Changeset 7555 in ntrip


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Timestamp:
Oct 27, 2015, 3:52:30 PM (7 years ago)
Author:
weber
Message:

Documentation completed

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  • trunk/BNC/src/bnchelp.html

    r7554 r7555  
    1010</p>
    1111
    12 <p><b>Contents</b><br><br>
     12<p><b>Table of <a name="contents">Contents</b><br><br>
    1313<b>1.</b> <a href=#genInstruction><b>General Instructions</b></a><br><br>
    1414&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.1 <a href=#introPurpose>Purpose</a><br>
     
    348348</p>
    349349
    350 <p><h3>1.1 <a name="introPurpose">Purpose</h3></p>
     350<p><h4>1.1 <a name="introPurpose">Purpose</h4></p>
    351351
    352352<p> The purpose of BNC is to
     
    402402</p>
    403403
    404 <p><h3>1.2 <a name="introSystem">Supported Systems</h3></p>
     404<p><h4>1.2 <a name="introSystem">Supported Systems</h4></p>
    405405<p>
    406406BNC is permanently completed to finally support all existing GNSS systems throughout all features of the program. The table below shows in detail which GNSS systems are so far supported by particular applications when using the latest BNC version. Application areas named here are:
     
    496496<br>
    497497
    498 <p><h3>1.3 <a name="introFlow">Data Flow</h3></p>
     498<p><h4>1.3 <a name="introFlow">Data Flow</h4></p>
    499499
    500500<p>
     
    522522<p><u>Figure 4:</u> Flowchart, BNC combining Broadcast Correction streams.</p>
    523523
    524 <p><h3>1.4 <a name="introHandling">Handling</h3></p>
     524<p><h4>1.4 <a name="introHandling">Handling</h4></p>
    525525<p>
    526526Although BNC is mainly a real-time tool to be operated online, it can be run offline
     
    561561</p>
    562562
    563 <p><h3>1.5 <a name="introConf">Configuration</h3></p>
     563<p><h4>1.5 <a name="introConf">Configuration</h4></p>
    564564<p>
    565565The following sections present information on how the BNC configuration works and provide configuration examples which can be adjusted according to specific user needs.
     
    851851</p>
    852852
    853 <p><h3>1.6 <a name="introLimit">Limitations</h3></p>
     853<p><h4>1.6 <a name="introLimit">Limitations</h4></p>
    854854<ul>
    855855<li>
     
    877877</ul>
    878878
    879 <p><a name="optsettings"><h3>2. Settings Details</h3></p>
     879<p><h3>2. <a name="optsettings">Settings Details</h3></p>
    880880<p>
    881881The following chapters describes how to set BNC program options. They explain the 'Top Menu Bar', the 'Settings Canvas' with the processing options, the contents of the 'Streams Canvas' and 'Logging Canvas', and the 'Bottom Menu Bar'.
     
    883883<p>
    884884
    885 <p><a name="topmenu"><h4>2.1. Top Menu Bar</h4></p>
     885<p><h4>2.1 <a name="topmenu">Top Menu Bar</h4></p>
    886886<p>
    887887The top menu bar allows selecting a font for the BNC windows, save configured options, or quit the program execution. It also provides access to the program's documentation.
    888888</p>
    889889
    890 <p><a name="file"><h4>2.1.1 File</h4></p>
     890<p><h4>2.1.1 <a name="file">File</h4></p>
    891891
    892892<p>
     
    904904</p>
    905905
    906 <p><a name="help"><h4>2.1.2 Help</h4></p>
     906<p><h4>2.1.2 <a name="help">Help</h4></p>
    907907
    908908<p>
     
    923923</p>
    924924
    925 <p><a name="network"><h4>2.2. Network</h4></p>
     925<p><h4>2.2 <a name="network">Network</h4></p>
    926926<p>
    927927You may need to specify a proxy when running BNC in a protected network. You may also like to use the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols for secure Ntrip communication over the Internet.
    928928</p>
    929 <p><a name="proxy"><h4>2.2.1 Proxy - Usage in a protected LAN</h4></p>
     929<p><h4>2.2.1 <a name="proxy">Proxy - Usage in a protected LAN</h4></p>
    930930<p>
    931931If you are running BNC within a protected Local Area Network (LAN), you might need to use a proxy server to access the Internet. Enter your proxy server IP and port number in case one is operated in front of BNC. If you don't know the IP and port of your proxy server, check the proxy server settings in your Internet browser or ask your network administrator.</p>
     
    934934</p>
    935935
    936 <p><a name="ssl"><h4>2.2.2 SSL - Transport Layer Security</h4></p>
     936<p><h4>2.2.2 <a name="ssl">SSL - Transport Layer Security</h4></p>
    937937<p>Communication with an Ntrip Broadcaster over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) as well as the download of RINEX skeleton files when available from HTTPS websites require the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Specify the path to a directory where you save certificates on your system. You may like to check out <u>http://software.rtcm-ntrip.org/wiki/Certificates</u> for a list of known Ntrip Server certificates. You may also just try communication via SSL to check out whether this is supported by the involved Ntrip Broadcaster. </p>
    938938<p>SSL communication may involve queries coming from the Ntrip Broadcaster or from a HTTPS website hosting RINEX skeletons. Such a query could show up under BNC's 'Log' tab as follows:
     
    954954<p><u>Figure 7:</u> BNC's 'Network' panel configured to ignore eventually occurring SSL error messages.</p>
    955955
    956 <p><a name="general"><h4>2.3. General</h4></p>
     956<p><h4>2.3 <a name="general">General</h4></p>
    957957<p>
    958958The following defines general settings for BNC's logfile, file handling, reconfiguration on-the-fly, and auto-start.
    959959</p>
    960960
    961 <p><a name="genlog"><h4>2.3.1 Logfile - optional</h4></p>
     961<p><h4>2.3.1 <a name="genlog">Logfile - optional</h4></p>
    962962<p>
    963963Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of the main window. These logs can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field. The logfile name will automatically be extended by a string '_YYMMDD' carrying the current date. This leads to series of daily logfiles when running BNC continuously for extended. Message logs cover the communication status between BNC and the Ntrip Broadcaster as well as problems that may occur in the communication link, stream availability, stream delay, stream conversion etc. All times are given in UTC. The default value for 'Logfile (full path)' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC logs will not be saved into a file.
     
    987987</pre>
    988988
    989 <p><a name="genapp"><h4>2.3.2 Append Files - optional</h4></p>
     989<p><h4>2.3.2 <a name="genapp">Append Files - optional</h4></p>
    990990<p>
    991991When BNC is started, new files are created by default and any existing files with the same name will be overwritten. However, users might want to append existing files following a restart of BNC, a system crash or when BNC crashed. Tick 'Append files' to continue with existing files and keep what has been recorded so far. Note that option 'Append files' affects all types of files created by BNC.
    992992</p>
    993993
    994 <p><a name="genconf"><h4>2.3.3 Reread Configuration - optional</h4></p>
     994<p><h4>2.3.3 <a name="genconf">Reread Configuration - optional</h4></p>
    995995<p>
    996996When operating BNC online in 'no window' mode (command line option -nw), some configuration options can nevertheless be changed on-the-fly without interrupting the running process. For that you force the program to reread parts of its configuration in pre-defined intervals from the disk. Select '1 min', '1 hour', or '1 day' to let BNC reread on-the-fly changeable configuration options every full minute, hour, or day. This lets in between edited options become effective without interrupting uninvolved threads.
     
    10111011</p>
    10121012
    1013 <p><a name="genstart"><h4>2.3.4 Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
     1013<p><h4>2.3.4 <a name="genstart">Auto Start - optional</h4></p>
    10141014<p>
    10151015You may like to auto-start BNC at startup time in window mode with pre-assigned configuration options. This may be required i.e. immediately after booting your system. Tick 'Auto start' to supersede the usage of the 'Start' button. Make sure that you maintain a link to BNC for that in your Autostart directory (Windows systems) or call BNC in a script below directory /etc/init.d (Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     
    10191019</p>
    10201020
    1021 <p><a name="rawout"><h4>2.3.5 Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
     1021<p><h4>2.3.5 <a name="rawout">Raw Output File - optional</h4></p>
    10221022<p>
    10231023BNC can save all data coming in through various streams in one daily file. The information is recorded in the specified 'Raw output file' in the received order and format. This feature allows a BNC user to run the PPP option offline with observations, Broadcast Corrections, and Broadcast Ephemeris being read from a previously saved file. It supports the offline repetition of a real-time situation for debugging purposes and it is not meant for Post Processing.
     
    10361036</p>
    10371037
    1038 <p><a name="rinex"><h4>2.4. RINEX Observations</h4></p>
     1038<p><h4>2.4 <a name="rinex">RINEX Observations</h4></p>
    10391039<p>
    10401040Observations will be converted to RINEX if they come in either RTCM Version 2 or RTCM Version 3 format. Depending on the RINEX version and incoming RTCM message types, files generated by BNC may contain data from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, SBAS, QZSS and/or BDS (BeiDou). In case an observation type is listed in the RINEX header but the corresponding observation is unavailable, its value is set to zero '0.000' or left blank. Note that the 'RINEX TYPE' field in the RINEX Version 3 Observation file header is always set to 'M(MIXED)' or 'Mixed' even if the file only contains data from one system.
     
    10621062<p><u>Figure 8:</u> BNC translating incoming observation streams to 15 min RINEX Version 3 Observation files.</p>
    10631063
    1064 <p><a name="rnxname"><h4>2.4.1 RINEX Filenames</h4></p>
     1064<p><h4>2.4.1 <a name="rnxname">RINEX Filenames</h4></p>
    10651065<p>
    10661066The default for RINEX filenames in BNC follows the convention of RINEX Version 2. However, the software provides options to alternatively follow the filename convention of RINEX Version 3. RINEX Version 2 filenames are derived by BNC from the first 4 characters of the corresponding stream's mountpoint (4Char Station ID). For example, data from mountpoints FRANKFURT and WETTZELL will have hourly RINEX Observation files named</p>
     
    11201120</p>
    11211121
    1122 <p><a name="rnxdir"><h4>2.4.2 Directory - optional</h4></p>
     1122<p><h4>2.4.2 <a name="rnxdir">Directory - optional</h4></p>
    11231123<p>
    11241124Here you can specify the path to where the RINEX Observation files will be stored. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Observation files. Default value for 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Observation files will be written.
    11251125</p>
    11261126
    1127 <p><a name="rnxinterval"><h4>2.4.3 File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
     1127<p><h4>2.4.3 <a name="rnxinterval">File Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
    11281128<p>
    11291129Select the length of the RINEX Observation file generated. The default value is 15 minutes.
    11301130</p>
    11311131
    1132 <p><a name="rnxsample"><h4>2.4.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Directory' is set </h4></p>
     1132<p><h4>2.4.4 <a name="rnxsample">Sampling - mandatory if 'Directory' is set </h4></p>
    11331133<p>
    11341134Select the RINEX Observation sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all received epochs into RINEX. This is the default value.
    11351135</p>
    11361136
    1137 <p><a name="rnxskl"><h4>2.4.5 Skeleton Extension - optional</h4></p>
     1137<p><h4>2.4.5 <a name="rnxskl">Skeleton Extension - optional</h4></p>
    11381138<p>
    11391139Whenever BNC starts generating RINEX Observation files (and then once every day at midnight), it first tries to retrieve information needed for RINEX headers from so-called public RINEX header skeleton files which are derived from sitelogs. A HTTP or HTTPS link to a directory containing these skeleton files may be available through data field number 7 of the affected NET record in the source-table. See <u>http://www.epncb.oma.be:80/stations/log/skl/brus.skl</u> for an example of a public RINEX header skeleton file for EPN station Brussels. Note that the download of RINEX skeleton files from HTTPS websites requires the exchange of client and/or server certificates. Clarify 'SSL' options offered through panel 'Network' for details.
     
    12131213<p>
    12141214
    1215 <p><a name="sklMandat"><h4>2.4.6 Skeleton Mandatory - optional</h4></p>
     1215<p><h4>2.4.6 <a name="sklMandat">Skeleton Mandatory - optional</h4></p>
    12161216<p>
    12171217Tick check box 'Skeleton mandatory' in case you want that RINEX files are only produced if skeleton files are available for BNC. If no skeleton file is available for a particular source then no RINEX observation file will be produced from the affected stream.
     
    12201220</p>
    12211221
    1222 <p><a name="rnxscript"><h4>2.4.7 Script - optional</h4></p>
     1222<p><h4>2.4.7 <a name="rnxscript">Script - optional</h4></p>
    12231223<p>
    12241224Whenever a RINEX Observation file is saved, you might want to compress, copy or upload it immediately via FTP. BNC allows you to execute a script/batch file to carry out these operations. To do that, specify the full path of the script/batch file here. BNC will pass the RINEX Observation file path to the script as a command line parameter (%1 on Windows systems, $1 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems).
     
    12311231</p>
    12321232
    1233 <p><a name="rnxvers2"><h4>2.4.8 Version 2 - optional</h4></p>
     1233<p><h4>2.4.8 <a name="rnxvers2">Version 2 - optional</h4></p>
    12341234<p>
    12351235GNSS observation data are generally hold available within BNC according to attributes as defined in RINEX Version 3. These attributes describe the tracking mode or channel when generating the observation signals. Capital letters specifying signal generation attributes are A, B, C, D, I, L, M, N, P, Q, S, W, X, Y, and Z, see RINEX Version 3 documentation. Although RINEX Version 3 with its signal generation attributes is the internal default processing format for BNC, there are two applications where the program is explicitly required to produce data in RINEX Version 2 format:
     
    12621262</p>
    12631263
    1264 <p><a name="rnxvers3"><h4>2.4.9 Version 3 - optional</h4></p>
     1264<p><h4>2.4.9 <a name="rnxvers3">Version 3 - optional</h4></p>
    12651265<p>
    12661266The default format for RINEX Observation files is RINEX Version 2.11. Select RINEX 'Version 3' if you would like to save RTCM Version 3 observation streams in RINEX Version 3 format.
     
    12711271</p>
    12721272
    1273 <p><a name="rnxvers3File"><h4>2.4.10 Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
     1273<p><h4>2.4.10 <a name="rnxvers3File">Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
    12741274<p>
    12751275Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard.
     
    12781278</p>
    12791279
    1280 <p><a name="ephemeris"><h4>2.5. RINEX Ephemeris</h4></p>
     1280<p><h4>2.5 <a name="ephemeris">RINEX Ephemeris</h4></p>
    12811281<p>
    12821282Broadcast Ephemeris can be saved as RINEX Navigation files when received via RTCM Version 3 e.g. as message types 1019 (GPS) or 1020 (GLONASS) or 1044 (QZSS) or 1043 (SBAS) or 1045 and 1046 (Galileo) or 63 (tentative, BDS/BeiDou). The filename convention follows the details given in section 'RINEX Filenames' except that the first four characters are 'BRDC'.
     
    13031303</p>
    13041304
    1305 <p><a name="ephdir"><h4>2.5.1 Directory - optional</h4></p>
     1305<p><h4>2.5.1 <a name="ephdir">Directory - optional</h4></p>
    13061306<p>
    13071307Specify a path for saving Broadcast Ephemeris data as RINEX Navigation files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create RINEX Navigation files. Default value for Ephemeris 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no RINEX Navigation files will be created.
    13081308</p>
    13091309
    1310 <p><a name="ephint"><h4>2.5.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
     1310<p><h4>2.5.2 <a name="ephint">Interval - mandatory if 'Directory' is set</h4></p>
    13111311<p>
    13121312Select the length of RINEX Navigation files. The default value is '1 day'.
    13131313</p>
    13141314
    1315 <p><a name="ephport"><h4>2.5.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
     1315<p><h4>2.5.3 <a name="ephport">Port - optional</h4></p>
    13161316<p>
    13171317BNC can output Broadcast Ephemeris in RINEX Version 3 format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII ephemeris output via IP port is generated.
     
    13211321</p>
    13221322
    1323 <p><a name="ephvers"><h4>2.5.4 Version - optional</h4></p>
     1323<p><h4>2.5.4 <a name="ephvers">Version - optional</h4></p>
    13241324<p>
    13251325Default format for RINEX Navigation files containing Broadcast Ephemeris is RINEX Version 2.11. Select 'Version 3' if you want to save the ephemeris data in RINEX Version 3 format.
     
    13291329</p>
    13301330
    1331 <p><a name="ephversFile"><h4>2.5.5 Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
     1331<p><h4>2.5.5 <a name="ephversFile">Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
    13321332<p>
    13331333Tick check box 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames following the RINEX Version 3 standard.
     
    13391339<p><u>Figure 9:</u> Converting Broadcast Ephemeris stream to RINEX Version 3 Navigation file.</p>
    13401340
    1341 <p><a name="reqc"><h4>2.6. RINEX Editing & QC</h4></p>
     1341<p><h4>2.6 <a name="reqc">RINEX Editing & QC</h4></p>
    13421342<p>
    13431343Besides stream conversion from RTCM to RINEX, BNC allows editing RINEX files or concatenate their contents. RINEX Observation and Navigation files can be handled. BNC can also carry out a RINEX file Quality Check. In summary  and besides Stream <u><b>T</b></u>ranslation this functionality in BNC covers
     
    13561356</p>
    13571357
    1358 <p><a name="reqcact"><h4>2.6.1 Action - optional</h4></p>
     1358<p><h4>2.6.1 <a name="reqcact">Action - optional</h4></p>
    13591359<p>Select an action. Options are 'Edit/Concatenate' and 'Analyze'.
    13601360<ul>
     
    13641364</p>
    13651365
    1366 <p><a name="reqcinp"><h4>2.6.2 Input Files - mandatory</h4></p>
     1366<p><h4>2.6.2 <a name="reqcinp">Input Files - mandatory</h4></p>
    13671367<p>
    13681368Specify full path to input RINEX Observation file(s), and<br>
     
    13761376</p>
    13771377
    1378 <p><a name="reqcout"><h4>2.6.3 Output Files - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
     1378<p><h4>2.6.3 <a name="reqcout">Output Files - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
    13791379<p>
    13801380If 'Edit/Concatenate' is selected, specifying the full path to output RINEX Observation file(s) and specifying the full path to output RINEX Navigation file(s) is optional. Default are empty option fields, meaning that no RINEX files will be saved on disk.
    13811381</p>
    13821382
    1383 <p><a name="reqclog"><h4>2.6.4 Logfile - optional</h4></p>
     1383<p><h4>2.6.4 <a name="reqclog">Logfile - optional</h4></p>
    13841384<p>
    13851385Specify the name of a logfile to save information on RINEX file Editing/Concatenation or Analysis. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no logfile will be saved.
     
    16011601</p>
    16021602
    1603 <p><a name="reqcplots"><h4>2.6.5 Plots for Signals - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
     1603<p><h4>2.6.5 <a name="reqcplots">Plots for Signals - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
    16041604<p>
    16051605Multipath and signal-to-noise sky plots as well as plots for satellite availability, elevation and PDOP are produced per GNSS system and frequency with the multipath analysis based on CnC observation types (n = band / frequency). The 'Plots for signals' option lets you exactly specify the observation signals to be used for that and also enables the plot production. You can specify the navigation system (C = BDS, E = Galileo, G = GPS, J = QZSS, R = GLONASS, S = SBAS), the frequency, and the tracking mode or channel as defined in RINEX Version 3. Specifications for frequency and tracking mode or channel must be separated by ampersand character '&'. Specifications for each navigation systems must be separated by blank character ' '. The following string is an example for option field 'Plots of signals': It lets you exactly specify the observation signals to be used and also enables the plot generation. You can specify the navigation system, the frequency, and the tracking mode or channel as defined in RINEX Version 3. Specifications for frequency and tracking mode or channel must be separated by ampersand character '&'. Specifications for each navigation systems must be separated by blank character ' '.
     
    16191619</p>
    16201620
    1621 <p><a name="reqcdir"><h4>2.6.6 Directory for Plots - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
     1621<p><h4>2.6.6 <a name="reqcdir">Directory for Plots - optional if 'Action' is set to 'Analyze'</h4></p>
    16221622<p>
    16231623If 'Analyze' is selected, specifying the path to a directory where plot files will be saved is optional. Filenames will be composed from the RINEX input filename(s) plus suffix 'PNG' to indicate the plot file format in use. Default is an empty option field, meaning that plots will not be saved on disk.
    16241624</p>
    16251625
    1626 <p><a name="reqcedit"><h4>2.6.7 Set Edit Options - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
     1626<p><h4>2.6.7 <a name="reqcedit">Set Edit Options - mandatory if 'Action' is set to 'Edit/Concatenate'</h4></p>
    16271627<p>Once the 'Edit/Concatenate' action is selected, you have to 'Set Edit Options'. BNC lets you specify the RINEX version, a signal priority list when mapping RINEX Version 3 to Version 2, the sampling interval, begin and end of file, operator, observation types, comment lines, and marker, antenna, receiver details. Note that some of the specifications for editing and concatenation are only meaningful for RINEX Observation files but not for RINEX Navigation files.
    16281628</p>
     
    16771677<p><u>Figure 15:</u> Sky plot examples for signal-to-noise ratio, part of RINEX quality check analysis with BNC.</p>
    16781678
    1679 <p><a name="reqccommand"><h4>2.6.8 Command Line, No Window - optional</h4></p>
     1679<p><h4>2.6.8 <a name="reqccommand">Command Line, No Window - optional</h4></p>
    16801680<p>
    16811681BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the contents of the configuration file remains unchanged, see section on 'Command Line Options'. The syntax for that looks as follows
     
    17541754</table>
    17551755
    1756 <p><a name="sp3comp"><h4>2.7. SP3 Comparison</h4></p>
     1756<p><h4>2.7 <a name="sp3comp">SP3 Comparison</h4></p>
    17571757<p>
    17581758BNC allows to compare the contents of two files containing GNSS orbit and clock data in SP3 format. SP3 ASCII files basically contain a list of records over a certain period of time. Each record carries a time tag, the XYZ position of the satellite's Center of Mass at that time and the corresponding satellite clock value. Both SP3 files may contain some records for different epochs. If so then BNC only compares records for identical epochs. BNC accepts that a specific GNSS system or a specific satellite is only available from one of the SP3 files. Note that BNC does not interpolate orbits when comparing SP3 files.
     
    17621762</p>
    17631763
    1764 <p><a name="sp3input"><h4>2.7.1 Input SP3 Files - optional</h4></p>
     1764<p><h4>2.7.1 <a name="sp3input">Input SP3 Files - optional</h4></p>
    17651765<p>
    17661766Specify the full path of two SP3 files separated by a comma.
    17671767</p>
    17681768
    1769 <p><a name="sp3exclude"><h4>2.7.2 Exclude Satellites - optional</h4></p>
     1769<p><h4>2.7.2 <a name="sp3exclude">Exclude Satellites - optional</h4></p>
    17701770<p>
    17711771You may want to exclude one or more satellites in your SP3 files from the comparison. Or you may like to exclude all satellites of a specific GNSS system from the comparison. The following are example strings to be entered for excluding satellites from the comparison.
     
    17821782</p>
    17831783
    1784 <p><a name="sp3log"><h4>2.7.3 Logfile - mandatory if 'Input SP3 Files' is set</h4></p>
     1784<p><h4>2.7.3 <a name="sp3log">Logfile - mandatory if 'Input SP3 Files' is set</h4></p>
    17851785<p>
    17861786Specify a logfile name to save results of the SP3 file comparison.
     
    18671867<p><u>Figure 16:</u> BNC configuration example for comparing two SP3 files with satellite orbit and clock data.</p>
    18681868
    1869 <p><a name="correct"><h4>2.8. Broadcast Corrections</h4></p>
     1869<p><h4>2.8 <a name="correct">Broadcast Corrections</h4></p>
    18701870<p>
    18711871Differential GNSS and RTK operation using RTCM streams is currently based on corrections and/or raw measurements from single or multiple reference stations. This approach to differential positioning is using 'observation space' information. The representation with the RTCM standard can be called 'Observation Space Representation' (OSR).
     
    21352135</p>
    21362136
    2137 <p><a name="corrdir"><h4>2.8.1 Directory, ASCII - optional</h4></p>
     2137<p><h4>2.8.1 <a name="corrdir">Directory, ASCII - optional</h4></p>
    21382138<p>
    21392139Specify a directory for saving Broadcast Corrections in files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create Broadcast Correction files. Default value for Broadcast Corrections 'Directory' is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction files will be created.
    21402140</p>
    21412141
    2142 <p><a name="corrint"><h4>2.8.2 Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
     2142<p><h4>2.8.2 <a name="corrint">Interval - mandatory if 'Directory, ASCII' is set</h4></p>
    21432143<p>
    21442144Select the length of the Broadcast Correction files. The default value is 1 day.
    21452145</p>
    21462146
    2147 <p><a name="corrport"><h4>2.8.3 Port - optional</h4></p>
     2147<p><h4>2.8.3 <a name="corrport">Port - optional</h4></p>
    21482148<p>
    21492149BNC can output epoch by epoch synchronized Broadcast Corrections in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Specify an IP port number to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no Broadcast Correction output via IP port is generated.
     
    22232223<p><u>Figure 17:</u> BNC configuration example for pulling, saving and output of Broadcast Corrections.</p>
    22242224
    2225 <p><a name="syncout"><h4>2.9. Feed Engine</h4></p>
     2225<p><h4>2.9 <a name="syncout">Feed Engine</h4></p>
    22262226<p>
    22272227BNC can generate synchronized or unsynchronized observations epoch by epoch from all stations and satellites to feed a real-time GNSS network engine. Observations can be streamed out through an IP port and/or saved in a local file. The output is always in plain ASCII format and sorted per incoming stream.
     
    23042304<p><u>Figure 18:</u> Synchronized BNC output via IP port to feed a GNSS real-time engine.</p>
    23052305
    2306 <p><a name="syncport"><h4>2.9.1 Port - optional</h4></p>
     2306<p><h4>2.9.1 <a name="syncport">Port - optional</h4></p>
    23072307<p>
    23082308BNC can produce synchronized observations in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Synchronized means that BNC collects all observation data for any specific epoch which become available within a certain number of latency seconds (see 'Wait for Full Obs Epoch' option). It then - epoch by epoch - outputs whatever has been received. The output comes block wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no binary synchronized output is generated.</p>
    23092309</p>
    23102310
    2311 <p><a name="syncwait"><h4>2.9.2 Wait for Full Obs Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
     2311<p><h4>2.9.2 <a name="syncwait">Wait for Full Obs Epoch - mandatory if 'Port' is set</h4></p>
    23122312<p>
    23132313When feeding a real-time GNSS network engine waiting for synchronized observations epoch by epoch, BNC drops whatever is received later than 'Wait for full obs epoch' seconds. A value of 3 to 5 seconds could be an appropriate choice for that, depending on the latency of the incoming streams and the delay acceptable for your real-time GNSS product. Default value for 'Wait for full obs epoch' is 5 seconds.
     
    23172317</p>
    23182318
    2319 <p><a name="syncsample"><h4>2.9.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set</h4></p>
     2319<p><h4>2.9.3 <a name="syncsample">Sampling - mandatory if 'File' or 'Port' is set</h4></p>
    23202320<p>
    23212321Select the synchronized observation output sampling interval in seconds. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to send/store all received epochs. This is the default value.
    23222322</p>
    23232323
    2324 <p><a name="syncfile"><h4>2.9.4 File - optional</h4></p>
     2324<p><h4>2.9.4 <a name="syncfile">File - optional</h4></p>
    23252325<p>
    23262326Specify the full path to a 'File' where synchronized observations are saved in plain ASCII format. The default value is an empty option field, meaning that no ASCII output file is created.
     
    23302330</p>
    23312331
    2332 <p><a name="syncuport"><h4>2.9.5 Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
     2332<p><h4>2.9.5 <a name="syncuport">Port (unsynchronized) - optional</h4></p>
    23332333<p>
    23342334BNC can produce unsynchronized observations from all configured streams in ASCII format on your local host (IP 127.0.0.1) through an IP 'Port'. Unsynchronized means that BNC immediately forwards any received observation to the port. Nevertheless, the output comes block wise per stream. Specify an IP port number here to activate this function. The default is an empty option field, meaning that no unsynchronized output is generated.
    23352335</p>
    23362336
    2337 <p><a name="serial"><h4>2.10. Serial Output</h4></p>
     2337<p><h4>2.10 <a name="serial">Serial Output</h4></p>
    23382338<p>
    23392339You may use BNC to feed a serial connected device like a GNSS receiver. For that an incoming stream can be forwarded to a serial port. Depending on the stream contents the receiver may use it for Differential GNSS, Precise Point Positioning or any other purpose supported by its firmware.
     
    23532353<p><u>Figure 20:</u> BNC pulling a VRS stream to feed a serial connected RTK rover.</p>
    23542354
    2355 <p><a name="sermount"><h4>2.10.1 Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
     2355<p><h4>2.10.1 <a name="sermount">Mountpoint - optional</h4></p>
    23562356<p>
    23572357Enter a 'Mountpoint' to forward its corresponding stream to a serial connected GNSS receiver.
     
    23612361</p>
    23622362
    2363 <p><a name="serport"><h4>2.10.2 Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2363<p><h4>2.10.2 <a name="serport">Port Name - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    23642364<p>
    23652365Enter the serial 'Port name' selected on your host for communication with the serial connected receiver. Valid port names are
     
    23782378</p>
    23792379
    2380 <p><a name="serbaud"><h4>2.10.3 Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2380<p><h4>2.10.3 <a name="serbaud">Baud Rate - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    23812381<p>
    23822382Select a 'Baud rate' for the serial output link. Note that using a high baud rate is recommended.
    23832383</p>
    23842384
    2385 <p><a name="serflow"><h4>2.10.4 Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2385<p><h4>2.10.4 <a name="serflow">Flow Control - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    23862386<p>
    23872387Select a 'Flow control' for the serial output link. Note that your selection must equal the flow control configured to the serial connected device. Select 'OFF' if you don't know better.
    23882388</p>
    23892389
    2390 <p><a name="serparity"><h4>2.10.5 Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2390<p><h4>2.10.5 <a name="serparity">Parity - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    23912391<p>
    23922392Select the 'Parity' for the serial output link. Note that parity is often set to 'NONE'.
    23932393</p>
    23942394
    2395 <p><a name="serdata"><h4>2.10.6 Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2395<p><h4>2.10.6 <a name="serdata">Data Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    23962396<p>
    23972397Select the number of 'Data bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '8' data bits are used.
    23982398</p>
    23992399
    2400 <p><a name="serstop"><h4>2.10.7 Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2400<p><h4>2.10.7 <a name="serstop">Stop Bits - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    24012401<p>
    24022402Select the number of 'Stop bits' for the serial output link. Note that often '1' stop bit is used.
    24032403</p>
    24042404
    2405 <p><a name="serauto"><h4>2.10.8 NMEA - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
     2405<p><h4>2.10.8 <a name="serauto">NMEA - mandatory if 'Mountpoint' is set</h4></p>
    24062406<p>The 'NMEA' option supports the so-called 'Virtual Reference Station' (VRS) concept which requires the receiver to send approximate position information to the Ntrip Broadcaster. Select 'no' if you don't want BNC to forward or upload any NMEA message to the Ntrip broadcaster in support of VRS.
    24072407</p>
     
    24132413</p>
    24142414
    2415 <p><a name="serfile"><h4>2.10.9 File - optional if 'NMEA' is set to 'Auto'</h4></p>
     2415<p><h4>2.10.9 <a name="serfile">File - optional if 'NMEA' is set to 'Auto'</h4></p>
    24162416<p>Specify the full path to a file where NMEA messages coming from your serial connected receiver are saved. Default is an empty option field, meaning that no NMEA messages will be saved on disk.
    24172417</p>
    2418 <p><a name="serheight"><h4>2.10.10 Height - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
     2418<p><h4>2.10.10 <a name="serheight">Height - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
    24192419<p>
    24202420Specify an approximate 'Height' above mean sea level in meters for the reference station introduced through 'Mountpoint'. Together with the latitude and longitude from the Ntrip broadcaster source-table the height information is used to build GGA messages to be sent to the Ntrip broadcaster.
     
    24252425</p>
    24262426
    2427 <p><a name="sersampl"><h4>2.10.11 Sampling - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
     2427<p><h4>2.10.11 <a name="sersampl">Sampling - mandatory if 'NMEA' is set to 'Manual'</h4></p>
    24282428<p>
    24292429Select a sampling interval in seconds for manual generation and upload of NMEA GGA sentences.
     
    24332433</p>
    24342434
    2435 <p><a name="advnote"><h4>2.11. Outages</h4></p>
     2435<p><h4>2.11 <a name="advnote">Outages</h4></p>
    24362436<p>
    24372437At any time an incoming stream might become unavailable or corrupted. In such cases, it is important that the BNC operator and/or the stream providers become aware of the situation so that necessary measures can be taken to restore the stream. Furthermore, continuous attempts to decode a corrupted stream can generate unnecessary workload for BNC. Outages and corruptions are handled by BNC as follows:
     
    24472447</p>
    24482448
    2449 <p><a name="obsrate"><h4>2.11.1 Observation Rate - optional</h4></p>
     2449<p><h4>2.11.1 <a name="obsrate">Observation Rate - optional</h4></p>
    24502450<p>
    24512451BNC can collect all returns (success or failure) coming from a decoder within a certain short time span to then decide whether a stream has an outage or its content is corrupted. This procedure needs a rough a priori estimate of the expected observation rate of the incoming streams.</p><p>An empty option field (default) means that you don't want explicit information from BNC about stream outages and incoming streams that cannot be decoded.
    24522452</p>
    24532453
    2454 <p><a name="advfail"><h4>2.11.2 Failure Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
     2454<p><h4>2.11.2 <a name="advfail">Failure Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    24552455<p>
    24562456Event 'Begin_Failure' will be reported if no data is received continuously for longer than the 'Failure threshold' time. Similarly, event 'Begin_Corrupted' will be reported when corrupted data is detected by the decoder continuously for longer than this 'Failure threshold' time. The default value is set to 15 minutes and is recommended so not to inundate user with too many event reports.
     
    24602460</p>
    24612461
    2462 <p><a name="advreco"><h4>2.11.3 Recovery Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
     2462<p><h4>2.11.3 <a name="advreco">Recovery Threshold - mandatory if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    24632463<p>
    24642464Once a 'Begin_Failure' or 'Begin_Corrupted' event has been reported, BNC will check for when the stream again becomes available or uncorrupted. Event 'End_Failure' or 'End_Corrupted' will be reported as soon as valid observations are again detected continuously throughout the 'Recovery threshold' time span. The default value is set to 5 minutes and is recommended so not to inundate users with too many event reports.
     
    24682468</p>
    24692469
    2470 <p><a name="advscript"><h4>2.11.4 Script - optional if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
     2470<p><h4>2.11.4 <a name="advscript">Script - optional if 'Observation rate' is set</h4></p>
    24712471<p>
    24722472As mentioned previously, BNC can trigger a shell script or a batch file to be executed when one of the events described are reported. This script can be used to email an advisory note to network operator or stream providers. To enable this feature, specify the full path to the script or batch file in the 'Script' field. The affected stream's mountpoint and type of event reported ('Begin_Outage', 'End_Outage', 'Begin_Corrupted' or 'End_Corrupted') will then be passed on to the script as command line parameters (%1 and %2 on Windows systems or $1 and $2 on Unix/Linux/Mac OS X systems) together with date and time information.
     
    25012501</p>
    25022502
    2503 <p><a name="misc"><h4>2.12. Miscellaneous</h4></p>
     2503<p><h4>2.12 <a name="misc">Miscellaneous</h4></p>
    25042504<p>
    25052505This section describes several miscellaneous options which can be applied to a single stream (mountpoint) or to all configured streams.
     
    25132513
    25142514
    2515 <p><a name="miscmount"><h4>2.12.1 Mountpoint - optional </h4></p>
     2515<p><h4>2.12.1 <a name="miscmount">Mountpoint - optional </h4></p>
    25162516<p>
    25172517Specify a mountpoint to apply one or several of the 'Miscellaneous' options to the corresponding stream. Enter 'ALL' if you want to apply these options to all configured streams. An empty option field (default) means that you don't want BNC to apply any of these options.
    25182518</p>
    25192519
    2520 <p><a name="miscperf"><h4>2.12.2 Log Latency - optional </h4></p>
     2520<p><h4>2.12.2 <a name="miscperf">Log Latency - optional </h4></p>
    25212521<p>
    25222522 BNC can average latencies per stream over a certain period of GPS time, the 'Log latency' interval. Mean latencies are calculated from the individual latencies of one (first incoming) observation or Broadcast Correction per second. The mean latencies are then saved in BNC's logfile. Note that computing correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. Note further that visualized latencies from the 'Latency' tab on the bottom of the main window represent individual latencies and not the mean latencies for the logfile.
     
    25462546
    25472547
    2548 <p><a name="miscscan"><h4>2.12.3 Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
     2548<p><h4>2.12.3 <a name="miscscan">Scan RTCM - optional</h4></p>
    25492549<p>
    25502550When configuring a GNSS receiver for RTCM stream generation, the firmware's setup interface may not provide details about RTCM message types and observation types. As reliable information concerning stream contents should be available i.e. for Ntrip Broadcaster operators to maintain the broadcaster's source-table, BNC allows to scan RTCM streams for incoming message types and printout some of the contained meta-data. Contained observation types are also printed because such information is required a priori for the conversion of RTCM Version 3 MSM streams to RINEX Version 3 files. The idea for this option arose from 'inspectRTCM', a comprehensive stream analyzing tool written by D. Stoecker.
     
    25812581
    25822582
    2583 <p><a name="miscport"><h4>2.12.4 Port - optional</h4></p>
     2583<p><h4>2.12.4 <a name="miscport">Port - optional</h4></p>
    25842584<p>
    25852585BNC can output streams related to the above specified 'Mountpoint' through a TCP/IP port of your local host. Enter a port number to activate this function. The stream contents remains untouched. BNC does not decode or reformat the data.
     
    25932593
    25942594
    2595 <p><a name="pppclient"><h4>2.13. PPP Client</h4></p>
     2595<p><h4>2.13 <a name="pppclient">PPP Client</h4></p>
    25962596<p>
    25972597BNC can derive coordinates for rover positions following the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach. It uses either code or code plus phase data from one or more GNSS systems in ionosphere-free linear combinations P3 or L3. Besides pulling streams of observations from dual frequency GNSS receiver, this also
     
    26302630</p>
    26312631
    2632 <p><a name="pppInp"><h4>2.13.1 PPP (1): Input and Output</h4></p>
     2632<p><h4>2.13.1 <a name="pppInp">PPP (1): Input and Output</h4></p>
    26332633<p>
    26342634This panel provides options for specifying the input and output streams and files required by BNC for real-time or post processing PPP.
     
    26382638<p><u>Figure 22:</u> Real-time Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 1.</p>
    26392639
    2640 <p><a name="pppdatasource"><h4>2.13.1.1 Data Source - optional</h4></p>
     2640<p><h4>2.13.1.1 <a name="pppdatasource">Data Source - optional</h4></p>
    26412641<p>
    26422642Choose between input from 'Real-time Streams' or 'RINEX Files' for PPP with BNC in real-time or post processing mode.
     
    26682668</p>
    26692669
    2670 <p><a name="ppprnxobs"><h4>2.13.1.2 RINEX Observation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
     2670<p><h4>2.13.1.2 <a name="ppprnxobs">RINEX Observation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
    26712671<p>
    26722672Specify a RINEX Observation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3.
    26732673</p>
    26742674
    2675 <p><a name="ppprnxnav"><h4>2.13.1.3 RINEX Navigation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
     2675<p><h4>2.13.1.3 <a name="ppprnxnav">RINEX Navigation File - mandatory if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
    26762676<p>
    26772677Specify a RINEX Navigation file. The file format can be RINEX Version 2 or RINEX Version 3.
    26782678</p>
    26792679
    2680 <p><a name="pppcorrstream"><h4>2.13.1.4 Corrections Stream - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'Real-Time Streams'</h4></p>
     2680<p><h4>2.13.1.4 <a name="pppcorrstream">Corrections Stream - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'Real-Time Streams'</h4></p>
    26812681<p>
    26822682Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections stream' from the list of selected 'Streams' you are pulling if you want BNC to correct your satellite ephemeris accordingly. Note that the stream's orbit and clock corrections must refer to the satellite Antenna Phase Center (APC). Streams providing such corrections are made available e.g. through the International GNSS Service (IGS) and listed on <u>http://igs.bkg.bund.de/ntrip/orbits</u>. The stream format must be RTCM Version 3 containing so-called SSR messages. Streams 'IGS03' and 'CLK11' supporting GPS plus GLONASS are examples.
     
    26862686</p>
    26872687
    2688 <p><a name="pppcorrfile"><h4>2.13.1.5 Corrections File - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
     2688<p><h4>2.13.1.5 <a name="pppcorrfile">Corrections File - optional if 'Data source' is set to 'RINEX Files'</h4></p>
    26892689<p>
    26902690Specify a Broadcast 'Corrections file' as saved beforehand using BNC. The file contents is basically the ASCII representation of a RTCM Version 3 Broadcast Correction (SSR) stream.
     
    26942694</p>
    26952695
    2696 <p><a name="pppantexfile"><h4>2.13.1.6 ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
     2696<p><h4>2.13.1.6 <a name="pppantexfile">ANTEX File - optional</h4></p>
    26972697<p>
    26982698IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center corrections for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required for correcting observations in PPP for antenna phase center offsets and variations. Note that for applying such corrections you need to specify the receiver's antenna name and radome in BNC's 'Coordinates' file.
     
    27022702</p>
    27032703
    2704 <p><a name="pppmarkcoor"><h4>2.13.1.7 Coordinates - optional </h4></p>
     2704<p><h4>2.13.1.7 <a name="pppmarkcoor">Coordinates - optional </h4></p>
    27052705<p>
    27062706Enter the full path to an ASCII file which specifies all streams or files from stationary or mobile receivers you potentially may want to process. Specifying a 'Coordinates' file is optional. If it exists, it should contain one record per stream or file with the following parameters separated by blank characters:
     
    27982798</p>
    27992799
    2800 <p><a name="pppv3filename"><h4>2.13.1.8 Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
     2800<p><h4>2.13.1.8 <a name="pppv3filename">Version 3 Filenames - optional</h4></p>
    28012801<p>
    28022802Tick 'Version 3 filenames' to let BNC create so-called extended filenames for PPP logfiles, NMEA files and SINEX Troposphere files to follow the RINEX Version 3 standard, see section 'RINEX Filenames' for details.
     
    28252825</p>
    28262826
    2827 <p><a name="ppplogfile"><h4>2.13.1.9 Logfile Directory - optional</h4></p>
     2827<p><h4>2.13.1.9 <a name="ppplogfile">Logfile Directory - optional</h4></p>
    28282828<p>
    28292829Essential PPP results are shown in the 'Log' tab on the bottom of BNC's main window. Depending on the processing options, the following values are presented about once per second (example):
     
    29572957</p>
    29582958
    2959 <p><a name="pppnmeafile"><h4>2.13.1.10 NMEA Directory - optional</h4></p>
     2959<p><h4>2.13.1.10 <a name="pppnmeafile">NMEA Directory - optional</h4></p>
    29602960<p>
    29612961You can specify a 'NMEA directory' to save daily NMEA files with Point Positioning results recorded as NMEA sentences. Such sentences are usually generated about once per second with pairs of
     
    29982998</p>
    29992999
    3000 <p><a name="pppsnxtrofile"><h4>2.13.1.11 SNX TRO Directory - optional</h4></p>
     3000<p><h4>2.13.1.11 <a name="pppsnxtrofile">SNX TRO Directory - optional</h4></p>
    30013001<p>
    30023002BNC estimates the tropospheric delay according to equation
     
    30783078</p>
    30793079
    3080 <p><a name="pppsnxtrointr"><h4>2.13.1.11.1 Interval - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO File' is set</h4></p>
     3080<p><h4>2.13.1.11.1 <a name="pppsnxtrointr">Interval - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO File' is set</h4></p>
    30813081<p>
    30823082Select the length of SINEX Troposphere files.
     
    30873087
    30883088
    3089 <p><a name="pppsnxtrosampl"><h4>2.13.1.11.2 Sampling - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO File' is set</h4></p>
     3089<p><h4>2.13.1.11.2 <a name="pppsnxtrosampl">Sampling - mandatory if 'SINEX TRO File' is set</h4></p>
    30903090<p>
    30913091Select a 'Sampling' rate in seconds for saving troposphere parameters.
     
    30953095</p>
    30963096
    3097 <p><a name="pppStation"><h4>2.13.2 PPP (2): Processed Stations</h4></p>
     3097<p><h4>2.13.2 <a name="pppStation">PPP (2): Processed Stations</h4></p>
    30983098
    30993099<p>
     
    31103110<p><u>Figure 23:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 2.</p>
    31113111
    3112 <p><a name="pppsite"><h4>2.13.2.1 Station - mandatory</h4></p>
     3112<p><h4>2.13.2.1 <a name="pppsite">Station - mandatory</h4></p>
    31133113<p>
    31143114Hit the 'Add Station' button, double click on the 'Station' field, then specify an observation's mountpoint from the 'Streams' section or introduce the 4-character Station ID of your RINEX observation file and hit Enter. BNC will only produce PPP solutions for stations listed in this table.
    31153115</p>
    31163116
    3117 <p><a name="pppnehsigma"><h4>2.13.2.2 Sigma North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
     3117<p><h4>2.13.2.2 <a name="pppnehsigma">Sigma North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
    31183118<p>
    31193119Enter a sigmas in meters for the initial coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be an appropriate choice. However, this value may be significantly smaller (i.e. 0.01) when starting for example from a station with well-known position - so-called Quick-Start mode.
    31203120</p>
    31213121
    3122 <p><a name="pppnehnoise"><h4>2.13.2.3 Noise North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
     3122<p><h4>2.13.2.3 <a name="pppnehnoise">Noise North/East/Up - mandatory</h4></p>
    31233123<p>
    31243124Enter a white 'Noise' in meters for estimated coordinate components. A value of 100.0 (default) may be appropriate when considering possible sudden movements of a rover.
    31253125</p>
    31263126
    3127 <p><a name="ppptropsigma"><h4>2.13.2.4 Tropo Sigma - mandatory</h4></p>
     3127<p><h4>2.13.2.4 <a name="ppptropsigma">Tropo Sigma - mandatory</h4></p>
    31283128<p>
    31293129Enter a sigma in meters for the a priori model based tropospheric delay estimation. A value of 0.1 (default) may be an appropriate choice.
    31303130</p>
    31313131
    3132 <p><a name="ppptropnoise"><h4>2.13.2.5 Tropo Noise - mandatory</h4></p>
     3132<p><h4>2.13.2.5 <a name="ppptropnoise">Tropo Noise - mandatory</h4></p>
    31333133<p>
    31343134Enter a white 'Noise' in meters per second to describe the expected variation of the tropospheric effect. Supposing 1Hz observation data, a value of 3e-6 (default) would mean that the tropospheric effect may vary for 3600 * 3e-6 = 0.01 meters per hour.
    31353135</p>
    31363136
    3137 <p><a name="pppnmeaport"><h4>2.13.2.6 NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
     3137<p><h4>2.13.2.6 <a name="pppnmeaport">NMEA Port - optional</h4></p>
    31383138Specify the IP port number of a local port where Point Positioning results become available as NMEA messages. The default value for 'NMEA Port' is an empty option field, meaning that BNC does not provide NMEA messages vi IP port. Note that the NMEA file output and the NMEA IP port output are the same.
    31393139</p>
     
    31453145</p>
    31463146
    3147 <p><a name="pppOptions"><h4>2.13.3 PPP (3): Processing Options</h4></p>
     3147<p><h4>2.13.3 <a name="pppOptions">PPP (3): Processing Options</h4></p>
    31483148<p>BNC allows using various Point Positioning processing options depending on the capability of the involved receiver and the application in mind. It also allows introducing specific sigmas for code and phase observations as well as for a priori coordinates and troposphere estimates. You may also like to carry out your PPP solution in Quick-Start mode or enforce BNC to restart a solution if the length of an outage exceeds a certain threshold.
    31493149</p>
     
    31553155<p><u>Figure 24:</u> Precise Point Positioning with BNC, PPP Panel 3.</p>
    31563156
    3157 <p><a name="ppplinecombi"><h4>2.13.3.1 Linear Combinations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3157<p><h4>2.13.3.1 <a name="ppplinecombi">Linear Combinations - mandatory</h4></p>
    31583158<p>
    31593159<p>
     
    31733173</p>
    31743174
    3175 <p><a name="pppcodeobs"><h4>2.13.3.2 Code Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3175<p><h4>2.13.3.1 <a name="pppcodeobs">Code Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    31763176</p>
    31773177Enter a 'Sigma C1' for C1 code observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of C1 code observations to a PPP solution based on a combination of code and phase data. '2.0' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice.
     
    31823182
    31833183
    3184 <p><a name="pppphaseobs"><h4>2.13.3.3 Phase Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3184<p><h4>2.13.3.3 <a name="pppphaseobs">Phase Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    31853185<p>
    31863186Enter a 'Sigma L1' for L1 phase observations in meters. The bigger the sigma you enter, the less the contribution of L1 phase observations to a PPP solutions based on a combination of code and phase data. '0.01' meters is likely to be an appropriate choice.
     
    31983198</p>
    31993199
    3200 <p><a name="pppeleweight"><h4>2.13.3.4 Elevation Dependent Weighting - mandatory</h4></p>
     3200<p><h4>2.13.3.4 <a name="pppeleweight">Elevation Dependent Weighting - mandatory</h4></p>
    32013201<p>
    32023202BNC allows elevation dependent weighting when processing GNSS observations. A weight function
     
    32163216</p>
    32173217
    3218 <p><a name="pppminobs"><h4>2.13.3.5 Minimum Number of Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
     3218<p><h4>2.13.3.5 <a name="pppminobs">Minimum Number of Observations - mandatory</h4></p>
    32193219<p>
    32203220Select the minimum number of observations you want to use per epoch. The minimum for parameter 'Min # of Obs' is '4'. This is also the default.
    32213221</p>
    32223222
    3223 <p><a name="pppmineleva"><h4>2.13.3.6 Minimum Elevation - mandatory</h4></p>
     3223<p><h4>2.13.3.6 <a name="pppmineleva">Minimum Elevation - mandatory</h4></p>
    32243224<p>
    32253225Select a minimum for satellite elevation angles. Selecting '10 deg' for option 'Min Elevation' may be an appropriate choice.
     
    32293229</p>
    32303230
    3231 <p><a name="pppwaitclockcorr"><h4>2.13.3.7 Wait for Clock Corrections - optional</h4></p>
     3231<p><h4>2.13.3.7 <a name="pppwaitclockcorr">Wait for Clock Corrections - optional</h4></p>
    32323232<p>
    32333233Zero value (or 'no') for 'Wait for clock corr.' means that BNC processes each epoch of data immediately after its arrival using satellite clock corrections available at that time. Non-zero value means that epochs of data are buffered and the processing of each epoch is postponed till satellite clock corrections not older than 'Wait for clock corr.' are available. Specifying a value of half the update rate of the clock corrections (i.e. 5 sec) may be appropriate. Note that this causes an additional delay of the PPP solutions in the amount of half of the update rate.
     
    32403240</p>
    32413241
    3242 <p><a name="pppseeding"><h4>2.13.3.8 Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates'</h4></p>
     3242<p><h4>2.13.3.8 <a name="pppseeding">Seeding - optional if a priori coordinates specified in 'Coordinates'</h4></p>
    32433243<p>
    32443244Enter the length of a startup period in seconds for which you want to fix the PPP solution to an known position, see option 'Coordinates'. Constraining a priori coordinates is done in BNC through setting their white 'Noise' temporarily to zero.
     
    32613261<p><u>Figure 25:</u> BNC in 'Quick-Start' mode, PPP Panel 4.</p>
    32623262
    3263 <p><a name="pppPlots"><h4>2.13.4 PPP (4): Plots</h4></p>
     3263<p><h4>2.13.4 <a name="pppPlots">PPP (4): Plots</h4></p>
    32643264<p>
    32653265This panel presents options for visualizing PPP results as a time series plot or as a track map with PPP tracks on top of OSM or Google maps.
    32663266</p>
    32673267
    3268 <p><a name="ppptimeseries"><h4>2.13.4.1 PPP Plot - optional</h4></p>
     3268<p><h4>2.13.4.1 <a name="ppptimeseries">PPP Plot - optional</h4></p>
    32693269<p>
    32703270PPP time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) displacements will be plotted under the 'PPP Plot' tab when this option is ticked. Values will be either referred to an XYZ reference coordinate (if specified, see 'Coordinates') or referred to the first estimated position. The sliding PPP time series window will cover the period of the latest 5 minutes.
     
    32743274</p>
    32753275
    3276 <p><a name="pppaudioresp"><h4>2.13.4.2 Audio Response - optional</h4></p>
     3276<p><h4>2.13.4.2 <a name="pppaudioresp">Audio Response - optional</h4></p>
    32773277<p>
    32783278For natural hazard prediction and monitoring landslides it may be appropriate to generate audio alerts. For that you can specify an 'Audio response' threshold in meters. A beep is produced by BNC whenever a horizontal PPP coordinate component differs by more than the threshold value from the specified marker coordinate.
     
    32823282</p>
    32833283
    3284 <p><a name="ppptrackmap"><h4>2.13.4.3 Track Map - optional</h4></p>
     3284<p><h4>2.13.4.3 <a name="ppptrackmap">Track Map - optional</h4></p>
    32853285<p>
    32863286You may like to track your rover position using Google Maps or OpenStreetMap as a background map. Track maps can be produced with BNC in 'Real-time Streams' mode or in 'RINEX Files' post processing mode with data coming from files.
     
    32963296<p><u>Figure 26:</u> Track of positions from BNC with Google Maps in the background.</p>
    32973297
    3298 <p><a name="pppmaptype"><h4>2.13.4.3.1 Google/OSM - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3298<p><h4>2.13.4.3.1 <a name="pppmaptype">Google/OSM - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    32993299<p>
    33003300Select either 'Google' or 'OSM' as the background map for your rover positions.
     
    33043304<p><u>Figure 27:</u> Example for a background map from Google Maps and OpenStreetMap (OSM).</p>
    33053305
    3306 <p><a name="pppdotprop"><h4>2.13.4.4 Dot-properties - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3306<p><h4>2.13.4.4 <a name="pppdotprop">Dot-properties - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    33073307<p>
    33083308PPP tracks are presented on maps through plotting one colored dot per observation epoch.
    33093309</p>
    33103310
    3311 <p><a name="pppdotsize"><h4>2.13.4.4.1 Size - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3311<p><h4>2.13.4.4.1 <a name="pppdotsize">Size - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    33123312<p>
    33133313Specify the size of dots showing the rover position. A dot size of '3' may be appropriate. The maximum possible dot size is '10'. An empty option field or a size of '0' would mean that you don't want BNC to show the rover's track on the map.
    33143314</p>
    33153315
    3316 <p><a name="pppdotcolor"><h4>2.13.4.4.2 Color - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3316<p><h4>2.13.4.4.2 <a name="pppdotcolor">Color - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    33173317<p>
    33183318Select the color of dots showing the rover track.
    33193319</p>
    33203320
    3321 <p><a name="pppspeed"><h4>2.13.4.5 Post Processing Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
     3321<p><h4>2.13.4.5 <a name="pppspeed">Post Processing Speed - mandatory before pushing 'Open Map'</h4></p>
    33223322<p>
    33233323With BNC in 'RINEX File' post processing mode for PPP you can specify the speed of computations as appropriate for visualization. Note that you can adjust 'Post-processing speed' on-the-fly while BNC is already processing your observations.
    33243324</p>
    33253325
    3326 <p><a name="combi"><h4>2.14. Combine Corrections</h4></p>
     3326<p><h4>2.14 <a name="combi">Combine Corrections</h4></p>
    33273327<p>
    33283328BNC allows processing several orbit and clock correction streams in real-time to produce, encode, upload and save a combination of Broadcast Corrections from various providers. All corrections must refer to satellite Antenna Phase Centers (APC). It is so far only the satellite clock corrections which are combined while orbit corrections in the combination product as well as the product update rates are just taken over from one of the incoming Broadcast Correction streams. Combining only clock corrections using a fixed orbit reference has the possibility to introduce some analysis inconsistencies. We may therefore eventually consider improvements on this approach. The clock combination can be based either on a plain 'Single-Epoch' or on a Kalman 'Filter' approach.
     
    33843384</p>
    33853385
    3386 <p><a name="combimounttab"><h4>2.14.1 Combine Corrections Table - optional</h4></p>
     3386<p><h4>2.14.1 <a name="combimounttab">Combine Corrections Table - optional</h4></p>
    33873387<p>
    33883388Hit the 'Add Row' button, double click on the 'Mountpoint' field, enter a Broadcast Corrections mountpoint from the 'Streams' section and hit Enter. Then double click on the 'AC Name' field to enter your choice of an abbreviation for the Analysis Center (AC) providing the Antenna Phase Center (APC) related stream. Finally, double click on the 'Weight' field to enter a weight to be applied to this stream in the combination.
     
    33973397</p>
    33983398
    3399 <p><a name="combiadd"><h4>2.14.1.1 Add Row, Delete - optional</h4></p>
     3399<p><h4>2.14.1.1 <a name="combiadd">Add Row, Delete - optional</h4></p>
    34003400<p>
    34013401Hit 'Add Row' button to add another row to the 'Combine Corrections' table or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
     
    34163416<p><u>Figure 30:</u> 'INTERNAL' PPP with BNC using combined Broadcast Corrections stream.</p>
    34173417
    3418 <p><a name="combimethod"><h4>2.14.1.2 Method - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     3418<p><h4>2.14.1.2 <a name="combimethod">Method - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
    34193419<p>
    34203420Select a clock combination method. Available options are Kalman 'Filter' and 'Single-Epoch. It is suggested to use the Kalman Filter approach in case the combined stream of Broadcast Corrections is intended for Precise Point Positioning.
    34213421</p>
    34223422
    3423 <p><a name="combimax"><h4>2.14.1.3 Maximal Residuum - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     3423<p><h4>2.14.1.3 <a name="combimax">Maximal Residuum - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
    34243424
    34253425<p>BNC combines all incoming clocks according to specified weights. Individual clock estimates that differ by more than 'Maximal Residuum' meters from the average of all clocks will be ignored.<p>
     
    34273427<p>Default is a 'Maximal Residuum' of 999.0 meters</p>
    34283428
    3429 <p><a name="combismpl"><h4>2.14.1.4 Sampling - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
     3429<p><h4>2.14.1.4 <a name="combismpl">Sampling - mandatory if 'Combine Corrections' table is populated</h4></p>
    34303430<p>Specify a combination sampling interval. Orbit and clock corrections will be produced following that interval. A value of 10 sec may be an appropriate choice.</p>
    34313431
    3432 <p><a name="combiGLO"><h4>2.14.1.5 Use GLONASS - optional</h4></p>
     3432<p><h4>2.14.1.5 <a name="combiGLO">Use GLONASS - optional</h4></p>
    34333433<p>
    34343434You may tick the 'Use GLONASS' option in case you want to produce a GPS plus GLONASS combination and both systems are supported by the Broadcast Correction streams participating in the combination.
    34353435</p>
    34363436
    3437 <p><a name="upclk"><h4>2.15. Upload Corrections</h4></p>
     3437<p><h4>2.15 <a name="upclk">Upload Corrections</h4></p>
    34383438<p>
    34393439BNC can upload streams carrying orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris in radial, along-track and cross-track components if they are<ol type=a>
     
    35433543</p>
    35443544
    3545 <p><a name="upadd"><h4>2.15.1 Add, Delete Row - optional</h4></p>
     3545<p><h4>2.15.1 <a name="upadd">Add, Delete Row - optional</h4></p>
    35463546<p>Hit 'Add Row' button to add a row to the stream 'Upload Table' or hit the 'Delete' button to delete the highlighted row(s).
    35473547</p>
     
    35503550</p>
    35513551
    3552 <p><a name="uphost"><h4>2.15.2 Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password - optional</h4></p>
     3552<p><h4>2.14.2 <a name="uphost">Host, Port, Mountpoint, Password - optional</h4></p>
    35533553
    35543554<p>Specify the domain name or IP number of an Ntrip Broadcaster for uploading the stream. Furthermore, specify the caster's listening IP port, an upload mountpoint and an upload password. Note that Ntrip Broadcasters are often configured to provide access through more than one port, usually ports 80 and 2101. If you experience communication problems on port 80, you should try to use the alternative port(s).
     
    35613561</p>
    35623562
    3563 <p><a name="upsystem"><h4>2.15.3 System - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
     3563<p><h4>2.15.3 <a name="upsystem">System - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    35643564<p>
    35653565BNC allows configuring several Broadcast Correction streams for upload so that they refer to different reference systems and different Ntrip Broadcasters. You may use this functionality for parallel support of a backup Ntrip Broadcaster or for simultaneous support of various regional reference systems. Available options for transforming orbit and clock corrections to specific target reference systems are
     
    37393739<p><u>Figure 31:</u> Setting Custom Transformation Parameters window, example for 'ITRF2008->GDA94'.</p>
    37403740
    3741 <p><a name="upcom"><h4>2.15.4 Center of Mass - optional</h4></p>
     3741<p><h4>2.15.4 <a name="upcom">Center of Mass - optional</h4></p>
    37423742<p>
    37433743BNC allows to either refer Broadcast Corrections to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM) or to the satellite's Antenna Phase Center (APC). By default corrections refer to APC. Tick 'Center of Mass' to refer uploaded corrections to CoM.
    37443744</p>
    37453745
    3746 <p><a name="upsp3"><h4>2.15.5 SP3 File - optional</h4></p>
     3746<p><h4>2.15.5 <a name="upsp3">SP3 File - optional</h4></p>
    37473747<p>Specify a path for saving the generated orbit corrections as SP3 orbit files. If the specified directory does not exist, BNC will not create SP3 orbit files. The following is a path example for a Linux system:<br>/home/user/BNC${GPSWD}.sp3<br>Note that '${GPSWD}' produces the GPS Week and Day number in the filename.</p>
    37483748<p>
     
    37633763</p>
    37643764
    3765 <p><a name="uprinex"><h4>2.15.6 RNX File - optional</h4></p>
     3765<p><h4>2.15.6 <a name="uprinex">RNX File - optional</h4></p>
    37663766<p>
    37673767The clock corrections generated by BNC for upload can be logged in Clock RINEX format. The file naming follows the RINEX convention.
     
    37783778</p>
    37793779
    3780 <p><a name="upinter"><h4>2.15.7 Interval - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
     3780<p><h4>2.15.7 <a name="upinter">Interval - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
    37813781<p>
    37823782Select the length of Clock RINEX files and SP3 Orbit files. The default value is 1 day.
    37833783</p>
    37843784
    3785 <p><a name="upclksmpl"><h4>2.15.8 Sampling</h4></p>
     3785<p><h4>2.15.8 <a name="upclksmpl">Sampling</h4></p>
    37863786<p>BNC requires an orbit corrections sampling interval for the stream to be uploaded and sampling intervals for SP3 and Clock RINEX files. The outgoing stream's clock correction sampling interval follows that of incoming corrections and is therefore nothing to be specified here.</p>
    37873787
    3788 <p><a name="upclkorb"><h4>2.15.8.1 Orbits (Orb) - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
     3788<p><h4>2.15.8.1 <a name="upclkorb">Orbits (Orb) - mandatory if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
    37893789<p>Select the stream's orbit correction sampling interval in seconds. A value of 60 sec may be appropriate.</p>
    37903790<p> A value of zero '0' tells BNC to upload all orbit correction samples coming in from the real-time GNSS engine along with the clock correction samples to produce combined orbit and clock corrections to Broadcast Ephemeris (1060 for GPS, 1066 for GLONASS).
     
    38173817<br>
    38183818Note that only when specifying a value of zero '0' (default) for 'Sampling Orb', BNC produces <u>combined</u> orbit and clock correction messages.
    3819 <p><a name="upclksp3"><h4>2.15.8.2 SP3 - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
     3819<p><h4>2.15.8.2 <a name="upclksp3">SP3 - mandatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
    38203820<p>Select the SP3 orbit file sampling interval in minutes. A value of 15 min may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all available samples into SP3 orbit files.</p>
    38213821
    3822 <p><a name="upclkrnx"><h4>2.15.8.3 RINEX (RNX) - mandatory if 'RNX File' is specified</h4></p>
     3822<p><h4>2.15.8.3 <a name="upclkrnx">RINEX (RNX) - mandatory if 'RNX File' is specified</h4></p>
    38233823<p>Select the Clock RINEX file sampling interval in seconds. A value of 10 sec may be appropriate. A value of zero '0' tells BNC to store all available samples into Clock RINEX files.</p>
    38243824
    3825 <p><a name="upcustom"><h4>2.15.9 Custom Trafo - optional if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
     3825<p><h4>2.15.9 <a name="upcustom">Custom Trafo - optional if 'Upload Table' entries specified</h4></p>
    38263826<p>Hit 'Custom Trafo' to specify your own 14 parameter Helmert Transformation instead of selecting a predefined transformation through 'System' button.</p>
    38273827
     
    38323832<p><u>Figure 32:</u> Producing Broadcast Corrections from incoming precise orbits and clocks and uploading them to an Ntrip Broadcaster.</p>
    38333833
    3834 <p><a name="upantex"><h4>2.15.10 ANTEX File - mantatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
     3834<p><h4>2.15.10 <a name="upantex">ANTEX File - mantatory if 'SP3 File' is specified</h4></p>
    38353835<p>
    38363836IGS provides a file containing absolute phase center variations for GNSS satellite and receiver antennas in ANTEX format. Entering the full path to such an ANTEX file is required here for referring the SP3 file contents to the satellite's Center of Mass (CoM). If you don't specify a ANTEX file, the SP3 file will contain orbit information which is referred to Antenna Phase Center (APC) instead of CoM.
    38373837</p>
    38383838
    3839 <p><a name="upeph"><h4>2.16. Upload Ephemeris</h4></p>
     3839<p><h4>2.16 <a name="upeph">Upload Ephemeris</h4></p>
    38403840<p>
    38413841BNC can generate a stream carrying only Broadcast Ephemeris in RTCM Version 3 format and upload it to an Ntrip Broadcaster.
     
    38583858</p>
    38593859
    3860 <p><a name="brdcserver"><h4>2.16.1 Host &amp; Port - optional</h4></p>
     3860<p><h4>2.16.1 <a name="brdcserver">Host &amp; Port - optional</h4></p>
    38613861<p>
    38623862Specify the 'Host' IP number or URL of an Ntrip Broadcaster to upload the stream. An empty option field means that you don't want to upload Broadcast Ephemeris.
     
    38663866</p>
    38673867
    3868 <p><a name="brdcmount"><h4>2.16.2 Mountpoint &amp; Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
     3868<p><h4>2.16.2 <a name="brdcmount">Mountpoint &amp; Password - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    38693869<p>
    38703870BNC uploads a stream to the Ntrip Broadcaster by referring to a dedicated mountpoint that has been set by its operator. Specify the mountpoint based on the details you received for your stream from the operator. It is often a four character ID (capital letters) plus an integer number.</p>
     
    38723872</p>
    38733873
    3874 <p><a name="brdcsmpl"><h4>2.16.3 Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
     3874<p><h4>2.16.3 <a name="brdcsmpl">Sampling - mandatory if 'Host' is set</h4></p>
    38753875Select the Broadcast Ephemeris repetition interval in seconds. Default is '5' meaning that a complete set of Broadcast Ephemeris is uploaded every 5 seconds.
    38763876</p>
     
    38793879<p><u>Figure 33:</u> Producing a Broadcast Ephemeris stream from navigation messages of globally distributed RTCM streams and uploading them in RTCM Version 3 format to an Ntrip Broadcaster.</p>
    38803880
    3881 <p><a name="streams"><h4>2.17. Streams Canvas</h4></p>
     3881<p><h4>2.17 <a name="streams">Streams Canvas</h4></p>
    38823882<p>
    38833883Each stream on an Ntrip Broadcaster (and consequently on BNC) is defined using a unique source ID called mountpoint. An Ntrip Client like BNC accesses the desired stream by referring to its mountpoint. Information about streams and their mountpoints is available through the source-table maintained by the Ntrip Broadcaster.
     
    39003900</p>
    39013901
    3902 <p><a name="streamedit"><h4>2.17.1 Edit Streams</h4></p>
     3902<p><h4>2.17.1 <a name="streamedit">Edit Streams</h4></p>
    39033903<ul>
    39043904<li>
     
    39153915</ul>
    39163916
    3917 <p><a name="streamdelete"><h4>2.17.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
     3917<p><h4>2.17.2 <a name="streamdelete">Delete Stream</h4></p>
    39183918<p>
    39193919To remove a stream from the 'Streams' canvas in the main window, highlight it by clicking on it and hit the 'Delete Stream' button. You can also remove multiple streams simultaneously by highlighting them using +Shift and +Ctrl.</p>
    39203920
    3921 <p><a name="streamconf"><h4>2.17.3 Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</h4></p>
     3921<p><h4>2.17.3 <a name="streamconf">Reconfigure Stream Selection On-the-fly</h4></p>
    39223922<p>
    39233923The streams selection can be changed on-the-fly without interrupting uninvolved threads in the running BNC process.
     
    39293929</p>
    39303930
    3931 <p><a name="logs"><h4>2.18. Logging Canvas</h4></p>
     3931<p><h4>2.18 <a name="logs">Logging Canvas</h4></p>
    39323932<p>
    39333933The 'Logging Canvas' above the bottom menu bar on the main window labeled 'Log', 'Throughput', 'Lacenty', and 'PPP Plot' provides control of BNC's activities. Tabs are available for continuously showing logfile contents, for a plot controling the bandwidth consumption, for a plot showing stream latencies, and for time series plots of PPP results.
    39343934</p>
    3935 <p><a name="logfile"><h4>2.18.1 Log</h4></p>
     3935<p><h4>2.18.1 <a name="logfile">Log</h4></p>
    39363936<p>
    39373937Records of BNC's activities are shown in the 'Log' tab. They can be saved into a file when a valid path is specified in the 'Logfile (full path)' field.
    39383938</p>
    39393939
    3940 <p><a name="throughput"><h4>2.18.2 Throughput</h4></p>
     3940<p><h4>2.18.2 <a name="throughput">Throughput</h4></p>
    39413941<p>
    39423942The bandwidth consumption per stream is shown in the 'Throughput' tab in bits per second (bps) or kilobits per second (kbps). The following figure shows an example for the bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.
     
    39463946<p><u>Figure 34:</u> Bandwidth consumption of incoming streams.</p>
    39473947
    3948 <p><a name="latency"><h4>2.18.3 Latency</h4></p>
     3948<p><h4>2.18.3 <a name="latency">Latency</h4></p>
    39493949<p>
    39503950The latency of observations in each incoming stream is shown in the 'Latency' tab in milliseconds or seconds. Streams not carrying observations (i.e. those providing only Broadcast Ephemeris messages) or having an outage are not considered here and shown in red color. Note that the calculation of correct latencies requires the clock of the host computer to be properly synchronized. The next figure shows an example for the latency of incoming streams.
     
    39543954<p><u>Figure 35:</u> Latency of incoming streams.</p>
    39553955
    3956 <p><a name="ppptab"><h4>2.18.4 PPP Plot</h4></p>
     3956<p><h4>2.18.4 <a name="ppptab">PPP Plot</h4></p>
    39573957<p>
    39583958Precise Point Positioning time series of North (red), East (green) and Up (blue) coordinate components are shown in the 'PPP Plot' tab when a 'Origin' option is defined. Values are either referred to reference coordinates (if specified) or referred to the first estimated set of coordinate components. The time as given in format [hh:mm] refers to GPS Time. The sliding PPP time series window covers a period of 5 minutes. Note that it may take up to 30 seconds or more till the first PPP solutions becomes available. The following figure shows the screenshot of a PPP time series plot of North, East and Up coordinate components.
     
    39623962<p><u>Figure 36:</u> Time series plot of PPP session.</p>
    39633963
    3964 <p><a name="bottom"><h4>2.19. Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
     3964<p><h4>2.19 <a name="bottom">Bottom Menu Bar</h4></p>
    39653965<p>
    39663966The bottom menu bar allows to add or delete streams to BNC's configuration and to start or stop it. It also provides access to BNC's online help function. The 'Add Stream' button opens a window that allows user to select one of several input communication links, see figure below.
     
    39703970<p><u>Figure 37:</u> Steam input communication links.</p>
    39713971
    3972 <p><a name="streamadd"><h4>2.19.1 Add Stream</h4></p>
     3972<p><h4>2.19.1 <a name="streamadd">Add Stream</h4></p>
    39733973<p>
    39743974Button 'Add Stream' allows you to pull streams either from a Ntrip Broadcaster or from a TCP/IP port, UPD port, or serial port.
    39753975</p>
    39763976
    3977 <p><a name="streamcaster"><h4>2.19.1.1 Add Stream - Coming from Caster</h4></p>
     3977<p><h4>2.19.1.1 <a name="streamcaster">Add Stream - Coming from Caster</h4></p>
    39783978
    39793979<p>
     
    39813981</p>
    39823982
    3983 <p><a name="streamhost"><h4>2.19.1.1.1 Caster Host and Port - mandatory</h4></p>
     3983<p><h4>2.19.1.1.1 <a name="streamhost">Caster Host and Port - mandatory</h4></p>
    39843984<p>
    39853985Enter the Ntrip Broadcaster host IP and port number. Note that EUREF and IGS operate Ntrip Broadcasters at <u>http://www.euref-ip.net/home</u>, <u>http://www.igs-ip.net/home</u>, <u>http://www.products.igs-ip.net/home</u> and <u>http://mgex.igs-ip.net/home</u>.
    39863986</p>
    39873987
    3988 <p><a name="streamtable"><h4>2.19.1.1.2 Casters Table - optional</h4></p>
     3988<p><h4>2.19.1.1.2 <a name="streamtable">Casters Table - optional</h4></p>
    39893989<p>
    39903990It may be that you are not sure about your Ntrip Broadcasters host and port number or you are interested in other broadcaster installations operated elsewhere. Hit 'Show' for a table of known broadcasters maintained at <u>www.rtcm-ntrip.org/home</u>. A window opens which allows selecting a broadcaster for stream retrieval, see figure below.
     
    39953995<p><u>Figure 38:</u> Casters table.</p>
    39963996
    3997 <p><a name="streamuser"><h4>2.19.1.1.3 User and Password - mandatory for protected streams</h4></p>
     3997<p><h4>2.19.1.1.3 <a name="streamuser">User and Password - mandatory for protected streams</h4></p>
    39983998<p>
    39993999Streams on Ntrip Broadcasters may be protected. Enter a valid 'User' ID and 'Password' for access to protected streams. Accounts are usually provided per Ntrip Broadcaster through a registration procedure. Register through <u>http://register.rtcm-ntrip.org</u> for access to protected streams from EUREF and IGS.
    40004000</p>
    40014001
    4002 <p><a name="gettable"><h4>2.19.1.1.4 Get Table</h4></p>
     4002<p><h4>2.19.1.1.4 <a name="gettable">Get Table</h4></p>
    40034003<p>
    40044004Use the 'Get Table' button to download the source-table from the Ntrip Broadcaster. Pay attention to data fields 'format' and 'format-details'. Keep in mind that BNC can only decode and convert streams that come in RTCM Version 2, RTCM Version 3, or RTNET format. For access to observations, Broadcast Ephemeris and Broadcast Corrections in RTCM format streams must contain a selection of appropriate message types as listed in the Annex, cf. data field 'format-details' for available message types and their repetition rates in brackets. Note that in order to produce RINEX Navigation files RTCM Version 3 streams containing message types 1019 (GPS) and 1020 (GLONASS) and 1043 (SBAS) and 1044 (QZSS) and 1045, 1046 (Galileo) and 63 (tentative, BDS/BeiDou) are required. Select your streams line by line, use +Shift and +Ctrl when necessary. The figure below provides an example source-table.
     
    40134013<p><u>Figure 39:</u> Broadcaster source-table.</p>
    40144014
    4015 <p><a name="ntripv"><h4>2.19.1.1.5 Ntrip Version - mandatory</h4></p>
     4015<p><h4>2.19.1.1.5 <a name="ntripv">Ntrip Version - mandatory</h4></p>
    40164016<p>
    40174017Some limitations and deficiencies of the Ntrip Version 1 stream transport protocol are solved in Ntrip Version 2. Improvements mainly concern a full HTTP compatibility in view of requirements coming from proxy servers. Version 2 is backwards compatible to Version 1. Options implemented in BNC are:
     
    40424042</p>
    40434043
    4044 <p><a name="castermap"><h4>2.19.1.1.6 Map - optional</h4></p>
     4044<p><h4>2.19.1.1.6 <a name="castermap">Map - optional</h4></p>
    40454045<p>
    40464046Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the caster's streams. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
     
    40504050<p><u>Figure 40:</u> Stream distribution map derived from Ntrip Broadcaster source-table.</p>
    40514051
    4052 <p><a name="streamip"><h4>2.19.1.2 Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</h4></p>
     4052<p><h4>2.19.1.2 <a name="streamip">Add Stream - Coming from TCP/IP Port</h4></p>
    40534053<p>
    40544054Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from TCP/IP Port' allows to retrieve streams via TCP directly from an IP address without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
     
    40694069</p>
    40704070
    4071 <p><a name="streamudp"><h4>2.19.1.3 Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</h4></p>
     4071<p><h4>2.19.1.3 <a name="streamudp">Add Stream - Coming from UDP Port</h4></p>
    40724072<p>
    40734073Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from UDP Port' allows to pick up streams arriving directly at one of the local host's UDP ports without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
     
    40844084<p>
    40854085
    4086 <p><a name="streamser"><h4>2.19.1.4 Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</h4></p>
     4086<p><h4>2.19.1.4 <a name="streamser">Add Stream - Coming from Serial Port</h4></p>
    40874087<p>
    40884088Button 'Add Stream' &gt; 'Coming from Serial Port' allows to retrieve streams from a GNSS receiver via serial port without using the Ntrip transport protocol. For that you:
     
    41244124<p><u>Figure 41:</u> BNC setup for pulling a stream via serial port.</p>
    41254125
    4126 <p><a name="streamsdelete"><h4>2.19.2 Delete Stream</h4></p>
     4126<p><h4>2.19.2 <a name="streamsdelete">Delete Stream</h4></p>
    41274127<p>
    41284128Button 'Delete Stream' allows you to delete streams previously selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas on BNC's main window.
    41294129</p>
    41304130
    4131 <p><a name="streamsmap"><h4>2.19.3 Map</h4></p>
     4131<p><h4>2.19.3 <a name="streamsmap">Map</h4></p>
    41324132<p>
    41334133Button 'Map' opens a window to show a distribution map of the streams selected for retrieval as listed under the 'Streams' canvas. You may like to zoom in or out using the mouse. Left button: draw a rectangle to zoom, right button: zoom out, middle button: zoom back.
    41344134</p>
    41354135
    4136 <p><a name="start"><h4>2.19.4 Start</h4></p>
     4136<p><h4>2.19.4 <a name="start">Start</h4></p>
    41374137<p>
    41384138Hit 'Start' to start retrieving, decoding or converting GNSS data streams in real-time. Note that 'Start' generally forces BNC to begin with fresh RINEX which might overwrite existing files when necessary unless the option 'Append files' is ticked.
    41394139</p>
    41404140
    4141 <p><a name="stop"><h4>2.19.5 Stop</h4></p>
     4141<p><h4>2.19.5 <a name="stop">Stop</h4></p>
    41424142<p>
    41434143Hit the 'Stop' button in order to stop BNC.
    41444144</p>
    41454145
    4146 <p><a name="contexthelp"><h4>2.19.6 Help? = Shift+F1</h4></p>
     4146<p><h4>2.19.6 <a name="contexthelp">Help? = Shift+F1</h4></p>
    41474147<p>
    41484148BNC comes with a <i>What's This</i> help system providing online information about its functionality and usage. Short descriptions are available for any widget and program option. Focus to the relevant object and press Shift+F1 to request help information. A help text appears immediately; it disappears as soon as the user does something else. The dialogs on some operating systems may provide a '?' button that users can click; click the relevant widget to pop up the help text.
    41494149</p>
    41504150
    4151 <p><a name="cmd"><h4>2.20. Command Line Options</h4></p>
     4151<p><h4>2.20 <a name="cmd">Command Line Options</h4></p>
    41524152<p>
    41534153Command line options are available to run BNC in 'no window' mode or let it read previously recorded input offline from one or several files for debugging purposes. It is also possible to introduce a specific configuration filename instead of using the default filename 'BNC.bnc'. The self-explaining contents of the configuration file can easily be edited.
     
    41644164</p>
    41654165
    4166 <p><a name="cmdVersion"><h4>2.20.1 Version - optional</h4></p>
     4166<p><h4>2.20.1 <a name="cmdVersion">Version - optional</h4></p>
    41674167<p>
    41684168Command line option '--version' lets BNC print its version number.
     
    41734173</p>
    41744174
    4175 <p><a name="cmdDisplay"><h4>2.20.2 Display - optional</h4></p>
     4175<p><h4>2.20.2 <a name="cmdDisplay">Display - optional</h4></p>
    41764176<p>
    41774177On systems which support graphics command line option '--display' forces BNC to present the BNC window on the specified display.
     
    41824182</p>
    41834183
    4184 <p><a name="nw"><h4>2.20.3 No Window Mode - optional</h4></p>
     4184<p><h4>2.20.3 <a name="nw">No Window Mode - optional</h4></p>
    41854185<p>
    41864186Apart from its regular windows mode, BNC can be started on all systems as a batch job with command line option '-nw'. BNC will then run in 'no window' mode, using processing options from its configuration file on disk. Terminate BNC using Windows Task Manager when running it in 'no window' mode on Windows systems.
     
    42164216</pre>
    42174217
    4218 <p><a name="post"><h4>2.20.4 File Mode - optional</h4></p>
     4218<p><h4>2.20.4 <a name="post">File Mode - optional</h4></p>
    42194219<p>
    42204220Although BNC is primarily a real-time online tool, for debugging purposes it can be run offline to read data from a file previously saved through option 'Raw output file'. Enter the following command line option for that
     
    42334233</p>
    42344234
    4235 <p><a name="conffile"><h4>2.20.5 Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
     4235<p><h4>2.20.5 <a name="conffile">Configuration File - optional</h4></p>
    42364236The default configuration filename is 'BNC.bnc'. You may change this name at startup time using the command line option '--conf &lt;<u>confFileName</u>&gt;'. This allows running several BNC jobs in parallel on the same host using different sets of configuration options. <u>confFileName</u> stands either for the full path to a configuration file or just for a filename. If you introduce only a filename, the corresponding file will be saved in the current working directory from where BNC is started.
    42374237</p>
     
    42444244</p>
    42454245
    4246 <p><a name="confopt"><h4>2.20.6 Configuration Options - optional</h4></p>
     4246<p><h4>2.20.6 <a name="confopt">Configuration Options - optional</h4></p>
    42474247<p>
    42484248BNC applies options from the configuration file but allows updating every one of them on the command line while the contents of the configuration file remains unchanged. The command line syntax for that looks as follows
     
    42644264</p>
    42654265
    4266 <p><a name="annex"><h3>3. Annex</h3></p>
    4267 
    4268 <p><a name=history><h4>3.1 Revision History</h3></p>
     4266<p><h3>3. <a name="annex">Annex</h3></p>
     4267
     4268<p><h4>3.1 <a name=history>Revision History</h3></p>
    42694269<table>
    42704270<tr></tr>
     
    44434443</p>
    44444444
    4445 <p><a name="rtcm"><h4>3.2. RTCM Standards</h4></p>
     4445<p><h4>3.2 <a name="rtcm">RTCM Standards</h4></p>
    44464446
    44474447<p>
     
    44514451</p>
    44524452
    4453 <p><a name="ntrip1"><h4>3.2.1 Ntrip Version 1</h4></p>
     4453<p><h4>3.2.1 <a name="ntrip1">Ntrip Version 1</h4></p>
    44544454
    44554455<p>
     
    44904490</p>
    44914491
    4492 <p><a name="ntrip2"><h4>3.2.2 Ntrip Version 2</h4></p>
     4492<p><h4>3.2.2 <a name="ntrip2">Ntrip Version 2</h4></p>
    44934493
    44944494<p>
     
    45084508</p>
    45094509
    4510 <p><a name="rtcm2"><h4>3.2.3 RTCM Version 2</h4></p>
     4510<p><h4>3.2.3 <a name="rtcm2">RTCM Version 2</h4></p>
    45114511<p>
    45124512Transmitting GNSS carrier phase data can be done through RTCM Version 2 messages. Please note that only RTCM Version 2.2 and 2.3 streams may include GLONASS data. Messages that may be of interest here are:
     
    45464546</ul>
    45474547
    4548 <p><a name="rtcm3"><h4>3.2.4 RTCM Version 3</h4></p>
     4548<p><h4>3.2.4 <a name="rtcm3">RTCM Version 3</h4></p>
    45494549<p>
    45504550RTCM Version 3 has been developed as a more efficient alternative to RTCM Version 2. Service providers and vendors have asked for a standard that would be more efficient, easy to use, and more easily adaptable to new situations. The main complaint was that the Version 2 parity scheme was wasteful of bandwidth. Another complaint was that the parity is not independent from word to word. Still another was that even with so many bits devoted to parity, the actual integrity of the message was not as high as it should be. Plus, 30-bit words are awkward to handle. The Version 3 standard is intended to correct these weaknesses.
     
    46894689</p>
    46904690
    4691 <p><a name="confList"><h4>3.3 Command Line Help</h3></p>
     4691<p><h4>3.3 <a name="confList">Command Line Help</h3></p>
    46924692
    46934693<p>
     
    49224922(8) bnc --key PPP/staTable "FFMJ1,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,0.1,3e-6,7777;CUT07,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,100.0,0.1,3e-6,7778"
    49234923</pre>
    4924 <p><a name="links"><h4>3.4 Further Reading</h3></p>
     4924<p><h4>3.4 <a name="links">Further Reading</h3></p>
    49254925
    49264926<table>
     
    49664966</table>
    49674967
    4968 
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