Changeset 7706 in ntrip


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Timestamp:
Jan 23, 2016, 10:10:05 AM (4 years ago)
Author:
weber
Message:

Documentation completed

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1 edited

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  • trunk/BNC/src/bnchelp.html

    r7705 r7706  
    120120&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.13.1.5 <a href=#pppcorrfile>Corrections File</a><br>
    121121&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.13.1.6 <a href=#pppantexfile>ANTEX File</a><br>
    122 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.13.1.7 <a href=#pppmarkcoor>Coordinates</a><br>
     122&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.13.1.7 <a href=#pppmarkcoor>Coordinates File</a><br>
    123123&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.13.1.8 <a href=#pppv3filename>Version 3 Filenames</a><br>
    124124&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.13.1.9 <a href=#ppplogfile>Logfile Directory</a><br>
     
    429429<li>SP3 Version c format for orbit solutions;</li>
    430430<li>Clock RINEX Version 3.02 format for station and satellite clock solutions;</li>
    431 <li>ANTEX Version 1.4, Antenna Exchange format for antenna phase center variations;</li>
     431<li>ANTEX Version 1.4, Antenna Exchange format for Antenna Phase Center variations;</li>
    432432<li>NMEA Version 0813, National Marine Electronics Association format for satellite navigation data;</li>
    433433</ul>
     
    565565<li>For post processing purposes.</li>
    566566</ul>
    567 Furthermore, apart from its regular window mode, BNC can be run as a batch/background job in a 'no window' mode using processing options from a previously saved configuration or from command line.
     567Furthermore, apart from its regular window mode, BNC can be run as a batch/background job in a 'no window' mode, using processing options from a previously saved configuration or from command line.
    568568</p>
    569569<p>
     
    592592
    593593<p>
    594 The usual handling of BNC is that you first select a number of streams ('Add Stream'). Any stream configured to BNC shows up on the 'Streams' canvas in the middle of BNC's main window. You then go through BNC's various configuration panels to set a combination of input, processing and output options before you start the program ('Start'). Most configuration panels are dedicated to a certain functionality of BNC. If the first option field on such a configuration panel is empty, the affected functionality is deactivated.
    595 </p>
    596 
    597 <p>
    598 Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab which is part of the 'Log' canvas. The bandwidth consumption per stream, the latency of incoming observations and a PPP time series for coordinate displacements are also part of that canvas and shown in the 'Throughput', 'Latency' and 'PPP Plot' tabs.
     594The usual handling of BNC is that you first select a number of streams ('Add Stream'). Any stream configured to BNC shows up on the 'Streams' canvas in the middle of BNC's main window. You then go through BNC's various configuration panels to set a combination of input, processing and output options before you start the program ('Start'). Most configuration panels are dedicated to a certain function of BNC. If the first option field on such a configuration panel is empty, the affected functionality is deactivated.
     595</p>
     596
     597<p>
     598Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab which is part of the 'Log' canvas. The bandwidth consumption per stream, the latency of incoming observations, and a PPP time series for coordinate displacements are also part of that canvas and shown in the 'Throughput', 'Latency' and 'PPP Plot' tabs.
    599599</p>
    600600
     
    625625
    626626<p><b>Static versus Shared Libraries</b><br>
    627 You can produce static or shared builds of BNC. <u>Static</u> builds are sufficient in case you don't want BNC to produce track maps on top of Google Map (GM) or Open StreetMap (OSM). GM/OSM usage would require the QtWebKit library which can only be part of BNC builds from <u>shared</u> Qt libraries. Hence, having a shared library Qt installation available is a precondition for producing a shared library build of BNC.
     627You can produce static or shared builds of BNC. <u>Static</u> builds are sufficient in case you don't want BNC to produce track maps on top of Google Map (GM) or OpenStreetMap (OSM). GM/OSM usage would require the QtWebKit library which can only be part of BNC builds from <u>shared</u> Qt libraries. Hence, having a shared library Qt installation available is a precondition for producing a shared library build of BNC.
    628628</p>
    629629
    630630<p><b>MS Windows Systems, Shared Library</b><br>
    631 This explains how to install a shared QT 4.8.5 library on Windows systems to then create your own shared build of BNC.
     631This explains how to install a shared QT 4.8.5 library on MS Windows systems to then create your own shared build of BNC.
    632632</p>
    633633
     
    724724
    725725<u>Xcode and Qt Installation</u><br>
    726 Xcode and Qt are required to compile BNC on OS X. Both tools are freely available. Xcode can be downloaded from the App Store or the Apple Developer Connection website. Once installed, run Xcode, go to 'Preferences->Downloads' and install the Command Line Tools component. Qt can be downloaded from the QT Project website. We suggest installing version 4.8.4 or higher. The Qt libraries for Mac can be downloaded from <u>http://www.qt.io/download</u>. Once downloaded, mount the disk image, run the Qt.mpkg package and follow the instructions from the installation wizard.
     726Xcode and Qt are required to compile BNC on OS X. Both tools are freely available. Xcode can be downloaded from the App Store or the Apple Developer Connection website. Once installed, run Xcode, go to 'Preferences->Downloads' and install the Command Line Tools component. Qt can be downloaded from the QT Project website. We suggest installing version 4.8.4 or higher. The Qt libraries for Mac can be downloaded from <u>http://www.qt.io/download</u>. Once downloaded, mount the disk image, run the Qt.mpkg package and follow instructions from the installation wizard.
    727727</p>
    728728
     
    732732</p>
    733733<p>
    734 From the directory where bnc.pro is located, run qmake to create the Makefile and then make to compile the binary.
     734From the directory where bnc.pro is located, run 'qmake' to create the Makefile and then 'make' to compile the binary.
    735735<pre>
    736736   qmake -spec macx-g++ bnc.pro
     
    810810</ul>
    811811<p>
    812 Although it's not a must, we suggest that you always create BNC configuration files with the filename extension '.bnc'.
    813 </p>
    814 
    815 <p>
    816 We furthermore suggest for convenience reasons that you configure your system to automatically start BNC when you double-click a file with the filename extension '.bnc'. The following describes what to do on Windows systems to associate the BNC program to such configuration files:
     812Although it's not a must, we suggest that you always create BNC configuration files with filename extension '.bnc'.
     813</p>
     814
     815<p>
     816We furthermore suggest for convenience reasons that you configure your system to automatically start BNC when you double-click a file with the filename extension '.bnc'. The following describes what to do on MS Windows systems to associate the BNC program to such configuration files:
    817817</p>
    818818
     
    827827
    828828<p>
    829 Some of the presented example configuration files contain a user ID 'Example' with a password 'Configs' for accessing a few GNSS streams from public Ntrip Broadcasters. This generic account is arranged for convenience reasons only. Please be so kind as to replace the generic account details as well as the place holders 'User' and 'Pass' by the personal user ID and password you receive following an online registration through <u>http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</u>.
     829Some of the presented example configuration files contain a user ID 'Example' with a password 'Configs' for accessing a few GNSS streams from public Ntrip Broadcasters. This free generic account is arranged for convenience reasons only. Please be so kind as to replace the generic account details as well as the place holder's 'User' and 'Pass' by the personal user ID and password you receive following an online registration through <u>http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</u>.
    830830</p>
    831831
     
    839839
    840840<p>
    841 Some BNC options require antenna phase center variations as made available from IGS through so-called ANTEX files at <u>ftp://igs.org/pub/station/general</u>. An example ANTEX file 'igs08.atx' is part of the BNC package for convenience.
     841Some BNC options require Antenna Phase Center variations as made available from IGS through so-called ANTEX files at <u>ftp://igs.org/pub/station/general</u>. An example ANTEX file 'igs08.atx' is part of the BNC package for convenience.
    842842</p>
    843843
     
    855855RINEX Observation files. The configuration pulls streams from Ntrip
    856856Broadcasters using Ntrip Version 1 to generate 15min 1Hz RINEX Version 3
    857 Observation files. See http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations for observation
     857Observation files. See <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/observations</u> for observation
    858858stream resources.
    859859</li><br>
     
    864864pulls a RTCM Version 3 stream with Broadcast Ephemeris coming from the
    865865real-time EUREF and IGS networks and saves hourly RINEX Version 3 Navigation
    866 files. See http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris for further real-time
     866files. See <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u> for further real-time
    867867Broadcast Ephemeris resources.
    868868</li><br>
     
    871871Purpose: Save Broadcast Corrections from RTCM
    872872SSR messages in hourly plain ASCII files. See
    873 http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits for various real-time IGS or EUREF
     873<u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u> for various real-time IGS or EUREF
    874874orbit/clock correction products.
    875875</li><br>
     
    935935<li>File 'PPPPostProc.bnc'<br>
    936936Purpose: Precise Point Positioning in post
    937 processing mode. BNC reads RINEX Version 3 Observation and 3 Navigation files
     937processing mode. BNC reads RINEX Version 3 Observation and Navigation files
    938938and a Broadcast Correction file. PPP processing options are set to support
    939939the Quick-Start mode. The output is saved in a specific post processing
     
    947947RINEX Observation file and a RINEX Navigation file to carry out a
    948948'Standard Point Positioning' solution in post processing mode. Although
    949 this is not a real-time application it requires the BNC host to be connected
     949this is not a real-time application, it requires the BNC host to be connected
    950950to the Internet. Specify a computation speed, then hit button 'Open Map'
    951951to open the track map, then hit 'Start' to visualize receiver positions
     
    991991<li>File 'Combi.bnc'<br>
    992992Purpose: Pull several streams carrying Broadcast
    993 Corrections and a Broadcast Ephemeris from an Ntrip Broadcaster to
     993Corrections and a Broadcast Ephemeris stream from an Ntrip Broadcaster to
    994994produce a combined Broadcast Correction stream. BNC encodes the combination
    995995product in RTCM Version 3 SSR messages and uploads that to an Ntrip
     
    10231023<li>File 'Empty.bnc'<br>
    10241024Purpose: Provide an empty example configuration file for
    1025 BNC which only contains the default settings.
     1025BNC which only contains default settings.
    10261026</li>
    10271027
     
    11671167<p><h4>2.3.1 <a name="genlog">Logfile - optional</h4></p>
    11681168<p>
    1169 Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '_YYMMDD' carrying the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously for extended. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the Ntrip Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file.
     1169Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '_YYMMDD' for the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously for extended. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the Ntrip Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file.
    11701170</p>
    11711171<p>
     
    11951195<p><h4>2.3.2 <a name="genapp">Append Files - optional</h4></p>
    11961196<p>
    1197 When BNC is started, new files are created by default and any existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or when BNC crashed. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
     1197When BNC is started, new files are created by default and existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or a BNC crash. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
    11981198</p>
    11991199
     
    12191219<p><h4>2.3.4 <a name="genstart">Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
    12201220<p>
    1221 You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required i.e. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory /etc/init.d (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     1221You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required e.g. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory /etc/init.d (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
    12221222</p>
    12231223<p>
     
    12271227<p><h4>2.3.5 <a name="rawout">Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
    12281228<p>
    1229 BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes and it is not meant for post processing.
     1229BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes and is not meant for post processing.
    12301230</p>
    12311231<p>
     
    12441244<p><h4>2.4 <a name="rinex">RINEX Observations</h4></p>
    12451245<p>
    1246 Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS and/or BDS (BeiDou). In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000' or left blank. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system.
    1247 </p>
    1248 <p>
    1249 It is important to understand that converting RTCM streams to RINEX files requires a priori information on observation types for specifying a complete RINEX header. Regarding the RINEX Version 2 file header, BNC simply introduces all observation types defined in the Version 2 standard and later reports "0.000" for all observations which are not received. However, following this approach is not possible for RINEX Version 3 files from RTCM Version 3 MSM streams because of the huge number of observation types which might in principle show up. The solution implemented in BNC is to start with RINEX Version 3 observation type records from skeleton files (see section 'Skeleton Extension' and 'Skeleton Mandatory') and switch to a default selection of observation types when such skeleton file is not available or does not contain the required information. The following is the default selection of observation types specified for a RINEX Version 3 file:
     1246Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS, and/or BDS (BeiDou). In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000' or left blank. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system.
     1247</p>
     1248<p>
     1249It is important to understand that converting RTCM streams to RINEX files requires a priori information on observation types for specifying a complete RINEX header. Regarding the RINEX Version 2 file header, BNC simply introduces all observation types defined in the Version 2 standard and later reports "0.000" for observations which are not received. However, following this approach is not possible for RINEX Version 3 files from RTCM Version 3 MSM streams because of the huge number of observation types which might in principle show up. The solution implemented in BNC is to start with RINEX Version 3 observation type records from skeleton files (see section 'Skeleton Extension' and 'Skeleton Mandatory') and switch to a default selection of observation types when such file is not available or does not contain the required information. The following is the default selection of observation types specified for a RINEX Version 3 file:
    12501250</p>
    12511251<pre>
     
    12621262</p>
    12631263<p>
    1264 The screenshot below shows an example setup of BNC when converting streams to RINEX. Streams are coming from various Ntrip Broadcasters as well as from a serial communication link. Specifying a decoder string 'ZERO' means to not convert the affected stream but save its content as received. The 'SSL Error' recorded in the 'Log' tab is caused by the fact that observation stream downloads from IGS and MGEX Broadcasters initiate the download of RINEX skeleton files from a HTTPS (TLS/SSL) website and BNC has been configured in this example to ignore SSL errors as shown in the preceding 'Network' panel screenshot.
     1264The screenshot below shows an example setup of BNC when converting streams to RINEX. Streams are coming from various Ntrip Broadcasters as well as from a serial communication link. Specifying a decoder string 'ZERO' would mean to not convert the affected stream but save its content as received. The 'SSL Error' recorded in the 'Log' tab is caused by the fact that observation stream downloads from IGS and MGEX Broadcasters initiate the download of RINEX skeleton files from a HTTPS (TLS/SSL) website and BNC has been configured in this example to ignore SSL errors as shown in the preceding 'Network' panel screenshot.
    12651265</p>
    12661266
     
    12701270<p><h4>2.4.1 <a name="rnxname">RINEX Filenames</h4></p>
    12711271<p>
    1272 The default for RINEX filenames in BNC follows the convention of RINEX Version 2. However, the software provides options to alternatively follow the filename convention of RINEX Version 3. RINEX Version 2 filenames are derived by BNC from the first 4 characters of the corresponding stream's mountpoint (4Char Station ID). For example, data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and WETTZELL will have hourly RINEX Observation files named</p>
     1272The default for RINEX filenames in BNC follows the convention of RINEX Version 2. However, the software provides options to alternatively follow the filename convention of RINEX Version 3. RINEX Version 2 filenames are derived by BNC from the first 4 characters of the corresponding stream's mountpoint (4-Char Station ID). For example, data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and WETTZELL will have hourly RINEX Observation files named</p>
    12731273
    12741274<pre>
     
    12801280</p>
    12811281<p>
    1282 If there is more than one stream with identical 4Char Station ID (same first 4 characters for their mountpoints), the mountpoint strings are split into two sub-strings and both become part of the RINEX filename. For example, when simultaneously retrieving data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and FRANCE, their hourly RINEX Version 2 Observation files are named as</p>
     1282If there is more than one stream with identical 4-Char Station ID (same first 4 characters for their mountpoints), the mountpoint strings are split into two sub-strings and both become part of the RINEX filename. For example, when simultaneously retrieving data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and FRANCE, their hourly RINEX Version 2 Observation files are named as</p>
    12831283<pre>
    12841284   FRAN{ddd}{h}_KFURT.{yy}O
     
    12861286</pre>
    12871287<p>
    1288 If several streams show up with exactly the same mountpoint name (example: BRUS0 from <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> and BRUS0 from <u>www.igs-ip.net</u>), BNC adds an integer number to the filename leading i.e. to hourly RINEX Version 2 Observation files like</p>
     1288If several streams show up with exactly the same mountpoint name (example: BRUS0 from <u>www.euref-ip.net</u> and BRUS0 from <u>www.igs-ip.net</u>), BNC adds an integer number to the filename leading e.g. to hourly RINEX Version 2 Observation files like</p>
    12891289<pre>
    12901290   BRUS{ddd}{h}_0.{yy}O
     
    12921292</pre>
    12931293<p>
    1294 Note that RINEX Version 2 filenames for all intervals less than 1 hour follow the filename convention for 15 minutes RINEX Version 2 Observation files i.e.</p>
     1294Note that RINEX Version 2 filenames for all intervals less than 1 hour follow the filename convention for 15 minutes RINEX Version 2 Observation files e.g.</p>
    12951295<pre>
    12961296   FRAN{ddd}{h}{mm}.{yy}O
     
    13231323</p>
    13241324<p>
    1325 Note that filename details are produced from the streams mountpoint as well as corresponding BNC settings and meta data from the Ntrip Broadcaster source-table.
     1325Note that filename details are produced from the stream's mountpoint as well as corresponding BNC settings and meta data from the Ntrip Broadcaster source-table.
    13261326</p>
    13271327
     
    13331333<p><h4>2.4.3 <a name="rnxinterval">File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
    13341334<p>
    1335 Select the length of the RINEX Observation file generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
     1335Select the length of the RINEX Observation file to be generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
    13361336</p>
    13371337
     
    13491349</p>
    13501350<p>
    1351 When producing RINEX Observation files from mountpoints (examples) 'BRUS0', 'FRANKFURT'; and 'WETTZELL' the following skeleton filenames would be accepted
     1351When producing RINEX Observation files from mountpoints (examples) 'BRUS0', 'FRANKFURT', and 'WETTZELL', the following skeleton filenames would be accepted
    13521352</p>
    13531353<pre>
     
    13831383<br>- &nbsp; COMMENT
    13841384<br>line describing the source of the stream.</li>
    1385 <li>They should finally contain an empty header record of type
    1386 <br>- &nbsp; END OF HEADER (last record)</li>
     1385<li>They should finally contain an empty last header record of type
     1386<br>- &nbsp; END OF HEADER</li>
    13871387
    13881388<li>They must not contain a header record of type
     
    14221422<p><h4>2.4.6 <a name="sklMandat">Skeleton Mandatory - optional</h4></p>
    14231423<p>
    1424 Tick check box 'Skeleton mandatory' in case you want that RINEX files are only produced if skeleton files are available for BNC. If no skeleton file is available for a particular source then no RINEX observation file will be produced from the affected stream.
    1425 </p>
    1426 <p>Note that a skeleton file contains RINEX header information such as receiver and antenna types. In case of stream conversion to RINEX Version 3 a skeleton file should also contain information on potentially available observation types. A missing skeleton file will therefore enforce BNC to only save a default set of RINEX 3 observation types.
     1424Tick check box 'Skeleton mandatory' in case you want that RINEX files are only produced when skeleton files are available for BNC. If no skeleton file is available for a particular source, then no RINEX observation file will be produced from the affected stream.
     1425</p>
     1426<p>Note that a skeleton file contains RINEX header information such as receiver and antenna types. In case of stream conversion to RINEX Version 3, a skeleton file should also contain information on potentially available observation types. A missing skeleton file will therefore enforce BNC to only save a default set of RINEX 3 observation types.
    14271427</p>
    14281428
    14291429<p><h4>2.4.7 <a name="rnxscript">Script - optional</h4></p>
    14301430<p>
    1431 Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path of the script/batch file here. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (%1 on Windows systems, $1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     1431Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path of the script/batch file. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (%1 on Windows systems, $1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
    14321432</p>
    14331433<p>
     
    14401440<p><h4>2.4.8 <a name="rnxvers2">Version 2 - optional</h4></p>
    14411441<p>
    1442 GNSS observation data are generally hold available within BNC according to attributes as defined in RINEX Version 3. These attributes describe the tracking mode or channel when generating the observation signals. Capital letters specifying signal generation attributes are A, B, C, D, I, L, M, N, P, Q, S, W, X, Y, and Z, see RINEX Version 3 documentation. Although RINEX Version 3 with its signal generation attributes is the internal default processing format for BNC, there are two applications where the program is explicitly required to produce data in RINEX Version 2 format:
     1442GNSS observation data are generally hold available within BNC according to attributes as defined in RINEX Version 3. These attributes describe the tracking mode or channel when generating the observation signals. Capital letters specifying signal generation attributes are A, B, C, D, I, L, M, N, P, Q, S, W, X, Y, and Z, see RINEX Version 3 documentation. Although RINEX Version 3 with its signal generation attributes is the internal default processing format for BNC, there are two applications where the program is explicitly required to produce data files in RINEX Version 2 format:
    14431443<ol type=1>
    14441444<li>When saving the content of incoming observation streams in RINEX Version 2 files as described in this section.</li>
     
    14661466</p>
    14671467<p>
    1468 You may like to specify you own 'Signal priority' string(s) for producing RINEX Version 2 files. If you neither convert observation streams to RINEX Version 2 nor concatenate RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 files then the 'Version 2' option is meaningless.
     1468You may like to specify you own 'Signal priority' string(s) for producing RINEX Version 2 files. If you neither convert observation streams to RINEX Version 2 nor concatenate RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 files, then the 'Version 2' option is meaningless.
    14691469</p>
    14701470
    14711471<p><h4>2.4.9 <a name="rnxvers3">Version 3 - optional</h4></p>
    14721472<p>
    1473 The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select RINEX 'Version 3' if you would like to save RTCM Version 3 observation streams in RINEX Version 3 format.
     1473The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select RINEX 'Version 3' if you would like to save RTCM Version 3 observation streams in RINEX Version 3.03 format.
    14741474</p>
    14751475
     
    15301530<p><h4>2.5.4 <a name="ephvers">Version - optional</h4></p>
    15311531<p>
    1532 Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris data in RINEX Version 3 format.
    1533 </p>
    1534 <p>
    1535 Note that this does not concern the Broadcast Ephemeris output through IP port which is always in RINEX Version 3 format.
     1532Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris data in RINEX Version 3.03 format.
     1533</p>
     1534<p>
     1535Note that this does not concern the Broadcast Ephemeris output through IP port which is always in RINEX Version 3.03 format.
    15361536</p>
    15371537
     
    15601560</ul>
    15611561</ul>
    1562 and hence follows UNAVCO's famous TEQC program (see Estey and Meertens 1999). The remarkable thing about BNC in this context is that it supports RINEX Version 3 under GNU General Public License with full GUI support and instant graphics output.
     1562and hence follows UNAVCO's famous TEQC program (see Estey and Meertens 1999). The remarkable thing about BNC in this context is that it supports RINEX Version 3 under GNU General Public License with full GUI support and instantaneous graphics output.
    15631563</p>
    15641564
     
    15771577</p>
    15781578<p>
    1579 When specifying several input files BNC will concatenate their contents. In case of RINEX Observation input files with different observation type header records, BNC will output only one specific set of adjusted observation type records in the RINEX header which fits to the whole file content.
     1579When specifying several input files, BNC will concatenate their contents. In case of RINEX Observation input files with different observation type header records, BNC will output only one specific set of adjusted observation type records in the RINEX header which fits to the whole file content.
    15801580</p>
    15811581<p>
     
    18101810<p><h4>2.6.5 <a name="reqcplots">Plots for Signals - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
    18111811<p>
    1812 Multipath and signal-to-noise sky plots as well as plots for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP are produced per GNSS system and frequency with the multipath analysis based on CnC observation types (n = band / frequency). The 'Plots for signals' option lets you exactly specify the observation signals to be used for that and also enables the plot production. You can specify the navigation system (C = BDS, E = Galileo, G = GPS, J = QZSS, R = GLONASS, S = SBAS), the frequency, and the tracking mode or channel as defined in RINEX Version 3. Specifications for frequency and tracking mode or channel must be separated by ampersand character '&'. Specifications for each navigation systems must be separated by blank character ' '. The following string is an example for option field 'Plots of signals': It lets you exactly specify the observation signals to be used and also enables the plot generation. You can specify the navigation system, the frequency, and the tracking mode or channel as defined in RINEX Version 3. Specifications for frequency and tracking mode or channel must be separated by ampersand character '&'. Specifications for each navigation systems must be separated by blank character ' '.
     1812Multipath and signal-to-noise sky plots as well as plots for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP are produced per GNSS system and frequency with the multipath analysis based on CnC observation types (n = band / frequency). The 'Plots for signals' option lets you exactly specify the observation signals to be used for that and also enables the plot production. You can specify the navigation system (C = BDS, E = Galileo, G = GPS, J = QZSS, R = GLONASS, S = SBAS), the frequency, and the tracking mode or channel as defined in RINEX Version 3. Specifications for frequency and tracking mode or channel must be separated by ampersand character '&'. Specifications for each navigation systems must be separated by blank character ' '. The following string is an example for option field 'Plots of signals':
    18131813<br>
    18141814<pre>
     
    18411841<p>
    18421842<ul>
    1843 <li>The RINEX Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes. Therefore, when converting <u>RINEX Version 3 to Version 2</u> Observation files, BNC is forced to somehow map signals with attributes to signals without attributes although this can't be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2, see details in section 'RINEX Observations/Version 2'. The default 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of observation attributes when mapping RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 is 'CWPX_?'. Signal priorities can be specified either as equal for all systems or system specifics. The following are example priority strings:</li>
     1843<li>The RINEX Version 2 format ignores signal generation attributes. Therefore, when converting <u>RINEX Version 3 to Version 2</u> Observation files, BNC is forced to somehow map signals with attributes to signals without attributes although this can't be done in one-to-one correspondence. Hence we introduce a 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of attributes (characters, forming a string) for mapping Version 3 to Version 2, see details in section 'RINEX Observations/Version 2'. The default 'Version 2 Signal Priority' list of observation attributes when mapping RINEX Version 3 to Version 2 is 'CWPX_?'. Signal priorities can be specified either as equal for all systems or system specific. The following are example priority strings:</li>
    18441844<ul>
    18451845<li>CWPX_? (Same signal priorities valid for all systems)</li>
     
    18551855
    18561856<p>
    1857 You can specify a list of observation codes in field 'Use Obs. Types' to limit the output file content to specific observation codes. GNSS system characters in that list are followed by a colon and a two or three character observation code. A two character observation code would mean that all available tracking modes of the affected observation type and frequency will be accepted as part of the RINEX output file. Observation codes are separated by a blank character. Default is an empty option field, meaning that any input observation code will become part of the RINEX output file.
    1858 </p>
    1859 
    1860 <p>
    1861 Specifying comment line text to be added to the emerging new RINEX file header is another option. Any introduction of a newline through '\n' in this enforces the beginning of a further comment line. Comment line(s) will be added to the header immediately after the 'PGM / RUN BY / DATE' record. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no additional comment line will be added to the RINEX header.
     1857You can specify a list of observation codes in field 'Use Obs. Types' to limit the output file content to specific observation codes. GNSS system characters in that list are followed by a colon and a 2- or 3-Character observation code. A 2-Character observation code would mean that all available tracking modes of the affected observation type and frequency will be accepted as part of the RINEX output file. Observation codes are separated by a blank character. Default is an empty option field, meaning that any input observation code will become part of the RINEX output file.
     1858</p>
     1859
     1860<p>
     1861Specifying comment line text to be added to the emerging new RINEX file header is another option. Any introduction of a newline through '\n' in this enforces the beginning of a further comment line. Comment lines will be added to the header immediately after the 'PGM / RUN BY / DATE' record. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no additional comment line will be added to the RINEX header.
    18621862</p>
    18631863
     
    19721972</p>
    19731973<p>
    1974 To compare satellite clocks provided by the two files BNC first converts coordinate differences dX,dY,dZ into along track, out-of-plane and radial components. It then corrects the clock differences for the radial components of coordinate differences. RMS values of clock differences are finally calculated after introducing at first one offset 'per epoch for all satellites' and secondly one offset 'per satellite for all epochs'.
     1974To compare satellite clocks provided by the two files, BNC first converts coordinate differences dX,dY,dZ into along track, out-of-plane, and radial components. It then corrects the clock differences for the radial components of coordinate differences. RMS values of clock differences are finally calculated after introducing at first one offset 'per epoch for all satellites' and secondly one offset 'per satellite for all epochs'.
    19751975</p>
    19761976
     
    20852085</p>
    20862086<p>
    2087 An alternative to the observation space approach is the so called 'sate space' approach. The principle here is to provide information on individual error sources. It can be called 'State Space Representation' (SSR). For a rover position, state space information concerning precise satellite clocks, orbits, ionosphere, troposphere et cetera can be converted into observation space and used to correct the rover observables for more accurate positioning. Alternatively the state information can be used directly in the rover's processing or adjustment model.
     2087An alternative to the observation space approach is the so-called 'sate space' approach. The principle here is to provide information on individual error sources. It can be called 'State Space Representation' (SSR). For a rover position, state space information concerning precise satellite clocks, orbits, ionosphere, troposphere et cetera can be converted into observation space and used to correct the rover observables for more accurate positioning. Alternatively, the state information can be used directly in the rover's processing or adjustment model.
    20882088</p>
    20892089<p>
     
    21092109
    21102110<p>
    2111 RTCM Version 3 streams carrying these messages may be used i.e. to support real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) applications.
     2111RTCM Version 3 streams carrying these messages may be used e.g. to support real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) applications.
    21122112</p>
    21132113<p>
     
    21162116
    21172117<p>
    2118 Orbit corrections are provided in along-track, cross-track and radial components. These components are defined in the Earth-centered, Earth-fixed reference frame of the broadcast ephemerides. For an observer in this frame, the along-track component is aligned in both direction and sign with the velocity vector, the cross-track component is perpendicular to the plane defined by the satellite position and velocity vectors, and the radial direction is perpendicular to the along track and cross-track ones. The three components form a right-handed orthogonal system.
     2118Orbit corrections are provided in along-track, cross-track and radial components. These components are defined in the Earth-centered, Earth-fixed reference frame of the Broadcast Ephemeris. For an observer in this frame, the along-track component is aligned in both direction and sign with the velocity vector, the cross-track component is perpendicular to the plane defined by the satellite position and velocity vectors, and the radial direction is perpendicular to the along track and cross-track ones. The three components form a right-handed orthogonal system.
    21192119</p>
    21202120
     
    21282128
    21292129<p>
    2130 While we have a plain ASCII standard for saving broadcast ephemeris in RINEX Navigation files, we don't have an equivalent standard for corrections to broadcast ephemeris. Hence BNC saves Broadcast Correction files following its own format definition. The filename convention for Broadcast Correction files follows the convention for RINEX Version 2 files except for the last character of the filename suffix which is set to 'C'.
     2130While we have a plain ASCII standard for saving Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Navigation files, we don't have an equivalent standard for corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris. Hence BNC saves Broadcast Correction files following its own format definition. The filename convention for Broadcast Correction files follows the convention for RINEX Version 2 files except for the last character of the filename suffix which is set to 'C'.
    21312131</p>
    21322132
     
    23552355<p><h4>2.8.2 <a name="corrint">Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
    23562356<p>
    2357 Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is 1 day.
     2357Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is '1 day'.
    23582358</p>
    23592359
     
    24302430</p>
    24312431<p>
    2432 The source code for BNC comes with an example Perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's Broadcast Corrections from the IP port.
     2432The source code for BNC comes with an example Perl script 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows to read BNC's Broadcast Corrections from the IP port for verification.
    24332433</p>
    24342434
     
    24382438<p><h4>2.9 <a name="syncout">Feed Engine</h4></p>
    24392439<p>
    2440 BNC can generate synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a local file. The output is always in plain ASCII format and sorted per incoming stream.
    2441 </p>
    2442 <p>
    2443 Any epoch in the output begins with a line containing the GPS week number and the seconds within the GPS week. Following lines begin with the mountpoint string of the stream which provides the observations followed by a satellite ID. Observation types are specified by the three character observation code defined in RINEX Version 3. In case of phase observations a Slip Count is added which is put to "-1" if it is not set. The end of an epoch is indicated by an empty line.
     2440BNC can produce synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a local file. The output is always in plain ASCII format and sorted per incoming stream.
     2441</p>
     2442<p>
     2443Each epoch in the output begins with a line containing the GPS Week Number and the seconds within the GPS Week. Following lines begin with the mountpoint string of the stream which provides the observations followed by a satellite ID. Observation types are specified by the 3-character observation code defined in RINEX Version 3. In case of phase observations a Slip Count is added which is put to '-1' if it is not set. The end of an epoch is indicated by an empty line.
    24442444</p>
    24452445
    24462446<p>Note on 'Slip Count':<br>
    2447 It is the current understanding of BNC's authors that different Slip Counts could be referred to different phase measurements (i.e. L1C and L1P). The 'loss-of-lock' flags in RINEX are an example for making such kind of information available per phase measurement. However, it looks like we do have only one Slip Count in RTCM Version 3 for all phase measurements. As it could be that a receiver generates different Slip Counts for different phase measurements, we output one Slip Count per phase measurement to a listening real-time GNSS network engine.
     2447It is the current understanding of BNC's authors that different Slip Counts could be referred to different phase measurements (e.g. L1C and L1P). The 'loss-of-lock' flags in RINEX are an example for making such kind of information available per phase measurement. However, it looks like we do have only one Slip Count in RTCM Version 3 for all phase measurements. As it could be that a receiver generates different Slip Counts for different phase measurements, we output one Slip Count per phase measurement to a listening real-time GNSS network engine.
    24482448</p>
    24492449
     
    25042504</pre>
    25052505<p>
    2506 The source code for BNC comes with a Perl script named 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows you to read BNC's (synchronized or unsynchronized) ASCII observation output from the IP port and print it on standard output.
    2507 </p>
    2508 
    2509 <p>
    2510 Note that any socket connection of an application to BNC's synchronized or unsynchronized observations ports is recorded in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window together with a connection counter, resulting in log records like 'New client connection on sync/usync port: # 1'.
     2506The source code for BNC comes with a Perl script named 'test_tcpip_client.pl' that allows to read BNC's (synchronized or unsynchronized) ASCII observation output from the IP port and print it on standard output for verification.
     2507</p>
     2508
     2509<p>
     2510Note that any socket connection of an application to BNC's synchronized or unsynchronized observation ports is recorded in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window together with a connection counter, resulting in log records like 'New client connection on sync/usync port: # 1'.
    25112511</p>
    25122512
     
    25192519<p><h4>2.9.1 <a name="syncport">Port - optional</h4></p>
    25202520<p>
    2521 BNC can produce synchronized observations in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Synchronized means that BNC collects all observation data for any specific epoch which become available within a certain number of latency seconds (see 'Wait for Full Obs Epoch' option). It then - epoch by epoch - outputs whatever has been received. The output comes block wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no binary synchronized output is generated.</p>
     2521BNC can produce synchronized observations in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Synchronized means that BNC collects all observation data for a specific epoch which become available within a certain number of seconds (see 'Wait for Full Obs Epoch' option). It then - epoch by epoch - outputs whatever has been received. The output comes block-wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no binary synchronized output is generated.</p>
    25222522</p>
    25232523
     
    25402540</p>
    25412541<p>
    2542 Beware that the size of this file can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming streams. The name of the file can be changed on-the-fly, to prevent it from becoming too large. This option is primarily meant for testing and evaluation.
     2542Beware that the size of this file can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming streams. To prevent it from becoming too large, the name of the file can be changed on-the-fly. This option is primarily meant for test and evaluation.
    25432543</p>
    25442544
    25452545<p><h4>2.9.5 <a name="syncuport">Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
    25462546<p>
    2547 BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Nevertheless, the output comes block wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated.
     2547BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Nevertheless, the output is produced block-wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated.
    25482548</p>
    25492549
    25502550<p><h4>2.10 <a name="serial">Serial Output</h4></p>
    25512551<p>
    2552 You may use BNC to feed a serial connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. Depending on the stream content the receiver may use it for Differential GNSS, Precise Point Positioning or any other purpose supported by its firmware.
    2553 </p>
    2554 <p>
    2555 Note that receiving a VRS stream requires the receiver sending NMEA sentences (mode 'Manual' or 'Auto') to the Ntrip Broadcaster. The following figure shows the data flow when pulling a VRS stream or a physical (none-VRS) stream.
     2552You may use BNC to feed a serial connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. Depending on the stream content, the receiver may use it for Differential GNSS, Precise Point Positioning or any other purpose supported by its firmware.
     2553</p>
     2554<p>
     2555Note that receiving a VRS stream requires the receiver sending NMEA sentences (option 'NMEA' set to 'Manual' or 'Auto') to the Ntrip Broadcaster. The following figure shows the data flow when pulling a VRS stream or a physical (non-VRS) stream.
    25562556</p>
    25572557
     
    26172617
    26182618<p><h4>2.10.8 <a name="serauto">NMEA - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    2619 <p>The 'NMEA' option supports the so-called 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) concept which requires the receiver to send approximate position information to the Ntrip Broadcaster. Select 'no' if you don't want BNC to forward or upload any NMEA message to the Ntrip broadcaster in support of VRS.
    2620 </p>
    2621 <p>Select 'Auto' to automatically forward NMEA messages of type GGA from your serial connected receiver to the Ntrip broadcaster and/or save them in a file.
    2622 </p>
    2623 <p>Select 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' if you want BNC to produce and upload GPGGA or GNGGA NMEA messages to the Ntrip broadcaster because your serial connected receiver doesn't generate these messages. A Talker ID 'GP' proceeding the GGA string stands for GPS solutions while a Talker ID 'GN' stands for multi-constellation solutions.
     2619<p>The 'NMEA' option supports the so-called 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) concept which requires the receiver to send approximate position information to the Ntrip Broadcaster. Select 'no' if you don't want BNC to forward or upload any NMEA sentence to the Ntrip broadcaster in support of VRS.
     2620</p>
     2621<p>Select 'Auto' to automatically forward NMEA sentences of type GGA from your serial connected receiver to the Ntrip broadcaster and/or save them in a file.
     2622</p>
     2623<p>Select 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' if you want BNC to produce and upload GPGGA or GNGGA NMEA sentences to the Ntrip broadcaster because your serial connected receiver doesn't generate them. A Talker ID 'GP' proceeding the GGA string stands for GPS solutions while a Talker ID 'GN' stands for multi-constellation solutions.
    26242624</p>
    26252625<p>Note that selecting 'Auto' or 'Manual' works only for VRS streams which show up under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window with 'nmea' stream attribute set to 'yes'. This attribute is either extracted from the Ntrip broadcaster's source-table or introduced by the user through editing the BNC configuration file.
     
    26272627
    26282628<p><h4>2.10.9 <a name="serfile">File - optional if 'NMEA' is set to 'Auto'</h4></p>
    2629 <p>Specify the full path to a file where NMEA messages coming from your serial connected receiver are saved. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no NMEA messages will be saved on disk.
     2629<p>Specify the full path to a file where NMEA sentences coming from your serial connected receiver are saved. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no NMEA sentences will be saved on disk.
    26302630</p>
    26312631<p><h4>2.10.10 <a name="serheight">Height - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
    26322632<p>
    2633 Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meters for the reference station introduced through 'Mountpoint'. Together with the latitude and longitude from the Ntrip broadcaster source-table the height information is used to build GGA messages to be sent to the Ntrip broadcaster.
    2634 </p>
    2635 <p>For adjusting latitude and longitude values of a VRS stream given in the 'Streams' canvas you can double click the latitude/longitude data fields, specify appropriate values and then hit Enter.
     2633Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meters for the reference station introduced through 'Mountpoint'. Together with the latitude and longitude from the Ntrip broadcaster source-table, the height information is used to build GGA sentences to be sent to the Ntrip broadcaster.
     2634</p>
     2635<p>For adjusting latitude and longitude values of a VRS stream given in the 'Streams' canvas, you can double click the latitude/longitude data fields, specify appropriate values and then hit Enter.
    26362636</p>
    26372637<p>This option is only relevant when option 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual GPGGA' or 'Manual GNGGA' respectively.
     
    26432643</p>
    26442644<p>
    2645 A sampling rate of '0' means, that a GGA sentence will be sent only once to initialize the requested VRS stream. Note that some VRS systems need GGA sentences at regular intervals.
     2645A sampling rate of '0' means that a GGA sentence will be sent only once to initialize the requested VRS stream. Note that some VRS systems need GGA sentences at regular intervals.
    26462646</p>
    26472647
    26482648<p><h4>2.11 <a name="advnote">Outages</h4></p>
    26492649<p>
    2650 At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that necessary measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
     2650At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
    26512651</p>
    26522652<p>
     
    26542654</p>
    26552655<p>
    2656 <u>Stream corruption:</u> Not all chunks of bits transferred to BNC's internal decoder may return valid observations. Sometimes several chunks might be needed before the next observation can be properly decoded. BNC buffers all the outputs (both valid and invalid) from the decoder for a short time span (size derived from the expected 'Observation rate') and then determines whether a stream is valid or corrupted.
    2657 </p>
    2658 <p>
    2659 Outage and corruption events are reported in the 'Log' tab. They can also be passed on as parameters to a shell script or batch file to generate an advisory note to BNC operator or affected stream providers. This functionality lets users utilize BNC as a real-time performance monitor and alarm system for a network of GNSS reference stations.
     2656<u>Stream corruption:</u> Not all chunks of bits transferred to BNC's internal decoder may return valid observations. Sometimes several chunks might be needed before the next observation can be properly decoded. BNC buffers all outputs (both valid and invalid) from the decoder for a short time span (size derived from the expected 'Observation rate') to then determine whether a stream is valid or corrupted.
     2657</p>
     2658<p>
     2659Outage and corruption events are reported in the 'Log' tab. They can also be passed on as parameters to a shell script or batch file to generate an advisory note to BNC's operator or affected stream providers. This functionality lets users utilize BNC as a real-time performance monitor and alarm system for a network of GNSS reference stations.
    26602660</p>
    26612661
     
    26752675<p><h4>2.11.3 <a name="advreco">Recovery Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    26762676<p>
    2677 Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check for when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are again detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports.
     2677Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended as to not inundate users with too many event reports.
    26782678</p>
    26792679<p>
     
    26832683<p><h4>2.11.4 <a name="advscript">Script - optional if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    26842684<p>
    2685 As mentioned before, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the events described are reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information.
     2685As mentioned before, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the described events is reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information.
    26862686</p>
    26872687<p>
     
    27612761<p><h4>2.12.3 <a name="miscscan">Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
    27622762<p>
    2763 When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types and observation types. As reliable information concerning stream content should be available i.e. for Ntrip Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a priori for the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'inspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. St&ouml;cker.
     2763When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types and observation types. As reliable information concerning stream content should be available e.g. for Ntrip Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a priori for the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'inspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. St&ouml;cker.
    27642764</p>
    27652765<p>
     
    27752775In case of RTCM Version 3 streams the output includes
    27762776<ul>
    2777 <li>RINEX Version 3 Observation Types</li>
    2778 </ul>
    2779 </p>
    2780 
    2781 <p>
    2782 Note that in RTCM Version 2 the message types 18 and 19 carry only the observables of one frequency. Hence it needs two type 18 and 19 messages per epoch to transport the observations from dual frequency receivers.
     2777<li>RINEX Version 3 Observation types</li>
     2778</ul>
     2779</p>
     2780
     2781<p>
     2782Note that in RTCM Version 2 message types 18 and 19 carry only the observables of one frequency. Hence it needs two type 18 and 19 messages per epoch to transport observations from dual frequency receivers.
    27832783</p>
    27842784
     
    27902790<p>Logged time stamps refer to message reception time and allow understanding repetition rates. Enter 'ALL' if you want to log this information from all configured streams. Beware that the size of the logfile can rapidly increase depending on the number of incoming RTCM streams.
    27912791</p>
    2792 <p>This option is primarily meant for testing and evaluation. Use it to figure out what exactly is produced by a specific GNSS receiver's configuration. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to print the message type numbers and antenna information carried in RTCM streams.
     2792<p>This option is primarily meant for test and evaluation. Use it to figure out what exactly is produced by a specific GNSS receiver's configuration. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to print message type numbers and antenna information carried in RTCM streams.
    27932793</p>
    27942794
     
    27962796<p><h4>2.12.4 <a name="miscport">Port - optional</h4></p>
    27972797<p>
    2798 BNC can output streams related to the above specified 'Mountpoint' through a TCP/IP port of your local host. Enter a port number to activate this function. The stream content remains untouched. BNC does not decode or reformat the data.
     2798BNC can output streams related to the above specified 'Mountpoint' through a TCP/IP port of your local host. Enter a port number to activate this function. The stream content remains untouched. BNC does not decode or reformat the data for this output.
    27992799</p>
    28002800<p>
     
    28082808<p><h4>2.13 <a name="pppclient">PPP Client</h4></p>
    28092809<p>
    2810 BNC can derive coordinates for rover positions following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses code or code plus phase data from one or more GNSS systems in ionosphere-free linear combinations P3 or L3. Besides pulling streams of observations from dual frequency GNSS receiver, this also
     2810BNC can derive coordinates for rover positions following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses code or code plus phase data from one or more GNSS systems in ionosphere-free linear combinations P3, L3, or P3&L3. Besides pulling streams of observations from dual frequency GNSS receiver, this also
    28112811<ul>
    28122812<li>Requires pulling in addition a stream carrying satellite orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in the form of RTCM Version 3 'State Space Representation' (SSR) messages. Note that for BNC these Broadcast Corrections need to be referred to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u>. Stream 'CLK11' on Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' (Caissy et al. 2012) is an example.</li>
    28132813<li>May require pulling a stream carrying Broadcast Ephemeris available as RTCM Version 3 message types 1019, 1020, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046 and 63 (tentative). This becomes a must only when the stream coming from the receiver does not contain Broadcast Ephemeris or provides them only at very low repetition rate. Streams providing such messages are listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/ephemeris</u>. Stream 'RTCM3EPH' on caster 'products.igs-ip.net:2101' is an example.</li>
    28142814</ul>
    2815 Note that broadcast ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect or outdated ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
     2815Note that Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect or outdated ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' or 'OUTDATED EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
    28162816</p>
    28172817
     
    28202820<ul>
    28212821<li>BNC does correct for Solid Earth Tides and Phase Windup.</li>
    2822 <li>Satellite antenna phase center offsets are corrected.</li>
    2823 <li>Satellite antenna phase center variations are neglected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
    2824 <li>Observations can be corrected for a Receiver Antenna Offset. Depending on whether or not this correction is applied, the estimated position is either that of the receiver's antenna phase center or that of the receiver's Antenna Reference Point.</li>
    2825 <li>Receiver antenna phase center variations are not included in the model. The bias caused by this neglect depends on the receiver antenna type. For most antennas it is smaller than a few centimeters.</li>
     2822<li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center offsets are corrected.</li>
     2823<li>Satellite Antenna Phase Center variations are neglected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
     2824<li>Observations can be corrected for a Receiver Antenna Offset. Depending on whether or not this correction is applied, the estimated position is either that of the receiver's Antenna Phase Center or that of the receiver's Antenna Reference Point.</li>
     2825<li>Receiver Antenna Phase Center variations are not included in the model. The bias caused by this neglect depends on the receiver antenna type. For most antennas it is smaller than a few centimeters.</li>
    28262826<li>Ocean and atmospheric loading is neglected. Atmospheric loading is pretty small. Ocean loading is usually also a small effect but may reach up to about 10 centimeters for coastal stations.</li>
    28272827<li>Rotational deformation due to polar motion (Polar Tides) is not corrected because this is a small effect usually less than 2 centimeters.</li>
     
    28302830
    28312831<p>
    2832 The provider of an orbit/clock corrections stream may switch with his service at any time from a duty to a backup server installation. This shall be noted in the SSR stream through a change of the Issue Of Data (IOD SSR) parameter. The PPP option in BNC will immediately reset all ambiguities in such a situation.
     2832The provider of an orbit/clock correction stream may switch with his service at any time from a duty to a backup server installation. This shall be noted in the SSR stream through a change of the Issue Of Data (IOD SSR) parameter. The PPP option in BNC will immediately reset all ambiguities in such a situation.
    28332833</p>
    28342834
     
    28612861</p>
    28622862<p>
    2863 If you don't pull Broadcast Corrections BNC will switch with its solution to 'Single Point Positioning' (SPP) mode.
     2863If you don't pull Broadcast Corrections, BNC will switch with its solution to 'Single Point Positioning' (SPP) mode.
    28642864</p>
    28652865
    28662866<p>
    28672867<u>RINEX Files</u><br>
    2868 This input mode allows you to specify RINEX Observation, RINEX Navigation and Broadcast Correction files. BNC accepts RINEX Version 2 as well as RINEX Version 3 Observation or Navigation file formats. Files carrying Broadcast Corrections must have the format produced by BNC through the 'Broadcast Corrections' panel.
     2868This input mode allows to specify RINEX Observation, RINEX Navigation and Broadcast Correction files. BNC accepts RINEX Version 2 as well as RINEX Version 3 Observation or Navigation file formats. Files carrying Broadcast Corrections must have the format produced by BNC through the 'Broadcast Corrections' panel.
    28692869</p>
    28702870<p>
     
    29042904</p>
    29052905<p>
    2906 If you don't specify a 'Correction file' BNC will fall back from a PPP solution to a Single Point Positioning (SPP) solution.
     2906If you don't specify a 'Correction file', BNC will fall back from a PPP solution to a Single Point Positioning (SPP) solution.
    29072907</p>
    29082908
    29092909<p><h4>2.13.1.6 <a name="pppantexfile">ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
    29102910<p>
    2911 IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations in PPP for antenna phase center offsets and variations. Note that for applying such corrections you need to specify the receiver's antenna name and radome in BNC's 'Coordinates' file.
    2912 </p>
    2913 <p>
    2914 Default value for 'ANTEX file' is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want to correct observations for antenna phase center offsets and variations.
    2915 </p>
    2916 
    2917 <p><h4>2.13.1.7 <a name="pppmarkcoor">Coordinates - optional </h4></p>
    2918 <p>
    2919 Enter the full path to an ASCII file which specifies all streams or files from stationary or mobile receivers you potentially may want to process. Specifying a 'Coordinates' file is optional. If it exists, it should contain one record per stream or file with the following parameters separated by blank characters:
     2911IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations in PPP for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations. Note that for applying such corrections you need to specify the receiver's antenna name and radome in BNC's 'Coordinates file'.
     2912</p>
     2913<p>
     2914Default value for 'ANTEX file' is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want to correct observations for Antenna Phase Center offsets and variations.
     2915</p>
     2916
     2917<p><h4>2.13.1.7 <a name="pppmarkcoor">Coordinates File - optional </h4></p>
     2918<p>
     2919Enter the full path to an ASCII file which specifies all streams or files from stationary or mobile receivers you possibly may want to process. Specifying a 'Coordinates file' is optional. If it exists, it should contain one record per stream or file with the following parameters separated by blank characters:
    29202920</p>
    29212921<p>
     
    29272927<li>the first four characters of the RINEX observations file (when in post processing PPP mode).</li>
    29282928</ul>
    2929 Having this parameter first in each record is mandatory. BNC can carry out PPP solutions only for streams or files specified here.</li><br>
     2929Having at least this first parameter in each record is mandatory.</li><br>
    29302930<li>Only for static observations from a stationary receiver:<br>Approximate a priori XYZ coordinate [m] of the station's marker; specify '0.0 0.0 0.0' if unknown or when observations come from a mobile receiver.</li><br>
    29312931<li>Nort, East and Up component [m] of antenna eccentricity which is the difference between Antenna Reference Point (ARP) and a nearby marker position; when specifying the antenna eccentricity BNC will produce coordinates referring to the marker position and not referring to ARP; specify '0.0 0.0 0.0' if eccentricity is unknown or the ARP itself is understood as the marker.</li><br>
     
    29362936Leave antenna name blank if you don't want to correct observations for APC offsets and variations or if you don't know the antenna name.</li><br>
    29372937<li>
    2938 Receiver type following the naming conventions for IGS equipment as defined in <u>https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr_ant.tab</u>. Specifying the receiver type is only required when saving SINEX Troposphere files. In those files it becomes part of the 'SITE/RECEIVER' specifications, see section 'SNX TRO Directory'.
     2938Receiver type following the naming convention for IGS equipment as defined in <u>https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/station/general/rcvr_ant.tab</u>. Specifying the receiver type is only required when saving SINEX Troposphere files. In those files it becomes part of the 'SITE/RECEIVER' specifications, see section 'SNX TRO Directory'.
    29392939</li>
    29402940</ul>
     
    29442944</p>
    29452945<p>
    2946 The following is the content of an example 'Coordinates' file. Here each record describes the mountpoint of a stream available from the global IGS real-time reference station network. A priori coordinates are followed by North/East/Up eccentricity components of the ARP
     2946The following is the content of an example 'Coordinates file'. Here each record describes the mountpoint of a stream available from the global IGS real-time reference station network. A priori coordinates are followed by North/East/Up eccentricity components of the ARP
    29472947followed by the antenna name and radome in use.
    29482948</p>
     
    29832983</pre>
    29842984<p>
    2985 Note that the only mandatory parameters in this file are the 'Station' parameters in the first column, each standing for an observation stream's mountpoint or the 4-character station ID of a RINEX filename. The following shows further valid examples for records of a 'Coordinates' file.
     2985Note that the only mandatory parameters in this file are the 'Station' parameters in the first column, each standing for an observation stream's mountpoint or the 4-character station ID of a RINEX filename. The following shows further valid examples for records of a 'Coordinates file'.
    29862986</p>
    29872987
     
    30573057</p>
    30583058<p>
    3059 Each row reports the PPP result of one epoch. It begins with a UTC time stamp (yy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss) which tells us when the result was produced. A second time stamp (yyyy-mm-dd_hh:mm:ss) describes the PPP's epoch in 'GPS Time'. It is followed by the derived XYZ position in [m], its North, East and Up displacement compared to an introduced a priori coordinate and the estimated tropospheric delay [m] (model plus correction).
     3059Each row reports the PPP result of one epoch. It begins with a UTC time stamp (yy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss) which tells us when the result was produced. A second time stamp (yyyy-mm-dd_hh:mm:ss) describes the PPP's epoch in 'GPS Time'. It is followed by the derived XYZ position in [m], its North, East and Up displacement compared to an introduced a priori coordinate, and the estimated tropospheric delay [m] (model plus correction).
    30603060</p>
    30613061<p>
     
    31553155 Depending on selected processing options you find 'GPS Time' stampes (yyyy-mm-dd_hh:mm:ss.sss) followed by
    31563156<ul>
    3157 <li>RES   : Code and phase residuals for contributing GNSS systems in [m]<br>Given per satellite with cIF/lIF for ionosphere-free linear combination of code/phase observations</li>
    3158 <li>CLK   : Receiver clock errors in [m], </li>
    3159 <li>AMB   : L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities'<br>Given per satellite with 'nEpo' = number of epochs since last ambiguity reset
     3157<li>RES: Code and phase residuals for contributing GNSS systems in [m]<br>Given per satellite with cIF/lIF for ionosphere-free linear combination of code/phase observations,</li>
     3158<li>CLK: Receiver clock errors in [m], </li>
     3159<li>AMB: L3 biases, also known as 'floated ambiguities'<br>Given per satellite with 'nEpo' = number of epochs since last ambiguity reset,
    31603160<li>OFFGLO: Time offset between GPS time and GLONASS time in [m],
    31613161<li>OFFGAL: Time offset between GPS time and Galileo time in [m],
    31623162<li>OFFBDS: Time offset between GPS time and BDS time in [m],
    3163 <li>TRP   : A priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
     3163<li>TRP: A priori and correction values of tropospheric zenith delay in [m],
    31643164<li>MOUNTPOINT: Here 'CUT07' with X/Y/Z position in [m] and dN/dE/dU in [m] for North, East, and Up displacements compared to a priori marker coordinates.</li>
    31653165</ul>
     
    32043204</pre>
    32053205<p>
    3206 The default value for 'NMEA directory' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save NMEA messages into files. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create NMEA files.
     3206The default value for 'NMEA directory' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC will not save NMEA sentences into files. If a specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create NMEA files.
    32073207</p>
    32083208
     
    32213221
    32223222<p>
    3223 You can specify a 'SNX TRO Directory' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk, see <u>https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt</u> for a documentation of the file format. Note that receiver type information for these files must be provided through the coordinates file described in section 'Coordinates'. The following is an example for a troposphere file content:
     3223You can specify a 'SNX TRO Directory' for saving SINEX Troposphere files on disk, see <u>https://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/sinex_tropo.txt</u> for a documentation of the file format. Note that receiver type information for these files must be provided through the coordinates file described in section 'Coordinates file'. The following is an example for a troposphere file content:
    32243224</p>
    32253225
     
    33143314</p>
    33153315<p>
    3316 BNC offers to create a table with one line per PPP process or thread to specify station-specific parameters. Hit the 'Add Station' button to create a table or add a new line to it. To remove a line from the table, highlight it by clicking it and hit the 'Delete Station' button. You can also remove multiple lines simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift and +Ctrl.</p>
     3316BNC offers to create a table with one line per PPP process or thread to specify station-specific parameters. Hit the 'Add Station' button to create the table or add a new line to it. To remove a line from the table, highlight it by clicking it and hit the 'Delete Station' button. You can also remove multiple lines simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift or +Ctrl.</p>
    33173317</p>
    33183318<p>
     
    33303330<p><h4>2.13.2.2 <a name="pppnehsigma">Sigma North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
    33313331<p>
    3332 Enter a sigmas in meters for the initial coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (i.e. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with a well-known position - so-called Quick-Start mode.
     3332Enter a sigmas in meters for the initial coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (e.g. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with a well-known position in so-called Quick-Start mode.
    33333333</p>
    33343334
     
    33493349
    33503350<p><h4>2.13.2.6 <a name="pppnmeaport">NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
    3351 Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA messages. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA messages via IP port. Note that the NMEA file output and the NMEA IP port output are the same.
    3352 </p>
    3353 <p>
    3354 Note that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from <u>http://www.rtklib.com</u> and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
     3351Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA sentences. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA sentences via IP port. Note that NMEA file output and NMEA IP port output are the same.
     3352</p>
     3353<p>
     3354Note also that Tomoji Takasu has written a program named RTKPLOT for visualizing NMEA sentences from IP ports or files. It is available from <u>http://www.rtklib.com</u> and compatible with the NMEA file and port output of BNC's 'PPP' client option.
    33553355</p>
    33563356<p>
     
    33593359
    33603360<p><h4>2.13.3 <a name="pppOptions">PPP (3): Processing Options</h4></p>
    3361 <p>BNC allows using various Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. It also allows introducing specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for a priori coordinates and troposphere estimates. You may also like to carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold.
     3361<p>BNC allows using various Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. You can introduce specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for a priori coordinates and troposphere estimates. You could also carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold.
    33623362</p>
    33633363<p>
     
    34313431<p><h4>2.13.3.5 <a name="pppminobs">Minimum Number of Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    34323432<p>
    3433 Select the minimum number of observations you want to use per epoch. The minimum for parameter 'Min # of Obs' is '4'. This is also the default.
     3433Select the minimum number of observations you want to use per epoch. The minimum for parameter 'Min # of Obs' is 4. This is also the default.
    34343434</p>
    34353435
     
    34393439</p>
    34403440<p>
    3441 Default is '0 deg' meaning that any observation will be used regardless of the involved satellite elevation angle.
     3441Default is '0 deg', meaning that any observation will be used regardless of the involved satellite elevation angle.
    34423442</p>
    34433443
    34443444<p><h4>2.13.3.7 <a name="pppwaitclockcorr">Wait for Clock Corrections - optional</h4></p>
    34453445<p>
    3446 Zero value (or 'no') for 'Wait for clock corr.' means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after its arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. Non-zero value means that epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed till satellite clock corrections not older than 'Wait for clock corr.' are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections (i.e. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate.
     3446Specifying 'no for 'Wait for clock corr.' means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after its arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. A non-zero value means that epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed till satellite clock corrections not older than 'Wait for clock corr.' seconds are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections (e.g. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate.
    34473447</p>
    34483448<p>
     
    34533453</p>
    34543454
    3455 <p><h4>2.13.3.8 <a name="pppseeding">Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates'</h4></p>
    3456 <p>
    3457 Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to an known position, see option 'Coordinates'. Constraining a priori coordinates is done in BNC through setting their white 'Noise' temporarily to zero.
     3455<p><h4>2.13.3.8 <a name="pppseeding">Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates file'</h4></p>
     3456<p>
     3457Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to an known position, see option 'Coordinates file'. Constraining a priori coordinates is done in BNC through setting their white 'Noise' temporarily to zero.
    34583458</p>
    34593459<p>
    34603460This so-called Quick-Start option allows the PPP solutions to rapidly converge after startup. It requires that the antenna remains unmoved on the known position throughout the defined period. A value of '60' seconds is likely to be an appropriate choice for 'Seeding'. Default is an empty option field, meaning that you don't want BNC to start in Quick-Start mode.
    34613461<p>
    3462 You may need to create your own reference coordinate beforehand through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the 'Seeding' option. Don't forget to introduce realistic North/East/Up sigmas under panel 'PPP (2)' according to the coordinate's precision.
    3463 </p>
    3464 
    3465 <p>
    3466 'Seeding' has also a function for bridging gaps in PPP solutions from failures caused i.e. by longer lasting outages. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed the limit of 60 seconds (maximum solution gap, hard-wired), the algorithm fixes the latest derived coordinate for a period of 'Seeding' seconds. This option avoids time-consuming reconvergences and makes especially sense for stationary operated receivers where convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the receiver position is known. 
     3462You may need to create your own reference coordinate beforehand through running BNC for an hour in normal mode before applying the 'Seeding' option. Don't forget to introduce realistic North/East/Up sigmas under panel 'PPP (2)' corresponding to the coordinate's precision.
     3463</p>
     3464
     3465<p>
     3466'Seeding' has also a function for bridging gaps in PPP solutions from failures caused e.g. by longer lasting outages. Should the time span between two consecutive solutions exceed the limit of 60 seconds (maximum solution gap, hard-wired), the algorithm fixes the latest derived coordinate for a period of 'Seeding' seconds. This option avoids time-consuming reconvergences and makes especially sense for stationary operated receivers where convergence can be enforced because a good approximation for the receiver position is known. 
    34673467</p>
    34683468
     
    34843484</p>
    34853485<p>
    3486 Note that a PPP time series makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver.
     3486Note that a PPP dicplacements time series makes only sense for a stationary operated receiver.
    34873487</p>
    34883488
     
    35003500</p>
    35013501<p>
    3502 When in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode you should not forget to go online with your host and specify a proxy under the 'Network' panel if that is operated in front of BNC.
     3502Even when in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode, you should not forget to go online with your host and specify a proxy under the 'Network' panel if that is operated in front of BNC.
    35033503</p>
    35043504<p>
     
    35343534<p><h4>2.13.4.5 <a name="pppspeed">Post Processing Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    35353535<p>
    3536 With BNC in 'RINEX File' post processing mode for PPP you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations.
     3536With BNC in PPP 'RINEX File' post processing mode, you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations.
    35373537</p>
    35383538
    35393539<p><h4>2.14 <a name="combi">Combine Corrections</h4></p>
    35403540<p>
    3541 BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as the product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference has the possibility to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach.
    3542 </p>
    3543 <p>
    3544 In the Kalman Filter approach satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters with appropriate white noise.
     3541BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as the product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference imposes the akward potential to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach.
     3542</p>
     3543<p>
     3544In the Kalman Filter approach, satellite clocks estimated by individual Analyses Centers (ACs) are used as pseudo observations within the adjustment process. Each observation is modeled as a linear function (actually a simple sum) of three estimated parameters: AC specific offset, satellite specific offset common to all ACs, and the actual satellite clock correction which represents the result of the combination. These three parameter types differ in their statistical properties. The satellite clock offsets are assumed to be static parameters while AC specific and satellite specific offsets are stochastic parameters with appropriate white noise.
    35453545 The solution is regularized by a set of minimal constraints. After a change of one of the three values 'SSR Provider ID', 'SSR Solution ID', or 'IOD SSR', the satellite clock offsets belonging to the corresponding analysis center are reset in the adjustment.
    35463546</p>
     
    35933593Note that BNC can produce an internal PPP solution from combined Broadcast Corrections. For that you have to specify the keyword 'INTERNAL' as 'Corrections' mountpoint in the PPP (1) panel.
    35943594</p>
    3595 <p>
    3596 The part of BNC which enables the combination of Broadcast Corrections is not intended for publication under GNU General Public License (GPL). However, pre-compiled BNC binaries which support the 'Combine Corrections' option are made available.
    3597 </p>
    35983595
    35993596<p><h4>2.14.1 <a name="combimounttab">Combine Corrections Table - optional</h4></p>
     
    36043601The sequence of entries in the 'Combine Corrections' table is not of importance. Note that the orbit information in the final combination stream is just copied from one of the incoming streams. The stream used for providing the orbits may vary over time: if the orbit providing stream has an outage then BNC switches to the next remaining stream for getting hold of the orbit information.</p>
    36053602<p>
    3606 It is possible to specify only one Broadcast Ephemeris corrections stream in the 'Combine Corrections' table. Instead of combining corrections from several sources, BNC will then merge the single corrections stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in SP3 and/or Clock RINEX format when specified accordingly under the 'Upload Corrections' panel. Note that in such a BNC application you must not pull more than one Broadcast Ephemeris corrections stream even if a second stream would provide the same corrections from a backup caster.
     3603It is possible to specify only one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream in the 'Combine Corrections' table. Instead of combining corrections from several sources, BNC will then merge the single corrections stream with Broadcast Ephemeris to save results in SP3 and/or Clock RINEX format when specified accordingly under the 'Upload Corrections' panel. Note that in such a BNC application you must not pull more than one Broadcast Ephemeris correction stream even if a second stream would provide the same corrections from a backup caster.
    36073604</p>
    36083605<p>
     
    36383635<p>BNC combines all incoming clocks according to specified weights. Individual clock estimates that differ by more than 'Maximal Residuum' meters from the average of all clocks will be ignored.<p>
    36393636</p>It is suggested to specify a value of about 0.2 m for the Kalman Filter combination approach and a value of about 3.0 meters for the Single-Epoch combination approach.</p>
    3640 <p>Default is a 'Maximal Residuum' of 999.0 meters</p>
     3637<p>Default is a 'Maximal Residuum' of 999.0 meters.</p>
    36413638
    36423639<p><h4>2.14.1.4 <a name="combismpl">Sampling - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     
    36813678<p>
    36823679<u>'RTNET' Stream Format</u><br>
    3683 When uploading an SSR stream generated according to b. then BNC requires precise GNSS orbits and clocks in the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system and in a specific ASCII format named 'RTNET' because the data may come from a real-time engine such as RTNET. The sampling interval for data transmission should not exceed 15 sec. Note that otherwise tools involved in IP streaming such as Ntrip Broadcasters or Ntrip Clients may respond with a timeout.
     3680When uploading an SSR stream generated according to (b) then BNC requires precise GNSS orbits and clocks in the IGS Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed (ECEF) reference system and in a specific ASCII format named 'RTNET' because the data may come from a real-time engine such as RTNET. The sampling interval for data transmission should not exceed 15 sec. Note that otherwise tools involved in IP streaming such as Ntrip Broadcasters or Ntrip Clients may respond with a timeout.
    36843681</p>
    36853682<p>
     
    36943691A set of parameters can be defined for each satellite as follows:
    36953692<pre>
    3696 &lt;SatelliteID&gt; &lt;key&gt; &lt;numValues&gt; &lt;value1 value2 ...&gt; &lt;key&gt; &lt;numValues&gt;
    3697 &lt;value1 value2 ...&gt; ...
    3698 &nbsp;
    3699 </pre>
    3700 The following satellite specific keys and values are currently specified in BNC:<br><br>
     3693&lt;SatelliteID&gt; &lt;key&gt; &lt;numValues&gt; &lt;value1 value2 ...&gt;
     3694              &lt;key&gt; &lt;numValues&gt; &lt;value1 value2 ...&gt; ... &nbsp;
     3695</pre>
     3696The following satellite specific keys and values are currently specified for that in BNC:<br><br>
    37013697<table>
    37023698<tr><td><i>Key&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</i></td><td><i>Values</i></td></tr>
     
    37313727</table>
    37323728<br>
    3733 If the key VTEC is specified, a data set for each layer contains within its first line the Layers Number, followed by Maximum Degree, Maximum Order and Layer Height. After that follow Cosine and Sinus Spherical Harmonic Coefficients, one block each.
     3729If key VTEC is specified, a data set for each layer contains within its first line the Layers Number, followed by Maximum Degree, Maximum Order and Layer Height. After that, Cosine and Sinus Spherical Harmonic Coefficients will follow, one block each.
    37343730</p>
    37353731<p>
     
    37783774</p>
    37793775<p>
    3780 BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify here the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a four character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
     3776BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a 4-character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
    37813777<p>The stream upload may be protected through an upload 'Password'. Enter the password you received from the Ntrip Broadcaster operator along with the mountpoint(s).</p>
    37823778<p>
     
    37943790<li>GDA94 which stands for the Geodetic Datum Australia 1994 as adopted for Australia, and</li>
    37953791<li>SIRGAS2000 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Brazil, and</li>
    3796 <li>SIRGAS95 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted i.e. for Venezuela, and</li>
     3792<li>SIRGAS95 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted e.g. for Venezuela, and</li>
    37973793<li>DREF91 which stands for the Geodetic Datum adopted for Germany, and</li>
    37983794<li>'Custom' which allows a transformation of Broadcast Corrections from the IGS08 system to any other system through specifying up to 14 Helmert Transformation Parameters.</li>
     
    38103806</p>
    38113807<p>
    3812 From a theoretical point of view, this kind of approximation leads to inconsistencies between orbits and clocks and is therefore not allowed. However, it has been proved that resulting errors in Precise Point Positioning are on millimeter level for horizontal components and below the one centimeter for height components. The Australian GDA94 transformation with its comparatively large scale parameter is an exception in this as discrepancies may reach up to two centimeters there.
     3808From a theoretical point of view, this kind of approximation leads to inconsistencies between orbits and clocks and is therefore not allowed. However, it has been proved that resulting errors in Precise Point Positioning are on millimeter level for horizontal components and below one centimeter for height components. The Australian GDA94 transformation with its comparatively large scale parameter is an exception in this as discrepancies may reach up there to two centimeters.
    38133809</p>
    38143810
     
    39643960<p><h4>2.15.4 <a name="upcom">Center of Mass - optional</h4></p>
    39653961<p>
    3966 BNC allows to either refer Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM.
     3962BNC allows to either refer Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default, corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM.
    39673963</p>
    39683964
     
    39793975</p>
    39803976<p>
    3981 As a SP3 file content should be referred to the satellites Center of Mass (CoM) while Broadcast Corrections are referred to the satellites APC, an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see option 'ANTEX File' below). Hence you should specify the 'ANTEX File' path there if you want to save the stream content in SP3 format. If you don't specify an 'ANTEX File' path, the SP3 file content will be referred to the satellites APCs.
     3977As a SP3 file content should be referred to the satellites' Center of Mass (CoM) while Broadcast Corrections are referred to the satellites' APC, an offset has to be applied which is available from an IGS ANTEX file (see option 'ANTEX File' below). Hence you should specify the 'ANTEX File' path there if you want to save the stream content in SP3 format. If you don't specify an 'ANTEX File' path, the SP3 file content will be referred to the satellites APCs.
    39823978</p>
    39833979<p>
     
    39893985
    39903986<p>
    3991 Note that BNC outputs a complete list of SP3 'Epoch Header Records' even if no 'Position and Clock Records' are available for certain epochs because of stream outages. Note further that the 'Number of Epochs' in the first SP3 header record may not be correct because that number is not available when the file is created. Depending on your processing software (e.g. Bernese GNSS Software, BSW) it could therefore be necessary to correct an incorrect 'Number of Epochs' in the file before you use it in post processing.
     3987Note that BNC outputs a complete list of SP3 'Epoch Header Records', even if no 'Position and Clock Records' are available for certain epochs because of stream outages. Note further that the 'Number of Epochs' in the first SP3 header record may not be correct because that number is not available when the file is created. Depending on your processing software (e.g. Bernese GNSS Software, BSW) it could therefore be necessary to correct an incorrect 'Number of Epochs' in the file before you use it in post processing.
    39923988</p>
    39933989
     
    40564052
    40574053<p>
    4058 The following screenshot shows the encoding and uploading of a stream of precise orbits and clocks coming from a real-time engine in 'RTNET' ASCII format. The stream is uploaded to Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net'. It is referred to APC and IGS08. Uploaded data are locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. The SSR Provider ID is set to 3. The SSR Solution ID is and the Issue of Data SSR are set to 1. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'.
     4054The following screenshot shows the encoding and uploading of a stream of precise orbits and clocks coming from a real-time engine in 'RTNET' ASCII format. The stream is uploaded to Ntrip Broadcaster 'products.igs-ip.net'. It is referred to APC and IGS08. Uploaded data are locally saved in SP3 and Clock RINEX format. The SSR Provider ID is set to 3. The SSR Solution ID and the Issue of Data SSR are set to 1. Required Broadcast Ephemeris are received via stream 'RTCM3EPH'.
    40594055</p>
    40604056<p><img src="IMG/screenshot26.png"/></p>
     
    40724068
    40734069<p>
    4074 Note that broadcast ephemeris received in real-time have a system specific period of validity in BNC which is defined in accordance with the update rates of the navigation messages.
     4070Note that Broadcast Ephemeris received in real-time have a system specific period of validity in BNC which is defined in accordance with the update rates of the navigation messages.
    40754071<ul>
    40764072<li>GPS ephemeris will be interpreted as outdated and ignored when older than 4 hours.</li>
     
    40844080</p>
    40854081<p>
    4086 Furthermore, received broadcast ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
     4082Furthermore, received Broadcast Ephemeris parameters pass through a plausibility check in BNC which allows to ignore incorrect ephemeris data when necessary, leaving a note 'WRONG EPHEMERIS' in the logfile.
    40874083</p>
    40884084
     
    40974093<p><h4>2.16.2 <a name="brdcmount">Mountpoint &amp; Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    40984094<p>
    4099 BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a four character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
     4095BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring it to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a 4-character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
    41004096<p>The stream upload follows Ntrip Version 1 and may be protected through an upload 'Password'. Enter the password you received from the Ntrip Broadcaster operator along with the mountpoint.</p>
    41014097</p>
    41024098
    41034099<p><h4>2.16.3 <a name="brdcsmpl">Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    4104 Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5' meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds.
     4100Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5', meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds.
    41054101</p>
    41064102
     
    41324128<ul>
    41334129<li>
    4134 BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. The accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x' and 'RTNET'.
     4130BNC automatically allocates one of its internal decoders to a stream based on the stream's 'format' and 'format-details' as given in the source-table. However, there might be cases where you need to override the automatic selection due to incorrect source-table for example. BNC allows users to manually select the required decoder by editing the decoder string. Double click on the 'decoder' field, enter your preferred decoder and then hit Enter. Accepted decoder strings are 'RTCM_2.x', 'RTCM_3.x' and 'RTNET'.
    41354131</li>
    41364132<li>
     
    41384134</li>
    41394135<li>
    4140 BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the Ntrip Broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by Network-RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the Ntrip Broadcaster via NMEA-GGA messages.
    4141 <br>If NMEA-GGA messages are not coming from a serial connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in most cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position must preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.
     4136BNC can also retrieve streams from virtual reference stations (VRS). To initiate these streams, an approximate rover position needs to be sent in NMEA format to the Ntrip Broadcaster. In return, a user-specific data stream is generated, typically by Network RTK software. VRS streams are indicated by a 'yes' in the source-table as well as in the 'nmea' column on the 'Streams' canvas in BNC's main window. They are customized exactly to the latitude and longitude transmitted to the Ntrip Broadcaster via NMEA GGA sentences.
     4137<br>If NMEA GGA sentences are not coming from a serial connected GNSS rover, BNC simulates them from the default latitude and longitude of the source-table as shown in the 'lat' and 'long' columns on the 'Streams' canvas. However, in many cases you would probably want to change these defaults according to your requirement. Double-click on 'lat' and 'long' fields, enter the values you wish to send and then hit Enter. The format is in positive north latitude degrees (e.g. for northern hemisphere: 52.436, for southern hemisphere: -24.567) and eastern longitude degrees (example: 358.872 or -1.128). Only streams with a 'yes' in their 'nmea' column can be edited. The position must preferably be a point within the VRS service area of the network. RINEX files generated from these streams will contain an additional COMMENT line in the header beginning with 'NMEA' showing the 'lat' and 'long' used.
    41424138<br>Note that when running BNC in a Local Area Network (LAN), NMEA strings may be blocked by a proxy server, firewall or virus scanner when not using the Ntrip Version 2 transport protocol.
    41434139</li>
     
    41464142<p><h4>2.17.2 <a name="streamdelete">Delete Stream</h4></p>
    41474143<p>
    4148 To remove a stream from the 'Streams' canvas in the main window, highlight it by clicking on it and hit the 'Delete Stream' button. You can also remove multiple streams simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift and +Ctrl.</p>
     4144To remove a stream from the 'Streams' canvas in the main window, highlight it by clicking on it and hit the 'Delete Stream' button. You can also remove multiple streams simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift or +Ctrl.</p>
    41494145
    41504146<p><h4>2.17.3 <a name="streamconf">Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</h4></p>
     
    41604156<p><h4>2.18 <a name="logs">Logging Canvas</h4></p>
    41614157<p>
    4162 The 'Logging Canvas' above the bottom menu bar on the main window labeled 'Log', 'Throughput', 'Lacenty', and 'PPP Plot' provides control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available for continuously showing logfile content, for a plot controlling the bandwidth consumption, for a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
     4158The 'Logging Canvas' above the bottom menu bar on the main window labeled 'Log', 'Throughput', 'Lacenty', and 'PPP Plot' provides control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available for continuously showing logfile content, a plot controlling the bandwidth consumption, for a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
    41634159</p>
    41644160<p><h4>2.18.1 <a name="logfile">Log</h4></p>
     
    41774173<p><h4>2.18.3 <a name="latency">Latency</h4></p>
    41784174<p>
    4179 The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (i.e. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. The next figure shows an example for the latency of incoming streams.
     4175The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (e.g. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. The next figure shows an example for the latency of incoming streams.
    41804176</p>
    41814177
     
    41854181<p><h4>2.18.4 <a name="ppptab">PPP Plot</h4></p>
    41864182<p>
    4187 Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Origin' option is defined. Values are either referred to reference coordinates (if specified) or referred to the first estimated set of coordinate components. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more till the first PPP solutions becomes available. The following figure shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate components.
     4183Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Mountpoint' option is defined under PPP (4). Values are either referred to reference coordinates (if specified) or referred to the first estimated set of coordinate components. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more till the first PPP solutions becomes available. The following figure shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate displacements.
    41884184</p>
    41894185
     
    41934189<p><h4>2.19 <a name="bottom">Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
    41944190<p>
    4195 The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows user to select one of several input communication links, see figure below.
     4191The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows users to select one of several input communication links, see figure below.
    41964192</p>
    41974193
     
    42074203
    42084204<p>
    4209 Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Caster' then opens a window that allows user to select data streams from an Ntrip Broadcaster according to their mountpoints and show a distribution map of offered streams.
     4205Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Caster' opens a window that allows users to select data streams from an Ntrip Broadcaster according to their mountpoints and show a distribution map of offered streams.
    42104206</p>
    42114207
     
    42374233</p>
    42384234<p>
    4239 Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process again to retrieve streams from different casters.
     4235Hit 'OK' to return to the main window. If you wish you can click on 'Add Stream' and repeat the process to retrieve streams from different casters.
    42404236</p>
    42414237<p><img src="IMG/screenshot05.png"/></p>
     
    43484344
    43494345<p>
    4350 The following figure shows a BNC example setup for pulling a stream via serial port on a Linux operating system.
     4346The following figure shows a BNC example setup for pulling a stream via serial port on a Windows operating system.
    43514347</p>
    43524348<p><img src="IMG/screenshot15.png"/></p>
     
    43654361<p><h4>2.19.4 <a name="start">Start</h4></p>
    43664362<p>
    4367 Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless the option 'Append files' is ticked.
     4363Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless option 'Append files' is ticked.
    43684364</p>
    43694365
     
    44214417<p>
    44224418It is obvious that BNC requires graphics support when started in interactive
    4423 mode. But, note that it also requires graphics support when producing plots in
     4419mode. But, note that graphics support is also required when producing plots in
    44244420batch mode (option -nw). Windows and Mac OS X systems always support graphics. For
    44254421producing plots in batch mode on Linux systems you must make sure that at
     
    44634459
    44644460<p><h4>2.20.5 <a name="conffile">Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
    4465 The default configuration filename is 'BNC.bnc'. You may change this name at startup time using the command line option '--conf &lt;<u>confFileName</u>&gt;'. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. <u>confFileName</u> stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a filename. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started.
     4461The default configuration filename is 'BNC.bnc'. You may change this name at startup time using command line option '--conf &lt;<u>confFileName</u>&gt;'. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. <u>confFileName</u> stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a filename. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started.
    44664462</p>
    44674463<p>
     
    44814477</p>
    44824478<p>
    4483 Parameter &lt;keyName&gt; stands for the name of an option contained in the configuration file and &lt;keyValue&gt; stands for the value you want to assign to it. The following is a syntax example for a complete command line:
     4479Parameter &lt;keyName&gt; stands for the key name of an option contained in the configuration file and &lt;keyValue&gt; stands for the value you want to assign to it. The following is a syntax example for a complete command line:
    44844480</p>
    44854481<p>
     
    45414537<tr>
    45424538<td>Nov 2009 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 1.7 &nbsp;</td>
    4543 <td>[Bug] RINEX Navigation file format<br> [Add] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.5.2<br> [Add] Support of Ntrip v2<br> [Add] Rover support via serial port<br> [Add] Show broadcaster table from www.rtcm-ntrip.org<br> [Add] Enable/disable panel widgets<br> [Add] User defined configuration filename<br> [Mod] Switch to configuration files in ini-Format<br> [Add] Daily logfile rotation<br> [Add] Read from TCP/IP port, by-pass Ntrip transport protocol<br> [Add] Save NMEA messages coming from rover<br> [Add] Auto start<br> [Add] Drag and drop ini files<br> [Add] Read from serial port, by-pass Ntrip transport protocol<br> [Mod] Update of SSR messages following RTCM 091-2009-SC104-542<br> [Add] Read from UPD port, by-pass Ntrip transport protocol<br> [Mod] Output format of Broadcast Corrections<br> [Add] Throughput plot<br> [Add] Latency plot</td>
     4539<td>[Bug] RINEX Navigation file format<br> [Add] Upgrade to Qt Version 4.5.2<br> [Add] Support of Ntrip v2<br> [Add] Rover support via serial port<br> [Add] Show broadcaster table from www.rtcm-ntrip.org<br> [Add] Enable/disable panel widgets<br> [Add] User defined configuration filename<br> [Mod] Switch to configuration files in ini-Format<br> [Add] Daily logfile rotation<br> [Add] Read from TCP/IP port, by-pass Ntrip transport protocol<br> [Add] Save NMEA sentences coming from rover<br> [Add] Auto start<br> [Add] Drag and drop ini files<br> [Add] Read from serial port, by-pass Ntrip transport protocol<br> [Mod] Update of SSR messages following RTCM 091-2009-SC104-542<br> [Add] Read from UPD port, by-pass Ntrip transport protocol<br> [Mod] Output format of Broadcast Corrections<br> [Add] Throughput plot<br> [Add] Latency plot</td>
    45444540</tr>
    45454541
     
    45764572<tr>
    45774573<td>Feb 2011 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.5 &nbsp;</td>
    4578 <td>[Add] PPP option for sync of clock observations and corrections<br> [Add] Drafted RTCM v3 Galileo ephemeris messages 1045<br> [Add] Drafted RTCM v3 Multiple Signal Messages<br> [Add] Optional specification of sigmas for coordinates and troposphere in PPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo in SPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via IP port<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via RINEX v3 files<br> [Mod] Interface format for feeding a real-time engine with observations<br> [Add] Correct observations for antenna phase center offsets<br> [Add] Combine orbit/clock correction streams<br> [Add] Specify corrections mountpoint in PPP panel</td>
     4574<td>[Add] PPP option for sync of clock observations and corrections<br> [Add] Drafted RTCM v3 Galileo ephemeris messages 1045<br> [Add] Drafted RTCM v3 Multiple Signal Messages<br> [Add] Optional specification of sigmas for coordinates and troposphere in PPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo in SPP<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via IP port<br> [Add] Include Galileo observations in output via RINEX v3 files<br> [Mod] Interface format for feeding a real-time engine with observations<br> [Add] Correct observations for Antenna Phase Center offsets<br> [Add] Combine orbit/clock correction streams<br> [Add] Specify corrections mountpoint in PPP panel</td>
    45794575</tr>
    45804576
     
    46114607<tr>
    46124608<td>Sep 2014 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.11 &nbsp;</td>
    4613 <td>[Add] Started work on new version in Dec 2013<br>[Mod] SIRGAS transformation parameters adjusted<br>[Mod] Antex file updated<br>[Mod] RTCM SSR messages updated<br>[Bug] GLONASS code biases<br>[Mod] Maximum number of GNSS observations increased<br>[Mod] Loss of lock handling changed<br>[Add] Raw stream output through TCP/IP port<br>[Add] Version 2.11.0 published</td>
     4609<td>[Add] Started work on new version in Dec 2013<br>[Mod] SIRGAS transformation parameters adjusted<br>[Mod] ANTEX file updated<br>[Mod] RTCM SSR messages updated<br>[Bug] GLONASS code biases<br>[Mod] Maximum number of GNSS observations increased<br>[Mod] Loss of lock handling changed<br>[Add] Raw stream output through TCP/IP port<br>[Add] Version 2.11.0 published</td>
    46144610</tr>
    46154611
    46164612<tr>
    4617 <td>Sep 2014 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.12 &nbsp;</td><td>
     4613<td>Jan 2016 &nbsp;</td><td>Version 2.12 &nbsp;</td><td>
    46184614[Add] Started work on new version in Sep 2014<br>
    46194615[Mod] RINEX file concatenation<br>
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