine Corrections' table. Instead of combining corrections from several sources, BNC will then merge the single corrections stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to allow saving results in SP3 and/or Clock RINEX format when specified accordingly under the 'Upload Corrections' panel. Note that in such a BNC application you must not pull more than one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream even if a second stream would provide the same corrections from a backup caster.
     2520
     2521Default is an empty 'Combine Corrections' table, meaning that you do not want BNC to combine orbit and clock correction streams.
    25222522
    25232523Add Row, Delete - optional
    25242524--------------------------
    25252525
    2526 Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the 'Combine Corrections' table or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s). 
     2526Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the 'Combine Corrections' table or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
    25272527
    25282528Method - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated
    25292529--------------------------------------------------------------
    25302530
    2531 Select a clock combination method. Available options are Kalman 'Filter' and 'Single-Epoch. It is suggested to use the Kalman Filter approach in case the combined stream of Broadcast Corrections is intended for Precise Point Positioning. 
     2531Select a clock combination method. Available options are Kalman 'Filter' and 'Single-Epoch. It is suggested to use the Kalman Filter approach in case the combined stream of Broadcast Corrections is intended for Precise Point Positioning.
    25322532
    25332533Maximal Residuum - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated
     
    25442544----------------------
    25452545
    2546 You may tick the 'Use GLONASS' option in case you want to produce a GPS plus GLONASS combination and both systems are supported by the Broadcast Correction streams participating in the combination. 
     2546You may tick the 'Use GLONASS' option in case you want to produce a GPS plus GLONASS combination and both systems are supported by the Broadcast Correction streams participating in the combination.
    25472547
    25482548.. index:: Corrections upload
     
    25542554
    255525551. either generated by BNC as a combination of several individual Broadcast Correction streams coming from an number of real-time Analysis Centers (ACs), see section 'Combine Corrections',
    2556 2. or generated by BNC while the program receives an ASCII stream of precise satellite orbits and clocks via IP port from a connected real-time GNSS engine. Such a stream would be expected in a plain ASCII format and the associated 'decoder' string would have to be 'RTNET', see format description below. 
     25562. or generated by BNC while the program receives an ASCII stream of precise satellite orbits and clocks via IP port from a connected real-time GNSS engine. Such a stream would be expected in a plain ASCII format and the associated 'decoder' string would have to be 'RTNET', see format description below.
    25572557
    25582558The procedure taken by BNC to generate the orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris and upload them to an Ntrip Broadcaster is as follow:
    2559  
     2559
    25602560* Continuously receive up-to-date Broadcast Ephemeris carrying approximate orbits and clocks for all satellites. Read new Broadcast Ephemeris immediately whenever they become available. This information may come via a stream of RTCM messages generated from another BNC instance.
    25612561
    25622562Then, epoch by epoch:
    25632563
    2564 * Continuously receive the best available orbit and clock estimates for all satellites in XYZ Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed IGS08 reference system. Receive them every epoch in plain ASCII format as provided by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNET or generate them following a combination approach. 
    2565 * Calculate XYZ coordinates from Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. 
    2566 * Calculate differences dX,dY,dZ between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS08 orbits. 
    2567 * Transform these differences into radial, along-track and out-of-plane corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris orbits. 
    2568 * Calculate corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris clocks as differences between Broadcast Ephemeris clocks and IGS08 clocks. 
    2569 * Encode Broadcast Ephemeris orbit and clock corrections in RTCM Version 3 format. 
    2570 * Upload Broadcast Correction stream to Ntrip Broadcaster. 
    2571 
    2572 The orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris are usually referred to the latest set of broadcast messages, which are generally also received in real-time by a GNSS rover. However, the use of the latest broadcast message is delayed for a period of 60 seconds, measured from the time of complete reception of ephemeris and clock parameters, in order to accommodate rover applications to obtain the same set of broadcast orbital and clock parameters. This procedure is recommended in the RTCM SSR standard. Because the stream delivery process may put a significant load on the communication link between BNC and the real-time GNSS engine, it is recommended to run both programs on the same host. However, doing so is not compulsory. 
    2573 
    2574 The usual handling of BNC when uploading a stream with Broadcast Corrections is that you first specify Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Correction streams. You then specify an Ntrip Broadcaster for stream upload before you start the program. 
     2564* Continuously receive the best available orbit and clock estimates for all satellites in XYZ Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed IGS08 reference system. Receive them every epoch in plain ASCII format as provided by a real-time GNSS engine such as RTNET or generate them following a combination approach.
     2565* Calculate XYZ coordinates from Broadcast Ephemeris orbits.
     2566* Calculate differences dX,dY,dZ between Broadcast Ephemeris and IGS08 orbits.
     2567* Transform these differences into radial, along-track and out-of-plane corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris orbits.
     2568* Calculate corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris clocks as differences between Broadcast Ephemeris clocks and IGS08 clocks.
     2569* Encode Broadcast Ephemeris orbit and clock corrections in RTCM Version 3 format.
     2570* Upload Broadcast Correction stream to Ntrip Broadcaster.
     2571
     2572The orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris are usually referred to the latest set of broadcast messages, which are generally also received in real-time by a GNSS rover. However, the use of the latest broadcast message is delayed for a period of 60 seconds, measured from the time of complete reception of ephemeris and clock parameters, in order to accommodate rover applications to obtain the same set of broadcast orbital and clock parameters. This procedure is recommended in the RTCM SSR standard. Because the stream delivery process may put a significant load on the communication link between BNC and the real-time GNSS engine, it is recommended to run both programs on the same host. However, doing so is not compulsory.
     2573
     2574The usual handling of BNC when uploading a stream with Broadcast Corrections is that you first specify Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Correction streams. You then specify an Ntrip Broadcaster for stream upload before you start the program.
    25752575
    25762576.. index:: RTNet stream format
    25772577
    25782578**'RTNET' Stream Format**
    2579  
    2580 When uploading an SSR stream generated according to 2. then BNC requires precise GNSS orbits and clocks in the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system and in a specific ASCII format named 'RTNET' because the data may come from a real-time engine such as RTNET. The sampling interval for data transmission should not exceed 15 sec. Note that otherwise tools involved in IP streaming such as Ntrip Broadcasters or Ntrip Clients may respond with a timeout. 
    2581 
    2582 Below you find an example for the 'RTNET' ASCII format coming from a real-time GNSS engine. Each epoch begins with an asterisk character followed by the time as year, month, day of month, hour, minute and second. Subsequent records can provide 
     2579
     2580When uploading an SSR stream generated according to 2. then BNC requires precise GNSS orbits and clocks in the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system and in a specific ASCII format named 'RTNET' because the data may come from a real-time engine such as RTNET. The sampling interval for data transmission should not exceed 15 sec. Note that otherwise tools involved in IP streaming such as Ntrip Broadcasters or Ntrip Clients may respond with a timeout.
     2581
     2582Below you find an example for the 'RTNET' ASCII format coming from a real-time GNSS engine. Each epoch begins with an asterisk character followed by the time as year, month, day of month, hour, minute and second. Subsequent records can provide
    25832583
    25842584.. code-block:: none
     
    25862586  * 2015 6 11 15 10 40.000000
    25872587
    2588 Subsequent records can provide 
    2589 
    2590 * Satellite specific parameters 
     2588Subsequent records can provide
     2589
     2590* Satellite specific parameters
    25912591
    25922592A set of parameters can be defined for each satellite as follows:
     
    25942594.. code-block:: console
    25952595
    2596   <SatelliteID> <key> <numValues> <value1 value2 ...> 
    2597                 <key> <numValues> <value1 value2 ...> ... 
     2596  <SatelliteID> <key> <numValues> <value1 value2 ...>
     2597                <key> <numValues> <value1 value2 ...> ...
    25982598
    25992599The satellite specific keys and values currently specified for that in BNC are listed in :numref:`Table %s <tab_SAT_SPEC_PARAMETER_KEYS>`.
    26002600
    2601 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     2601.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    26022602
    26032603.. _tab_SAT_SPEC_PARAMETER_KEYS:
     
    26172617  ============ ============================================================================
    26182618
    2619 * Non-satellite specific parameters 
    2620 
    2621 The following syntax will be used: 
     2619* Non-satellite specific parameters
     2620
     2621The following syntax will be used:
    26222622
    26232623.. code-block:: console
    26242624
    26252625  <key> <value1 value2 ...>
    2626  
     2626
    26272627The non-satellite specific keys and values currently specified in BNC are listed in :numref:`Table %s <tab_NON_SAT_SPEC_PARAMETER_KEYS>`.
    26282628
    2629 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     2629.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    26302630
    26312631.. _tab_NON_SAT_SPEC_PARAMETER_KEYS:
     
    26392639  ============ ============================================================================
    26402640
    2641 If key VTEC is specified, a data set for each layer contains within its first line the Layers Number, followed by Maximum Degree, Maximum Order and Layer Height. After that, Cosine and Sinus Spherical Harmonic Coefficients will follow, one block each. 
    2642 
    2643 Because each keyword is associated to a certain number of values, an 'old' BNC could be operated with an incoming 'new' RTNET stream containing so far unknown keys - they would just be skipped in BNC. 
    2644 
    2645 Example for 'RTNET' stream content and format: 
     2641If key VTEC is specified, a data set for each layer contains within its first line the Layers Number, followed by Maximum Degree, Maximum Order and Layer Height. After that, Cosine and Sinus Spherical Harmonic Coefficients will follow, one block each.
     2642
     2643Because each keyword is associated to a certain number of values, an 'old' BNC could be operated with an incoming 'new' RTNET stream containing so far unknown keys - they would just be skipped in BNC.
     2644
     2645Example for 'RTNET' stream content and format:
    26462646
    26472647.. code-block:: console
    26482648
    26492649  * 2015 6 11 15 10 40.000000
    2650   VTEC 0 1 0 6 6 450000.0 20.4660 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 5.3590 9.6580 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -6.3610 -0.1210 1.1050 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -2.7140 -1.8200 -0.9920 -0.6430 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9140 -0.5180 0.2530 0.0870 -0.0110 0.0000 0.0000 2.2950 1.0510 -0.9540 0.6220 -0.0720 -0.0810 0.0000 -0.9760 0.7570 0.2320 -0.2520 0.1970 -0.0680 -0.0280 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2720 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.1100 -1.0170 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -1.1500 0.5440 0.9890 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.3770 -0.1990 0.2670 -0.0470 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6550 -0.0130 -0.2310 -0.4810 -0.3510 0.0000 0.0000 0.2360 -0.0710 0.0280 0.1900 -0.0810 0.0710 
     2650  VTEC 0 1 0 6 6 450000.0 20.4660 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 5.3590 9.6580 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -6.3610 -0.1210 1.1050 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -2.7140 -1.8200 -0.9920 -0.6430 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9140 -0.5180 0.2530 0.0870 -0.0110 0.0000 0.0000 2.2950 1.0510 -0.9540 0.6220 -0.0720 -0.0810 0.0000 -0.9760 0.7570 0.2320 -0.2520 0.1970 -0.0680 -0.0280 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2720 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.1100 -1.0170 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -1.1500 0.5440 0.9890 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.3770 -0.1990 0.2670 -0.0470 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6550 -0.0130 -0.2310 -0.4810 -0.3510 0.0000 0.0000 0.2360 -0.0710 0.0280 0.1900 -0.0810 0.0710
    26512651  IND 0 1
    26522652  G01 APC 3   -14442611.532   -13311059.070   -18020998.395 Clk 1   -1426.920500 Vel 3  2274.647600   -28.980300 -1787.861900 CoM 3   -14442612.572   -13311059.518   -18020999.539 CodeBias 6 1W -3.760000 1C -3.320000 2W -6.200000 2X -5.780000 1H -3.350000 5I -5.430000 YawAngle 1 -0.315600 YawRate 1 0.0 PhaseBias 3 1C  3.9473 1 2 4 2W  6.3143 1 2 4 5I 6.7895 1 2 4
     
    26642664  EOE
    26652665
    2666 Note that the end of an epoch in the incoming stream is indicated by an ASCII string 'EOE' (for End Of Epoch). 
     2666Note that the end of an epoch in the incoming stream is indicated by an ASCII string 'EOE' (for End Of Epoch).
    26672667
    26682668When using clocks from Broadcast Ephemeris (with or without applied corrections) or clocks from SP3 files, it may be important to understand that they are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. Chapter 10 of the IERS Conventions 2003 mentions that the conventional periodic relativistic correction to the satellite clock (to be added to the broadcast clock) is computed as
     
    26722672     dt =  -2 (R * V) / c^2
    26732673
    2674 where :math:`R * V` is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and :math:`c` is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006. 
     2674where :math:`R * V` is the scalar product of the satellite position and velocity and :math:`c` is the speed of light. This can also be found in the GPS Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, 7 March 2006.
    26752675
    26762676Add, Delete Row - optional
    26772677--------------------------
    26782678
    2679 Hit 'Add Row' button to add a row to the stream 'Upload Table' or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s). Having an empty 'Upload Table' is default and means that you do not want BNC to upload orbit and clock correction streams to any Ntrip Broadcaster. 
     2679Hit 'Add Row' button to add a row to the stream 'Upload Table' or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s). Having an empty 'Upload Table' is default and means that you do not want BNC to upload orbit and clock correction streams to any Ntrip Broadcaster.
    26802680
    26812681Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password - optional
    26822682-------------------------------------------
    26832683
    2684 Specify the domain name or IP number of an Ntrip Broadcaster for uploading the stream. Furthermore, specify the caster's listening IP port, an upload mountpoint and an upload password. Note that Ntrip Broadcasters are often configured to provide access through more than one port, usually ports 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s). 
     2684Specify the domain name or IP number of an Ntrip Broadcaster for uploading the stream. Furthermore, specify the caster's listening IP port, an upload mountpoint and an upload password. Note that Ntrip Broadcasters are often configured to provide access through more than one port, usually ports 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s).
    26852685
    26862686BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a 4-character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.
     
    26882688The stream upload may be protected through an upload 'Password'. Enter the password you received from the Ntrip Broadcaster operator along with the mountpoint(s).
    26892689
    2690 If 'Host', 'Port', 'Mountpoint' and 'Password' are set, the stream will be encoded in RTCM's 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages and uploaded to the specified broadcaster following the Ntrip Version 1 transport protocol. 
     2690If 'Host', 'Port', 'Mountpoint' and 'Password' are set, the stream will be encoded in RTCM's 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages and uploaded to the specified broadcaster following the Ntrip Version 1 transport protocol.
    26912691
    26922692.. index:: Reference system realizations
     
    27062706* 'Custom' which allows a transformation of Broadcast Corrections from the IGS08 system to any other system through specifying up to 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters.
    27072707
    2708 Because a mathematically strict transformation to a regional reference system is not possible on the BNC server side when a scale factor is involved, the program follows an approximate solution. While orbits are transformed in full accordance with given equations, a transformed clock is derived through applying correction term 
     2708Because a mathematically strict transformation to a regional reference system is not possible on the BNC server side when a scale factor is involved, the program follows an approximate solution. While orbits are transformed in full accordance with given equations, a transformed clock is derived through applying correction term
    27092709
    27102710.. math::
    2711    
     2711
    27122712     dC = (s - 1) / s * \rho / c
    27132713
    2714 where :math:`s` is the transformation scale, :math:`c` is the speed of light, and :math:`ρ` is the topocentric distance between an (approximate) center of the transformation's validity area and the satellite. 
    2715 
    2716 From a theoretical point of view, this kind of approximation leads to inconsistencies between orbits and clocks and is therefore not allowed :cite:`huisman2012a`. However, it has been proved that resulting errors in Precise Point Positioning are on millimeter level for horizontal components and below one centimeter for height components. The Australian GDA94 transformation with its comparatively large scale parameter is an exception in this as discrepancies may reach up there to two centimeters. 
    2717 
    2718 IGS08: As the orbits and clocks coming from real-time GNSS engine are expected to be in the IGS08 system, no transformation is carried out if this option is selected. 
    2719 
    2720 ETRF2000: The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008->ETRF2000' are taken from 'Claude Boucher and Zuheir Altamimi 2008: Specifications for reference frame fixing in the analysis of EUREF GPS campaign', see http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr/memo-V8.pdf. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced: 
     2714where :math:`s` is the transformation scale, :math:`c` is the speed of light, and :math:`ρ` is the topocentric distance between an (approximate) center of the transformation's validity area and the satellite.
     2715
     2716From a theoretical point of view, this kind of approximation leads to inconsistencies between orbits and clocks and is therefore not allowed :cite:`huisman2012a`. However, it has been proved that resulting errors in Precise Point Positioning are on millimeter level for horizontal components and below one centimeter for height components. The Australian GDA94 transformation with its comparatively large scale parameter is an exception in this as discrepancies may reach up there to two centimeters.
     2717
     2718IGS08: As the orbits and clocks coming from real-time GNSS engine are expected to be in the IGS08 system, no transformation is carried out if this option is selected.
     2719
     2720ETRF2000: The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2008->ETRF2000' are taken from 'Claude Boucher and Zuheir Altamimi 2008: Specifications for reference frame fixing in the analysis of EUREF GPS campaign', see http://etrs89.ensg.ign.fr/memo-V8.pdf. The following 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters were introduced:
    27212721
    27222722.. code-block:: console
     
    27982798  To: 0000.0
    27992799
    2800 SIRGAS95: The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2005->SIRGAS95' were provided by :cite:`acuha2016a` , parameters based on values from :cite:`sirgas2009a`, Table 4.1: 
     2800SIRGAS95: The formulas for the transformation 'ITRF2005->SIRGAS95' were provided by :cite:`acuha2016a` , parameters based on values from :cite:`sirgas2009a`, Table 4.1:
    28012801
    28022802.. code-block:: console
     
    28212821
    28222822.. code-block:: console
    2823  
     2823
    28242824  Translation in X at epoch To: -0.0118 m
    28252825  Translation in Y at epoch To:  0.1432 m
     
    28382838  To: 2000.0
    28392839
    2840 Custom: Feel free to specify your own 14 Helmert Transformation parameters for transformations from IGS08/ITRF2008 into your own target system (see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_30>`). 
     2840Custom: Feel free to specify your own 14 Helmert Transformation parameters for transformations from IGS08/ITRF2008 into your own target system (see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_30>`).
    28412841
    28422842.. _fig_30:
     
    28492849-------------------------
    28502850
    2851 BNC allows to either refer Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default, corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM. 
     2851BNC allows to either refer Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default, corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM.
    28522852
    28532853SP3 File - optional
     
    28602860  /home/user/BNC${GPSWD}.sp3
    28612861
    2862 Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the filename. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to save the uploaded stream content in daily SP3 files. 
    2863 
    2864 As a SP3 file content should be referred to the satellites' Center of Mass (CoM) while Broadcast Corrections are referred to the satellites' APC, an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see option 'ANTEX File' below). Hence, you should specify the 'ANTEX File' path there if you want to save the stream content in SP3 format. If you do not specify an 'ANTEX File' path, the SP3 file content will be referred to the satellites APCs. 
    2865 
    2866 The filenames for the daily SP3 files follow the convention for SP3 filenames. The first three characters of each filename are set to 'BNC'. Note that clocks in the SP3 orbit files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. 
    2867 
    2868 In case the 'Combine Corrections' table contains only one Broadcast Correction stream, BNC will merge that stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in files specified here through SP3 and/or Clock RINEX file path. In such a case you have to define only the SP3 and Clock RINEX file path and no further option in the 'Upload Corrections' table. 
    2869 
    2870 Note that BNC outputs a complete list of SP3 'Epoch Header Records', even if no 'Position and Clock Records' are available for certain epochs because of stream outages. Note further that the 'Number of Epochs' in the first SP3 header record may not be correct because that number is not available when the file is created. Depending on your processing software (e.g. Bernese GNSS Software, BSW) it could therefore be necessary to correct an incorrect 'Number of Epochs' in the file before you use it in post processing. 
     2862Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the filename. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you do not want BNC to save the uploaded stream content in daily SP3 files.
     2863
     2864As a SP3 file content should be referred to the satellites' Center of Mass (CoM) while Broadcast Corrections are referred to the satellites' APC, an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see option 'ANTEX File' below). Hence, you should specify the 'ANTEX File' path there if you want to save the stream content in SP3 format. If you do not specify an 'ANTEX File' path, the SP3 file content will be referred to the satellites APCs.
     2865
     2866The filenames for the daily SP3 files follow the convention for SP3 filenames. The first three characters of each filename are set to 'BNC'. Note that clocks in the SP3 orbit files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect.
     2867
     2868In case the 'Combine Corrections' table contains only one Broadcast Correction stream, BNC will merge that stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in files specified here through SP3 and/or Clock RINEX file path. In such a case you have to define only the SP3 and Clock RINEX file path and no further option in the 'Upload Corrections' table.
     2869
     2870Note that BNC outputs a complete list of SP3 'Epoch Header Records', even if no 'Position and Clock Records' are available for certain epochs because of stream outages. Note further that the 'Number of Epochs' in the first SP3 header record may not be correct because that number is not available when the file is created. Depending on your processing software (e.g. Bernese GNSS Software, BSW) it could therefore be necessary to correct an incorrect 'Number of Epochs' in the file before you use it in post processing.
    28712871
    28722872RNX File - optional
    28732873-------------------
    28742874
    2875 The clock corrections generated by BNC for upload can be logged in Clock RINEX format. The file naming follows the RINEX convention. 
    2876 
    2877 Specify a path for saving the generated clock corrections as Clock RINEX files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Clock RINEX files. The following is a path example for a Linux system: 
    2878 
    2879 .. code-block:: console
    2880    
     2875The clock corrections generated by BNC for upload can be logged in Clock RINEX format. The file naming follows the RINEX convention.
     2876
     2877Specify a path for saving the generated clock corrections as Clock RINEX files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Clock RINEX files. The following is a path example for a Linux system:
     2878
     2879.. code-block:: console
     2880
    28812881  /home/user/BNC${GPSWD}.clk
    28822882
    2883 Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the filename. Note further that clocks in the Clock RINEX files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect. 
     2883Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the filename. Note further that clocks in the Clock RINEX files are not corrected for the conventional periodic relativistic effect.
    28842884
    28852885PID, SID, IOD - optional
    28862886------------------------
    28872887
    2888 When applying Broadcast Ephemeris corrections in a PPP algorithm or in a combination of several correction streams, it is important for the client software to receive information on the continuity of discontinuity of the stream contents. Here you can specify three ID's to describe the contents of your Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream when it is uploaded. 
     2888When applying Broadcast Ephemeris corrections in a PPP algorithm or in a combination of several correction streams, it is important for the client software to receive information on the continuity of discontinuity of the stream contents. Here you can specify three ID's to describe the contents of your Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream when it is uploaded.
    28892889
    28902890* A 'SSR Provider ID' is issued by RTCM SC-104 on request to identify a SSR service (see e.g. \url{http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/SSRProvider}). This ID is globally unique. Values vary in the range of 0-65535. Values in the range of 0-255 are reserved for experimental services.
     
    28952895--------------------------------------------------------
    28962896
    2897 Select the length of Clock RINEX files and SP3 Orbit files. The default value is 1 day. 
     2897Select the length of Clock RINEX files and SP3 Orbit files. The default value is 1 day.
    28982898
    28992899Sampling
     
    29052905^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    29062906
    2907 Select the stream's orbit correction sampling interval in seconds. A value of 60 sec may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to upload all orbit correction samples coming in from the real-time GNSS engine along with the clock correction samples to produce combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris (1060 for GPS, 1066 for GLONASS). 
    2908 
    2909 Configuration examples: 
     2907Select the stream's orbit correction sampling interval in seconds. A value of 60 sec may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to upload all orbit correction samples coming in from the real-time GNSS engine along with the clock correction samples to produce combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris (1060 for GPS, 1066 for GLONASS).
     2908
     2909Configuration examples:
    29102910
    29112911Let us suppose a real-time network engine supporting BNC every 5 sec with GPS Broadcast Corrections for orbits, clocks and code biases in 'RTNET' stream format:
     
    29282928* Every 5 sec a 1059 message for GPS code biases.
    29292929
    2930 Note that only when specifying a value of zero '0' (default) for 'Sampling Orb', BNC produces combined orbit and clock correction messages. 
    2931 
    2932  
     2930Note that only when specifying a value of zero '0' (default) for 'Sampling Orb', BNC produces combined orbit and clock correction messages.
     2931
     2932
    29332933SP3 - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified
    29342934^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
     
    29492949-------------------------------------------------
    29502950
    2951 IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center variations for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required here for referring the SP3 file content to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM). If you do not specify an ANTEX file, the SP3 file will contain orbit information which is referred to Antenna Phase Center (APC) instead of CoM. 
    2952 
    2953 The screenshot in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_31>` shows the encoding and uploading of a stream of precise orbits and clocks coming from a real-time network engine in 'RTNET' ASCII format. The stream is uploaded to Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net'. It is referred to APC and IGS08. Uploaded data are locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. The SSR Provider ID is set to 3. The SSR Solution ID and the Issue of Data SSR are set to 1. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'. 
     2951IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center variations for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required here for referring the SP3 file content to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM). If you do not specify an ANTEX file, the SP3 file will contain orbit information which is referred to Antenna Phase Center (APC) instead of CoM.
     2952
     2953The screenshot in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_31>` shows the encoding and uploading of a stream of precise orbits and clocks coming from a real-time network engine in 'RTNET' ASCII format. The stream is uploaded to Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net'. It is referred to APC and IGS08. Uploaded data are locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. The SSR Provider ID is set to 3. The SSR Solution ID and the Issue of Data SSR are set to 1. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'.
    29542954
    29552955.. _fig_31:
     
    29592959   BNC producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an Ntrip Broadcaster
    29602960
    2961 The screenshot in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_32>` shows the encoding and uploading of several Broadcast Ephemeris correction streams combined from streams CLK11, CLK21, CLK80, and CLK91. Combined streams are uploaded to different Ntrip Broadcasters and referred to different reference systems. One of the uploaded streams is locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. Different SSR Provider IDs, SSR Solution IDs and Issue of Data IDs are specified. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'. 
     2961The screenshot in :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_32>` shows the encoding and uploading of several Broadcast Ephemeris correction streams combined from streams CLK11, CLK21, CLK80, and CLK91. Combined streams are uploaded to different Ntrip Broadcasters and referred to different reference systems. One of the uploaded streams is locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. Different SSR Provider IDs, SSR Solution IDs and Issue of Data IDs are specified. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'.
    29622962
    29632963.. _fig_32:
     
    29722972================
    29732973
    2974 BNC can generate a stream carrying only Broadcast Ephemeris in RTCM Version 3 format and upload it to an Ntrip Broadcaster :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_33>`. Note that Broadcast Ephemeris received in real-time have a system specific period of validity in BNC which is defined in accordance with the update rates of the navigation messages.
     2974BNC can generate streams carrying only Broadcast Ephemeris in RTCM Version 3 format and upload them to an Ntrip Broadcaster (Fig. 35). This can be done for individual satellite systems or for all satellite systems,  specifying the parameter ‘System’ for each stream. Note that Broadcast Ephemeris received in real-time have a system specific period of validity in BNC which is defined in accordance with the update rates of the navigation messages.
    29752975
    29762976* GPS ephemeris will be interpreted as outdated and ignored when older than 4 hours.
     
    29812981* QZSS ephemeris will be interpreted as outdated and ignored when older than 4 hours.
    29822982
    2983 A note 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' will be given in the logfile and the data will be disregarded when necessary. Furthermore, received Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' in the logfile. 
     2983A note 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' will be given in the logfile and the data will be disregarded when necessary. Furthermore, received Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
    29842984
    29852985Host & Port - optional
    29862986----------------------
    29872987
    2988 Specify the 'Host' IP number or URL of an Ntrip Broadcaster to upload the stream. An empty option field means that you do not want to upload Broadcast Ephemeris. Enter the Ntrip Broadcaster's IP 'Port' number for stream upload. Note that Ntrip Broadcasters are often configured to provide access through more than one port, usually ports 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s). 
     2988Specify the 'Host' IP number or URL of an Ntrip Broadcaster to upload the stream. An empty option field means that you do not want to upload Broadcast Ephemeris. Enter the Ntrip Broadcaster's IP 'Port' number for stream upload. Note that Ntrip Broadcasters are often configured to provide access through more than one port, usually ports 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s).
    29892989
    29902990Mountpoint & Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set
     
    29952995Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set
    29962996-------------------------------------
    2997  
    2998 Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5', meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds. 
     2997
     2998Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5', meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds.
    29992999
    30003000.. _fig_33:
     
    30093009==============
    30103010
    3011 Each stream on an Ntrip Broadcaster (and consequently on BNC) is defined using a unique source ID called mountpoint. An Ntrip Client like BNC accesses the desired stream by referring to its mountpoint. Information about streams and their mountpoints is available through the source-table maintained by the Ntrip Broadcaster. Streams selected for retrieval are listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. The list provides the following information either extracted from source-table(s) produced by the Ntrip Broadcasters or introduced by BNC's user (:numref:`Table %s <tab_STREAM_CANVAS_KEYS>`). 
    3012 
    3013 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     3011Each stream on an Ntrip Broadcaster (and consequently on BNC) is defined using a unique source ID called mountpoint. An Ntrip Client like BNC accesses the desired stream by referring to its mountpoint. Information about streams and their mountpoints is available through the source-table maintained by the Ntrip Broadcaster. Streams selected for retrieval are listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. The list provides the following information either extracted from source-table(s) produced by the Ntrip Broadcasters or introduced by BNC's user (:numref:`Table %s <tab_STREAM_CANVAS_KEYS>`).
     3012
     3013.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    30143014
    30153015.. index:: Stream canvas information
     
    30323032  ntrip              Selected Ntrip transport protocol version (1, 2, 2s, R, or U), or
    30333033                     'N' for TCP/IP streams without Ntrip, or
    3034                      'UN' for UDP streams without Ntrip, or 
     3034                     'UN' for UDP streams without Ntrip, or
    30353035                     'S' for serial input streams without Ntrip.
    3036   bytes              Number of bytes received. 
     3036  bytes              Number of bytes received.
    30373037  ================== ======================================================================
    30383038
     
    30413041
    30423042BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to an incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. Accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x' and 'RTNET'.
    3043  
    3044 In case you need to log the raw data as it is, BNC allows users to by-pass its decoders and directly save the input in daily logfiles. To do this, specify the decoder string as 'ZERO'. The generated filenames are created from the characters of the streams mountpoints plus two-digit numbers each for year, month, and day. Example: Setting the 'decoder' string for mountpoint WTZZ0 to 'ZERO' and running BNC on March 29, 2007 would save raw data in a file named WTZZ0_070329. 
     3043
     3044In case you need to log the raw data as it is, BNC allows users to by-pass its decoders and directly save the input in daily logfiles. To do this, specify the decoder string as 'ZERO'. The generated filenames are created from the characters of the streams mountpoints plus two-digit numbers each for year, month, and day. Example: Setting the 'decoder' string for mountpoint WTZZ0 to 'ZERO' and running BNC on March 29, 2007 would save raw data in a file named WTZZ0_070329.
    30453045
    30463046BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the Ntrip Broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by Network RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the Ntrip Broadcaster via NMEA GGA sentences.
     
    30483048If NMEA GGA sentences are not coming from a serially connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in many cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position should preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.
    30493049
    3050 Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner when not using the Ntrip Version 2 transport protocol. 
     3050Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner when not using the Ntrip Version 2 transport protocol.
    30513051
    30523052Delete Streams
     
    30583058---------------------------------------
    30593059
    3060 The streams selection can be changed on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads in the running BNC process. 
    3061 
    3062 Window mode: Hit 'Reread & Save Configuration' while BNC is in window mode and already processing data to let changes of your stream selection immediately become effective. 
    3063 
    3064 No window mode: When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), you force BNC to reread its 'mountPoints' configuration option from disk at pre-defined intervals. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' as 'Reread configuration' option to reread the 'mountPoints' option every full minute, hour, or day. This lets a 'mountPoints' option edited in between in the configuration file become effective without terminating uninvolved threads. See section 'Configuration Examples' for configuration file examples and section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of other on-the-fly changeable options. 
     3060The streams selection can be changed on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads in the running BNC process.
     3061
     3062Window mode: Hit 'Reread & Save Configuration' while BNC is in window mode and already processing data to let changes of your stream selection immediately become effective.
     3063
     3064No window mode: When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), you force BNC to reread its 'mountPoints' configuration option from disk at pre-defined intervals. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' as 'Reread configuration' option to reread the 'mountPoints' option every full minute, hour, or day. This lets a 'mountPoints' option edited in between in the configuration file become effective without terminating uninvolved threads. See section 'Configuration Examples' for configuration file examples and section 'Reread Configuration' for a list of other on-the-fly changeable options.
    30653065
    30663066.. index:: Logging canvas
     
    30693069==============
    30703070
    3071 The 'Logging Canvas' above the bottom menu bar on the main window labeled 'Log', 'Throughput', 'Latency', and 'PPP Plot' provides control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available for continuously showing logfile content, for a plot controlling the bandwidth consumption, a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results. 
     3071The 'Logging Canvas' above the bottom menu bar on the main window labeled 'Log', 'Throughput', 'Latency', and 'PPP Plot' provides control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available for continuously showing logfile content, for a plot controlling the bandwidth consumption, a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
    30723072
    30733073Log
    30743074---
    30753075
    3076 Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. They can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. 
     3076Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. They can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field.
    30773077
    30783078Throughput
    30793079----------
    30803080
    3081 The bandwidth consumption per stream is shown in the 'Throughput' tab in bits per second (bps) or kilobits per second (kbps). :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_34>` shows an example for the bandwidth consumption of incoming streams. 
     3081The bandwidth consumption per stream is shown in the 'Throughput' tab in bits per second (bps) or kilobits per second (kbps). :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_34>` shows an example for the bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.
    30823082
    30833083.. _fig_34:
     
    30903090-------
    30913091
    3092 The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (e.g. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_35>` shows an example for the latency of incoming streams. 
     3092The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (e.g. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_35>` shows an example for the latency of incoming streams.
    30933093
    30943094.. _fig_35:
     
    31013101--------
    31023102
    3103 Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' option is defined under PPP (4). Values are referred to a priori reference coordinates. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more until the first PPP solutions becomes available. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_36>` shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate displacements. 
     3103Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' option is defined under PPP (4). Values are referred to a priori reference coordinates. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more until the first PPP solutions becomes available. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_36>` shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate displacements.
    31043104
    31053105.. _fig_36:
     
    31123112===============
    31133113
    3114 The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to or from BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows users to select one of several input communication links, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_37>`. 
     3114The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to or from BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows users to select one of several input communication links, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_37>`.
    31153115
    31163116.. _fig_37:
     
    31233123----------
    31243124
    3125 Button 'Add Stream' allows you to pull streams either from an Ntrip Broadcaster or from a TCP/IP port, UPD port, or serial port. 
     3125Button 'Add Stream' allows you to pull streams either from an Ntrip Broadcaster or from a TCP/IP port, UPD port, or serial port.
    31263126
    31273127Add/Delete Stream - Coming from Caster
    31283128--------------------------------------
    31293129
    3130 Button 'Add Stream' > 'Coming from Caster' opens a window that allows users to select data streams from an Ntrip Broadcaster according to their mountpoints and show a distribution map of offered streams. 
     3130Button 'Add Stream' > 'Coming from Caster' opens a window that allows users to select data streams from an Ntrip Broadcaster according to their mountpoints and show a distribution map of offered streams.
    31313131
    31323132Button ‘Delete Stream’ allows you to delete streams previously selected for retrieval as listed under the ‘Streams’ canvas on BNC’s main window.
     
    31353135^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    31363136
    3137 Enter the Ntrip Broadcaster host IP and port number. Note that EUREF and IGS operate Ntrip Broadcasters at http://www.euref-ip.net/home, http://www.igs-ip.net/home, http://products.igs-ip.net/home and http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home. 
     3137Enter the Ntrip Broadcaster host IP and port number. Note that EUREF and IGS operate Ntrip Broadcasters at http://www.euref-ip.net/home, http://www.igs-ip.net/home, http://products.igs-ip.net/home and http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home.
    31383138
    31393139Casters Table - optional
    31403140^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    31413141
    3142 It may be that you are not sure about your Ntrip Broadcaster's host and port number or you are interested in other broadcaster installations operated elsewhere. Hit 'Show' for a table of known broadcasters maintained at www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home. A window opens which allows selecting a broadcaster for stream retrieval, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_38>`. 
     3142It may be that you are not sure about your Ntrip Broadcaster's host and port number or you are interested in other broadcaster installations operated elsewhere. Hit 'Show' for a table of known broadcasters maintained at www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home. A window opens which allows selecting a broadcaster for stream retrieval, see :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_38>`.
    31433143
    31443144.. _fig_38:
     
    31513151^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    31523152
    3153 Streams on Ntrip Broadcasters may be protected. Enter a valid 'User' ID and 'Password' for access to protected streams. Accounts are usually provided per Ntrip Broadcaster through a registration procedure. Register through http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org for access to protected streams from EUREF and IGS. 
     3153Streams on Ntrip Broadcasters may be protected. Enter a valid 'User' ID and 'Password' for access to protected streams. Accounts are usually provided per Ntrip Broadcaster through a registration procedure. Register through http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org for access to protected streams from EUREF and IGS.
    31543154
    31553155Get Table
    31563156^^^^^^^^^
    31573157
    3158 Use the 'Get Table' button to download the source-table from the Ntrip Broadcaster. Pay attention to data fields 'format' and 'format-details'. Keep in mind that BNC can only decode and convert streams that come in RTCM Version 2, RTCM Version 3, or RTNET format. For access to observations, Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Corrections in RTCM format, streams must contain a selection of appropriate message types as listed in the Annex, cf. data field 'format-details' for available message types and their repetition rates in brackets. Note that in order to produce RINEX Navigation files, RTCM Version 3 streams containing message types 1019 (GPS) and 1020 (GLONASS) and 1043 (SBAS) and 1044 (QZSS) and 1045, 1046 (Galileo) and 63 (BDS/BeiDou, tentative message number) are required. Select your streams line by line, use +Shift and +Ctrl when necessary. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_39>` provides an example source-table. 
    3159 
    3160 The content of data field 'nmea' tells you whether a stream retrieval needs to be initiated by BNC through sending an NMEA-GGA message carrying approximate position coordinates (Virtual Reference Station, VRS). 
    3161 
    3162 Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish, you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process of retrieving streams from different casters. 
     3158Use the 'Get Table' button to download the source-table from the Ntrip Broadcaster. Pay attention to data fields 'format' and 'format-details'. Keep in mind that BNC can only decode and convert streams that come in RTCM Version 2, RTCM Version 3, or RTNET format. For access to observations, Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Corrections in RTCM format, streams must contain a selection of appropriate message types as listed in the Annex, cf. data field 'format-details' for available message types and their repetition rates in brackets. Note that in order to produce RINEX Navigation files, RTCM Version 3 streams containing message types 1019 (GPS) and 1020 (GLONASS) and 1043 (SBAS) and 1044 (QZSS) and 1045, 1046 (Galileo) and 63 (BDS/BeiDou, tentative message number) are required. Select your streams line by line, use +Shift and +Ctrl when necessary. :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_39>` provides an example source-table.
     3159
     3160The content of data field 'nmea' tells you whether a stream retrieval needs to be initiated by BNC through sending an NMEA-GGA message carrying approximate position coordinates (Virtual Reference Station, VRS).
     3161
     3162Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish, you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process of retrieving streams from different casters.
    31633163
    31643164.. _fig_39:
     
    31733173Some limitations and deficiencies of the Ntrip Version 1 stream transport protocol are solved in Ntrip Version 2. Improvements mainly concern a full HTTP compatibility in view of requirements coming from proxy servers. Version 2 is backwards compatible to Version 1. Options implemented in BNC are summarized in :numref:`Table %s <tab_NTRIP_OPTIONS>`.
    31743174
    3175 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     3175.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    31763176
    31773177.. index:: Ntrip versions
     
    31893189  ================ ======================================
    31903190
    3191 If Ntrip Version 2 is supported by the broadcaster: 
     3191If Ntrip Version 2 is supported by the broadcaster:
    31923192
    31933193* Try using option '2' if your streams are otherwise blocked by a proxy server operated in front of BNC.
     
    31953195* Option 'R' or 'U' may be selected if latency is more important than completeness for your application. Note that the latency reduction is likely to be in the order of 0.5 sec or less. Note further that options 'R' (RTSP/RTP mode) and 'U' (UDP mode) are not accepted by proxy servers and a mobile Internet Service Provider may not support it.
    31963196
    3197 Select option '1' if you are not sure whether the broadcaster supports Ntrip Version 2. 
     3197Select option '1' if you are not sure whether the broadcaster supports Ntrip Version 2.
    31983198
    31993199Map - optional
    32003200^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    32013201
    3202 Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the caster's streams :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_40>`. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back. 
     3202Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the caster's streams :numref:`(Fig. %s) <fig_40>`. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
    32033203
    32043204.. _fig_40:
     
    32113211------------------------------------
    32123212
    3213 Button 'Add Stream' > 'Coming from TCP/IP Port' allows to retrieve streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you: 
     3213Button 'Add Stream' > 'Coming from TCP/IP Port' allows to retrieve streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
    32143214
    32153215* Enter the IP address of the stream providing host.
     
    32203220* Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.
    32213221
    3222 Streams directly received from a TCP/IP port show up with an 'N' for 'No Ntrip' in the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons. Note that this option works only if no proxy server is involved in the communication link. 
     3222Streams directly received from a TCP/IP port show up with an 'N' for 'No Ntrip' in the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons. Note that this option works only if no proxy server is involved in the communication link.
    32233223
    32243224Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port
    32253225---------------------------------
    32263226
    3227 Button 'Add Stream' > 'Coming from UDP Port' allows to pick up streams arriving directly at one of the local host's UDP ports without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you: 
     3227Button 'Add Stream' > 'Coming from UDP Port' allows to pick up streams arriving directly at one of the local host's UDP ports without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
    32283228
    32293229* Enter the local port number where the UDP stream arrives.
     
    32333233* Enter the approximate longitude of the stream providing rover in degrees. Example: -15.20.
    32343234
    3235 Streams directly received at a UDP port show up with a 'UN' for 'UDP, No Ntrip' in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons. 
     3235Streams directly received at a UDP port show up with a 'UN' for 'UDP, No Ntrip' in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
    32363236
    32373237Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port
     
    32513251* Select a 'Flow control' for the serial link. Select 'OFF' if you do not know better.
    32523252
    3253 When selecting one of the serial communication options listed above, make sure that you pick those configured to the serially connected GNSS receiver. Streams received from a serially connected GNSS receiver show up with an 'S' (for Serial Port, no Ntrip) in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons. 
    3254 
    3255 .. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}| 
     3253When selecting one of the serial communication options listed above, make sure that you pick those configured to the serially connected GNSS receiver. Streams received from a serially connected GNSS receiver show up with an 'S' (for Serial Port, no Ntrip) in the 'Streams' canvas section on BNC's main window. Latitude and longitude are to be entered just for informal reasons.
     3254
     3255.. tabularcolumns:: |p{0.3\textwidth}|p{0.62\textwidth}|
    32563256
    32573257.. index: Serial port names
     
    32713271  =============== ==========================
    32723272
    3273 :numref:`Fig. %s <fig_41>` shows a BNC example setup for pulling a stream via serial port on a Windows operating system. 
     3273:numref:`Fig. %s <fig_41>` shows a BNC example setup for pulling a stream via serial port on a Windows operating system.
    32743274
    32753275.. _fig_41:
     
    32823282---
    32833283
    3284 Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the streams selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back. 
     3284Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the streams selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
    32853285
    32863286Start/Stop
    32873287----------
    32883288
    3289 Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX files which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless option 'Append files' is ticked. 
    3290 
    3291 Hit the 'Stop' button in order to stop BNC. 
     3289Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX files which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless option 'Append files' is ticked.
     3290
     3291Hit the 'Stop' button in order to stop BNC.
    32923292
    32933293Help? = Shift+F1
    32943294----------------
    32953295
    3296 BNC comes with a 'What's This' help system providing information about its functionality and usage. Short descriptions are available for any widget and program option. Focus to the relevant object and press Shift+F1 to request help information. A help text appears immediately; it disappears as soon as the user does something else. The dialogs on some operating systems may provide a '?' button that users can click; click the relevant widget to pop up the help text. 
     3296BNC comes with a 'What's This' help system providing information about its functionality and usage. Short descriptions are available for any widget and program option. Focus to the relevant object and press Shift+F1 to request help information. A help text appears immediately; it disappears as soon as the user does something else. The dialogs on some operating systems may provide a '?' button that users can click; click the relevant widget to pop up the help text.
    32973297
    32983298.. index:: Command Line Options
     
    33013301====================
    33023302
    3303 Command line options are available to run BNC in 'no window' mode or let it read previously recorded input offline from one or several files for debugging or post processing purposes. It is also possible to introduce a specific configuration filename instead of using the default filename 'BNC.bnc'. The self-explaining content of the configuration file can easily be edited. In addition to reading processing options from the involved configuration file, BNC can optionally read any configuration option from command line. Running BNC with command line option 'help' 
    3304 
    3305 .. code-block:: console
    3306  
    3307   bnc --help (MS Windows: bnc.exe --help | more) 
    3308 
    3309 provides a list of all available command line options. 
    3310  
     3303Command line options are available to run BNC in 'no window' mode or let it read previously recorded input offline from one or several files for debugging or post processing purposes. It is also possible to introduce a specific configuration filename instead of using the default filename 'BNC.bnc'. The self-explaining content of the configuration file can easily be edited. In addition to reading processing options from the involved configuration file, BNC can optionally read any configuration option from command line. Running BNC with command line option 'help'
     3304
     3305.. code-block:: console
     3306
     3307  bnc --help (MS Windows: bnc.exe --help | more)
     3308
     3309provides a list of all available command line options.
     3310
    33113311Version - optional
    33123312------------------
    33133313
    3314 Command line option ``--version`` lets BNC print its version number. 
    3315 
    3316 .. code-block:: console
    3317 
    3318   bnc --version (MS Windows: bnc.exe --version | more) 
     3314Command line option ``--version`` lets BNC print its version number.
     3315
     3316.. code-block:: console
     3317
     3318  bnc --version (MS Windows: bnc.exe --version | more)
    33193319
    33203320Display - optional
    33213321------------------
    33223322
    3323 On systems which support graphics, command line option ``--display`` forces BNC to present the BNC window on the specified display. 
    3324 
    3325 .. code-block:: console
    3326 
    3327   bnc.exe --display localhost:10.0 
     3323On systems which support graphics, command line option ``--display`` forces BNC to present the BNC window on the specified display.
     3324
     3325.. code-block:: console
     3326
     3327  bnc.exe --display localhost:10.0
    33283328
    33293329No Window Mode - optional
    33303330-------------------------
    33313331
    3332 Apart from its regular windows mode, BNC can be started on all systems as a batch job with command line option '-nw'. BNC will then run in 'no window' mode, using processing options from its configuration file on disk. Terminate BNC using Windows Task Manager when running it in 'no window' mode on Windows systems. 
    3333 
    3334 .. code-block:: console
    3335  
    3336   bnc.exe --nw 
    3337 
    3338 It is obvious that BNC requires graphics support when started in interactive mode. However, note that graphics support is also required when producing plots in batch mode (option ``-nw``). Windows and Mac OS X systems always support graphics. For producing plots in batch mode on Linux systems you must make sure that at least a virtual X-Server such as 'Xvfb' is installed and the ``-display`` option is used. The following is an example shell script to execute BNC in batch mode for producing QC plots from RINEX files. It could be used via ``crontab``: 
     3332Apart from its regular windows mode, BNC can be started on all systems as a batch job with command line option '-nw'. BNC will then run in 'no window' mode, using processing options from its configuration file on disk. Terminate BNC using Windows Task Manager when running it in 'no window' mode on Windows systems.
     3333
     3334.. code-block:: console
     3335
     3336  bnc.exe --nw
     3337
     3338It is obvious that BNC requires graphics support when started in interactive mode. However, note that graphics support is also required when producing plots in batch mode (option ``-nw``). Windows and Mac OS X systems always support graphics. For producing plots in batch mode on Linux systems you must make sure that at least a virtual X-Server such as 'Xvfb' is installed and the ``-display`` option is used. The following is an example shell script to execute BNC in batch mode for producing QC plots from RINEX files. It could be used via ``crontab``:
    33393339
    33403340.. code-block:: none
     
    33533353  # BNC done, kill X-server process
    33543354  kill $psID
    3355  
     3355
    33563356File Mode - optional
    33573357--------------------
    33583358
    3359 Although BNC is primarily a real-time online tool, for debugging purposes it can be run offline to read data from a file previously saved through option 'Raw output file' (Record & Replay functionality). Enter the following command line option for that 
    3360 
    3361 .. code-block:: console
    3362 
    3363   --file <inputFileName> 
     3359Although BNC is primarily a real-time online tool, for debugging purposes it can be run offline to read data from a file previously saved through option 'Raw output file' (Record & Replay functionality). Enter the following command line option for that
     3360
     3361.. code-block:: console
     3362
     3363  --file <inputFileName>
    33643364
    33653365and specify the full path to an input file containing previously saved data, e.g.
    33663366
    33673367.. code-block:: console
    3368  
    3369   ./bnc --file /home/user/raw.output_110301 
    3370 
    3371 Note that when running BNC offline, it will use options for file saving, interval, sampling, PPP etc. from its configuration file. Note further that option ``--file`` forces BNC to apply the '-nw' option for running in 'no window' mode. 
     3368
     3369  ./bnc --file /home/user/raw.output_110301
     3370
     3371Note that when running BNC offline, it will use options for file saving, interval, sampling, PPP etc. from its configuration file. Note further that option ``--file`` forces BNC to apply the '-nw' option for running in 'no window' mode.
    33723372
    33733373Configuration File - optional
    33743374-----------------------------
    33753375
    3376 The default configuration filename is ``BNC.bnc``. You may change this name at startup time using command line option ``--conf <confFileName>``. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. 'confFileName' stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a filename. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started, e.g. 
    3377 
    3378 .. code-block:: console
    3379  
    3380   ./bnc --conf MyConfig.bnc 
    3381 
    3382 This leads to a BNC job using configuration file 'MyConfig.bnc'. The configuration file will be saved in the current working directory. 
     3376The default configuration filename is ``BNC.bnc``. You may change this name at startup time using command line option ``--conf <confFileName>``. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. 'confFileName' stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a filename. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started, e.g.
     3377
     3378.. code-block:: console
     3379
     3380  ./bnc --conf MyConfig.bnc
     3381
     3382This leads to a BNC job using configuration file 'MyConfig.bnc'. The configuration file will be saved in the current working directory.
    33833383
    33843384Configuration Options - optional
    33853385--------------------------------
    33863386
    3387 BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the content of the configuration file remains unchanged. Note the following syntax for Command Line Interface (CLI) options: 
    3388 
    3389 .. code-block:: console
    3390 
    3391   --key <keyName> <keyValue> 
    3392 
    3393 Parameter <keyName> stands for the key name of an option contained in the configuration file and <keyValue> stands for the value you want to assign to it. The following is a syntax example for a complete command line: 
    3394 
    3395 .. code-block:: console
    3396  
    3397   bnc --nw --conf <confFileName> --key <keyName1> <keyValue1> --key <keyName2> <keyValue2> ... 
    3398 
    3399 Configuration options which are part of the configuration files PPP section must be prefixed by 'PPP/'. As an example, option 'minObs' from the PPP section of the BNC configuration file would be specified as 'PPP/minObs' on a command line. 
    3400 
    3401 Values for configuration options can be introduced via command line exactly as they show up in the configuration file. However, any value containing one or more blank characters must be enclosed by quotation marks when specified on command line. 
     3387BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the content of the configuration file remains unchanged. Note the following syntax for Command Line Interface (CLI) options:
     3388
     3389.. code-block:: console
     3390
     3391  --key <keyName> <keyValue>
     3392
     3393Parameter <keyName> stands for the key name of an option contained in the configuration file and <keyValue> stands for the value you want to assign to it. The following is a syntax example for a complete command line:
     3394
     3395.. code-block:: console
     3396
     3397  bnc --nw --conf <confFileName> --key <keyName1> <keyValue1> --key <keyName2> <keyValue2> ...
     3398
     3399Configuration options which are part of the configuration files PPP section must be prefixed by 'PPP/'. As an example, option 'minObs' from the PPP section of the BNC configuration file would be specified as 'PPP/minObs' on a command line.
     3400
     3401Values for configuration options can be introduced via command line exactly as they show up in the configuration file. However, any value containing one or more blank characters must be enclosed by quotation marks when specified on command line.
    34023402
    34033403.. bibliography:: references.bib
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